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Managing Worker Safety and Health on Dairy Farms

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Dr. Murphy rejoins us to elaborate on worker safety and health. First you’ll learn why it’s important to maintain a safe environment, then Dr. Murphy will walk you through how you can implement a worker safety program. From policies to training, hazard identification to prevention and control, learn how to make a safer farm environment for everyone!

You can view the full presentation on our YouTube channel at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cGIi_s0uj14

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Managing Worker Safety and Health on Dairy Farms

  1. 1. Dennis J. Murphy, PhD, CSP Agricultural Safety & Health Penn State University djm13@psu.edu www.agsafety.psu.edu Managing Worker Safety and Health on Dairy Farms
  2. 2. Are you Proactive or Reactive? Ohio Dairy Farm Worker Killed In Feed Mixer Accident Dairy Farmer’s Boys Have Close Call With Manure Gas
  3. 3. Safety & Health Program Management Rationale • Business Costs / Economic Loss – Direct costs: higher insurance premiums and deductibles; medical deductibles; damaged equipment/property; lost wages; lost production; government fines; lawsuit costs Court strikes down workers’ compensation exemption for farms, ranches - The Santa Fe New Mexican: Local News June 30, 2016
  4. 4. Safety & Health Program Management Rationale • Business Costs / Economic Loss – Indirect costs • Wages paid to injured worker not covered by W.C. • Wage costs related to time lost through work stoppages • Administrative time spent filing reports, investigations, etc. • Employee training and replacement • Lost productivity to new employee learning curve • Lost productivity for workers on restricted duty. • Un-reimbursed rehabilitation time and travel • Emotional toll: victims are key people, family, close friends; don’t work as efficiently, poor morale
  5. 5. Safety & Health Management Planning – How to get Started! Injury Prevention Principles: • Injuries have identifiable causes which are either preventable or controllable.
  6. 6. Safety & Health Management Planning – How to get Started! Injury Prevention Principles: • An injury incident normally derives from multiple causes rather than a single cause.
  7. 7. Safety & Health Management Planning – How to get Started! Injury Prevention Principles: • Risks are inherent and omnipresent in life but our perceptions of risk are not very accurate.
  8. 8. Ag Safety & Health Management Planning 1. Management Leadership 2. Employee Participation 3. Hazard Identification and Assessment 4. Hazard Prevention and Control 5. Education and Training 6. Program Evaluation and Improvement
  9. 9. Management Leadership Owner/Operator – create and promote safety policies, approve, finance, and implement safety improvements Full-time supervisor – communicate and teach safety policies to all other staff, help maintain safe conditions, perform hazard inspections, submit findings to owner/operator
  10. 10. Statement of commitment to safety Specific goals and mechanisms for creating & maintaining a safe work environment Establishes responsibilities and authority Rules that apply to everyone Worker has read, understands, will abide… Signatures Safety Policy
  11. 11. Worker Involvement • Form joint employee-management safety committee(s), rotate members. • Have workers participate in hazard reviews. • Have workers participate in injury & property damage incidents investigations. • Have employees make safety suggestions and recommendations (Safety Suggestion Box.) • Joint development of safety policy. • Help conduct equipment tests and inspections. • Recognition & awards programs
  12. 12. Hazard Identification and Assessment Three actions for each hazard: 1. Identify hazards 2. Evaluate hazards 3. Rank hazards
  13. 13. Hazard Identification and Assessment • Hazard: Any existing or potential condition which, by itself or by interacting with other variables, can result in injury, illness, death, or other losses. Short-hand – potential for causing injury or loss. • Risk: A measure of the combined probability and severity of possible harm; Short-hand – how likely is it to happen?
  14. 14. Risk Matrix (1)CONSEQUENCE FREQUENCY Catastrophic (1) Death, permanent disability Critical (2) Disability, > 3 mos. Marginal (3) Minor, lost work time Negligible (4) First aid, minor treatment Frequent (A) Likely to occur; repeatedly A1 High: shut down now A2 High: shut down now A3 Serious: high priority fix A4 Medium: fix soon Probable (B) Likely to occur several times B1 High: shut down now B2 High: shut down now B3 Serious: high priority fix B4 Medium: fix soon Occasional (C) Likely to occur sometime C1 High: shut down now C2 Serious: high priority fix C3 Medium: fix soon C4 Low: Fix or leave as is Remote (D) Not likely to occur D1 Serious: high priority fix D2 Medium: fix soon D3 Medium: fix soon D4 Low: Fix or leave as is Improbable (E) Very unlikely E1 Medium: fix soon E2 Low: Fix or leave as is E3 Low: Fix or leave as is E4 Low: Fix or leave as is Risk Matrix
  15. 15. Risk Matrix (1)CONSEQUENCE FREQUENCY Catastrophic (1) Death, permanent disability Critical (2) Disability, > 3 mos. Marginal (3) Minor, lost work time Negligible (4) First aid, minor treatment Frequent (A) Likely to occur; repeatedly Slip on manure Probable (B) Likely to occur several times Gas from agitation & emptying Crushed foot from cow stomp Occasional (C) Likely to occur sometime Entry into pit without ventilation, SCBA Entanglement by unguarded PTO Kicked by cow Entry into pit with ventilation, SCBA Remote (D) Not likely to occur Farmers Lung from moldy silage Fall through hay loft drop hole, Improbable (E) Very unlikely Risk Matrix: Dairying Operations
  16. 16. Consequence Likelihood Extreme Death, Permanent disablement Major Serious bodily injury Moderate Casualty treatment Minor First aid, No lost time Very likely 1 2 3 4 Likely 2 3 4 5 Unlikely 3 4 5 6 Very Unlikely 4 5 6 7 FARSHA Risk Assessment Score Actions 1,2,3 HIGH: do something about these risks immediately 4,5 Moderate: do something these risks as soon as possible 6,7 LOW: these risks may not need immediate attention
  17. 17. Risk Matrix Activity Probability 1-3 Severity 1-4 Exposure 1-3 Total 1 = low 2 = medium 3 = high 1 = negligible 2 = marginal 3 = critical 4 = catastrophic 1 = few + few 2 = few + freq. 3 = many +freq. P + S + E 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 3 + 4 + 3 = 10 3 & 4 = low, fix or leave as is 5 & 6 = medium, fix soon 7 & 8 = serious, high priority fix 9 & 10 – high, shut down now
  18. 18. Hazard Identification and Assessment FARM-HAT style checklist • Recognizes hazards are not typically “Yes” or “No” • Allows for ranking of hazard Farm/Agriculture/Rural Management Hazard Analysis Tool
  19. 19. Hazard Identification and Assessment
  20. 20. Hazard Prevention & Control Principles An injury incident normally derives from multiple causes rather than a single cause.
  21. 21. Hazard Prevention & Control Principles The selection of an injury prevention or control strategy is not dependent upon the rank order or importance of causal factors
  22. 22. Hazard Prevention & Control
  23. 23. Job Safety Analysis Type of job: Unloading Corn PPE: Work boots with steel toe, leather gloves Basic Job Steps Potential Hazards Recommended Actions Line up the wagon with auger hopper Hitting equipment; spilling grain causing a slip/fall Use markers, tractor mirror, helper Shut off tractor, secure it & dismount Crushed feet/body from tractor & wagon rolling; slips while dismounting Shut tractor engine off, use PARK gear or neutral w/ brakes locked. Use chocks if on hill. Etc.
  24. 24. Education and Training Definition: • Learning: the act or process of acquiring knowledge or skill; the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience. Broad Principles: • Learning as it relates to everyday life involves an individual’s making sense of what goes on in the world around them. • Each learner has a unique history of life experiences that impacts reflection and understanding of past and current events and happenings, and for learning new things. • Learners learn best when they are cognitively, emotionally and physically engaged with the content.
  25. 25. Education and Training Broad Principles cont.: • Stay away from “causes” and “blame”. • Positive Reinforcement: Safety training is more effective when positive reinforcement is given for safe behaviors than when negative reinforcement is given for unsafe behaviors. Learning Task: Integrates teaching and learning as a single concept; teaching occurs within the ‘doing’ of learning.
  26. 26. Education and Training Learning Task: Use newspaper stories to structure safety conversations 1. Have you ever experienced a hydraulic line rupturing on you? 2. Do you know the right way to block up hydraulic equipment? 3. Have you ever been given instruction on draining hydraulic lines? 4. What recommendations would you give a co-worker for safely working on hydraulically raised equipment?
  27. 27. Education and Training Learning Task: Use photos to structure safety conversations 1. What do you think happened that caused the tractor to overturn? 2. Do you think the operator died instantly? 3. What could have been done differently to have kept the tractor from overturning? 4. What could have been done differently to change the outcome once the tractor did roll over?
  28. 28. Education and Training Job Instruction Technique: a simple yet systematic method for how you teach or train others. JIT has four steps: 1. Preparation: Trainer puts worker at ease; asks what worker already knows; explains why performing job safely is important; training becomes personal 2. Presentation: Trainer demonstrates one step at a time; explains the why(s) of the step not just a robotic copying of the step; worker observes, ask questions 3. Performance: Worker performs the task one step at a time; explains back to trainer; repeats as necessary 4. Follow-up/Mentoring: Trainer monitors; corrects actions before bad habits form
  29. 29. Education and Training Using JIT effectively: • Trainer must know the job thoroughly and be a safe worker • Trainer must have the patience, skills and desire to train • Train with real tools/equipment in real work sites • Adequate time has to be given for the training. Advantages of training in the JIT method  Worker more easily motivated because the training is personal  Trainer can identify and correct deficiencies as they occur.  Results of training can be immediately evaluated  Training is practical, realistic and demonstrated under actual conditions which encourage questions and learning.
  30. 30. Safety and Health Management Plan Audits Purpose: provide an organized and structured review and evaluation of the overall safety and health management program for reducing hazards and risks Should be conducted at least annually and involve employees Collect/Use objective & documented information (e.g., records of injury, hazard inspection, hazards or risks abated or controlled, safety training, etc. Need a method to document what and how the audit is conducted.
  31. 31. Safety and Health Management Plan Audit Can organize by: • Major components -- Management Leadership, Employee Participation, etc. • Activities -- Hazard inspections, training programs, incident investigations, etc. • Topics -- Hazardous materials, noise hazards, regulations compliance, etc. Activity Score Notes, Action to Improve Date Completed / Improved Are safety inspections being conducted as scheduled? 6 Are workers using inspection forms correctly? 4 Training scheduled for early 2014 Are identified hazards being corrected quickly enough? 6 Are records of inspections and corrections being kept? 2 Couldn’t find last 3 monthly inspections. Need to organize inspection files 1/15/14 Have the number of reported incidents reduced or increased over the past year? 8 Has the severity of incidents improved over the past year? 6 Stayed same 8 = Excellent; 6 = Good but could be improved; 4 = OK but can do better; 2 = Unsatisfactory; 0 = Failing, improve immediately
  32. 32. Title: Safety and Health Management Planning for General Farmers and Ranchers Code: AGRS-123 Pages: 64 Cost: $17.00 Online: See the video description for a link to this resource. Phone: 877-345-0691
  33. 33. Dennis J. Murphy, PhD, CSP Agricultural Safety & Health Penn State University djm13@psu.edu www.agsafety.psu.edu Managing Worker Safety and Health on Dairy Farms

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