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Heel horn erosion• Other ‘external factors’ – such as poor hygiene  - also play a role!
Poor quality/defective sole• Discoloration (yellow, red) of sole• Poor quality sole tissue  – Soft, ‘chalky’ tissue• “Inte...
Corium of the sole    Formed here…  grows ‘down’/out
Discoloration     Blood/serum trapped in sole tissue
Soft, chalky, sole tissue
Interrupted production of sole tissue         P3Corium              Sole
Interrupted production of sole tissueThere should NOT be any separation between the corium & sole tissue                  ...
Interrupted production of sole tissue                     P3                            Fat pad                           ...
Interrupted production of sole tissue                P3                           Fat pad                              Cor...
Interrupted production of sole tissue                P3                            Defective layer    Sole                ...
Interrupted production of sole tissue                            Defective layer    Sole                        in sole
Interrupted production of sole tissue                            Defective layer                                in sole
“Double sole”
Sole abscessPus from abscess
Sole ulcer              ulcer: “…a local defect, or             excavation of the surface of                an organ or ti...
Sole ulcer             Corium
Septic arthritis bacteria
Septic arthritis
So…• ‘Laminitis’ can affect all areas of the corium• Problems are often observed ~6-10 weeks after  the laminitis occurred...
Internal factor: Loss of cushioning• “Prevalence of sole ulcers and white line  disease was significantly associated with ...
P3
Excessive pressure on corium                                Lateral         Medial         Both                           ...
Pressure on (“pinching”) corium    • Laxity in tendons/ligaments around calving                                           ...
Trauma to the corium                   Photo: Dan McFarland, PSU
Excessive pressure on corium• Pressure reduces blood flow to  corium (+/- bruising)• Shape & conformation  of P3 & sole   ...
Healthy feet – from the outside in…• “External” factors affecting the quality/ health  of the hoof:  – Cow comfort  – Heat...
Cow comfort – stall usage• Adequate lying time – 12+ hrs/day• Stall size/structure that allows ANY cow to:  – enter & recl...
Goal: 80-90% (or more!)of the cows in the stalls should be lying down
Effect of bedding quantityTucker and Weary, JDS    Amount of sawdust on mattress                                          ...
Minimize ‘forced standing’ time• In headlocks• “Time out-of-pen”   max. ~3 hr/day
Heat stress• Heat stress  rumen acidosis• Shades, fans• Water;  misters, sprinklers, evaporative  pads, etc.
Condition of walking surfaces
Animal handling• Calm & slow! (No prods,  dogs or yelling)
HygienePhoto credit: J. Shearer
Use of footbathsPhoto:Jan Shearer
Use of footbaths• Work best as a preventive measure        or                  SUCCESSCLEAN     CLEAN FEET + FOOTBATH    ...
Preventative trimming
What can we do with trimming?• Optimize weight distribution                            From Toussaint Raven, Cattle Footca...
Optimize weight distribution
Optimize weight distribution        Instabilityconcrete              On on concrete
Cow on her way to the trimming table
Functional     Claw Trimming  For lame cows, and routine   (maintenance) trimming “If you don’t do it (trimming) right,you...
The soles should beflat front-to-back &    side-to-side.                       Picture courtesy J Shearer (with modificati...
Increased weight-                                            After trimming: ~1                                          b...
Trimming tips• Have & use good chute/table & tools• Ideally, check ‘normal’ cows twice/lactation  – early dry-off & at mid...
Dealing with lameness…• Prevent lame cows• Identify lame cows• Manage/treat lame cows
Identifying lame cows…• The obviously lame…• But not only the obviously lame!!
Locomotion Scoring for Dairy Cattle                           Trim twice per lactation                           Trim if t...
Dealing with lameness…• Prevent lame cows• Identify lame cows• Manage/treat lame cows
Treating lame cows – When?• Clinically lame cows (Locomotion score 4 & 5)  – As soon as possible (within ~24 hrs)  – Make ...
If they’re not a problem yet…• Untreated lameness problems usually get  worse…not better!  – Locomotion score 3 cows 3X mo...
Treating lame cows – When not?• Incurable lameness  – Fractures, nerve problems, etc  – Septic arthritis  – Very thin/weak...
Treating lame cows – How?• Have at least one trained person on the farm• Be aggressive…BUT - protect the corium!!• Use blo...
Any wraps should come off    within ~2-4 days!
Dealing with lameness…• Prevent lame cows  – From the inside-out, and the outside-in• Identify lame cows  – Monitor trends...
Thank you!      eph1@psu.edu
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2
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Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2

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Part two of Dr. Ernest Hovingh's presentation on lameness prevention and hoof care for dairy cattle.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Lameness, Hoof, and Leg Issues in Dairy Cattle- Part 2

  1. 1. Heel horn erosion• Other ‘external factors’ – such as poor hygiene - also play a role!
  2. 2. Poor quality/defective sole• Discoloration (yellow, red) of sole• Poor quality sole tissue – Soft, ‘chalky’ tissue• “Interrupted” horn production – “Double sole” – Infection in damaged sole may lead to abscesses – Sole ulcers may develop
  3. 3. Corium of the sole Formed here… grows ‘down’/out
  4. 4. Discoloration Blood/serum trapped in sole tissue
  5. 5. Soft, chalky, sole tissue
  6. 6. Interrupted production of sole tissue P3Corium Sole
  7. 7. Interrupted production of sole tissueThere should NOT be any separation between the corium & sole tissue ‘Coritis’ – bruising, inflammation
  8. 8. Interrupted production of sole tissue P3 Fat pad Corium Sole
  9. 9. Interrupted production of sole tissue P3 Fat pad CoriumSole
  10. 10. Interrupted production of sole tissue P3 Defective layer Sole in sole
  11. 11. Interrupted production of sole tissue Defective layer Sole in sole
  12. 12. Interrupted production of sole tissue Defective layer in sole
  13. 13. “Double sole”
  14. 14. Sole abscessPus from abscess
  15. 15. Sole ulcer ulcer: “…a local defect, or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue…” (a.k.a. “a hole through the sole”) Dorlands Medical Dictionary online
  16. 16. Sole ulcer Corium
  17. 17. Septic arthritis bacteria
  18. 18. Septic arthritis
  19. 19. So…• ‘Laminitis’ can affect all areas of the corium• Problems are often observed ~6-10 weeks after the laminitis occurred• Chronic ‘laminitis’ can be a common problem & is involved in many lameness conditions in dairy cows• Other ‘factors’ are also involved!
  20. 20. Internal factor: Loss of cushioning• “Prevalence of sole ulcers and white line disease was significantly associated with thickness of the digital cushion.” (Bicahlo, 2008) Images courtesy of C. Lischer, Sweden Digital cushion (“Fat pad”)
  21. 21. P3
  22. 22. Excessive pressure on corium Lateral Medial Both Left forelimb Left hindlimb First claw(s) to contact floor of left fore and hind limbs. (n=12 cows) Left-rear foot* High-speed cinematographic evaluation of claw-groundcontact pattern of lactating cows. Schmid et al, 2009
  23. 23. Pressure on (“pinching”) corium • Laxity in tendons/ligaments around calving P3 P3Lischer CJ, Ossent P. “Pathogenesis of sole lesions attributed to laminitis in cattle.” 12th InternationalSymposium on Lameness in Ruminants. 2002.Knott L.,et al. “Effects of housing, parturition and diet change on the biochemistry and biomechanics of thesupport structures of the hoof of dairy heifers.” Vet Journal. 2007.
  24. 24. Trauma to the corium Photo: Dan McFarland, PSU
  25. 25. Excessive pressure on corium• Pressure reduces blood flow to corium (+/- bruising)• Shape & conformation of P3 & sole P3• Interaction with trimming, housing & cow comfort factors – flooring, excessive standing time
  26. 26. Healthy feet – from the outside in…• “External” factors affecting the quality/ health of the hoof: – Cow comfort – Heat stress – Walking surfaces – Handling – Hygiene & foot bathing – Trimming
  27. 27. Cow comfort – stall usage• Adequate lying time – 12+ hrs/day• Stall size/structure that allows ANY cow to: – enter & recline easily – rest comfortably – rise & exit easily Photo: Dan McFarland, PSU
  28. 28. Goal: 80-90% (or more!)of the cows in the stalls should be lying down
  29. 29. Effect of bedding quantityTucker and Weary, JDS Amount of sawdust on mattress Statistically87:2889 0 kg 1 kg 7.5 kg significant? Lying time (hr.) 12.3 12.5 13.8 Y Time standing 1.77 1.42 1.17 Y in stall (hr.)
  30. 30. Minimize ‘forced standing’ time• In headlocks• “Time out-of-pen”  max. ~3 hr/day
  31. 31. Heat stress• Heat stress  rumen acidosis• Shades, fans• Water; misters, sprinklers, evaporative pads, etc.
  32. 32. Condition of walking surfaces
  33. 33. Animal handling• Calm & slow! (No prods, dogs or yelling)
  34. 34. HygienePhoto credit: J. Shearer
  35. 35. Use of footbathsPhoto:Jan Shearer
  36. 36. Use of footbaths• Work best as a preventive measure or  SUCCESSCLEAN CLEAN FEET + FOOTBATH = SUCCESS!!• Optimal footbath solution and schedule vary from farm to farm
  37. 37. Preventative trimming
  38. 38. What can we do with trimming?• Optimize weight distribution From Toussaint Raven, Cattle Footcare and Claw Trimming
  39. 39. Optimize weight distribution
  40. 40. Optimize weight distribution Instabilityconcrete On on concrete
  41. 41. Cow on her way to the trimming table
  42. 42. Functional Claw Trimming For lame cows, and routine (maintenance) trimming “If you don’t do it (trimming) right,you can cause a lot of lame cows!!”
  43. 43. The soles should beflat front-to-back & side-to-side. Picture courtesy J Shearer (with modifications)
  44. 44. Increased weight- After trimming: ~1 bearing surface area Cow coming back from the trimming table decreased pressure
  45. 45. Trimming tips• Have & use good chute/table & tools• Ideally, check ‘normal’ cows twice/lactation – early dry-off & at mid-lactation• Not every cow needs (a lot of) trimming… – …but they should all be ‘put on the table’ – Too much trimming can be a disaster!• Cows should not routinely become lame 3-7 days after trimming
  46. 46. Dealing with lameness…• Prevent lame cows• Identify lame cows• Manage/treat lame cows
  47. 47. Identifying lame cows…• The obviously lame…• But not only the obviously lame!!
  48. 48. Locomotion Scoring for Dairy Cattle Trim twice per lactation Trim if time permits (+ twice per lactation) Trim now! Trim NOW!! Do something NOW! www.zinpro.com
  49. 49. Dealing with lameness…• Prevent lame cows• Identify lame cows• Manage/treat lame cows
  50. 50. Treating lame cows – When?• Clinically lame cows (Locomotion score 4 & 5) – As soon as possible (within ~24 hrs) – Make it a priority…make the time necessary• Locomotion score 2 & 3 cows – When time permits – Regularly scheduled hoof trimmer visits
  51. 51. If they’re not a problem yet…• Untreated lameness problems usually get worse…not better! – Locomotion score 3 cows 3X more likely to be clinically lame in 4 weeks than a LS 1or 2 cow – White line separation can become an abscess – A sole abscess may become an ulcer – A sole ulcer may develop into septic arthritis
  52. 52. Treating lame cows – When not?• Incurable lameness – Fractures, nerve problems, etc – Septic arthritis – Very thin/weak cows• Take appropriate medical steps (eg. amputate claw) or euthanize (properly!) Work with your vet!!
  53. 53. Treating lame cows – How?• Have at least one trained person on the farm• Be aggressive…BUT - protect the corium!!• Use blocks / shoes
  54. 54. Any wraps should come off within ~2-4 days!
  55. 55. Dealing with lameness…• Prevent lame cows – From the inside-out, and the outside-in• Identify lame cows – Monitor trends and trim early• Manage/treat lame cows – Aggressively but properly
  56. 56. Thank you! eph1@psu.edu

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