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Impact on Air Quality and Climate Change: Where the Dairy Industry Stands- Frank Mitloehner


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Dr. Frank Mitloehner presented these materials as part of DAIReXNET's April 4, 2011 webinar entitled "Impact on Air Quality and Climate Change- Where the Dairy Industry Stands."

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Impact on Air Quality and Climate Change: Where the Dairy Industry Stands- Frank Mitloehner

  1. 1. Impact on Air Quality and Climate Change – Where the dairy Industry Stands Frank Mitloehner, PhD Associate Professor & CE Specialist Dept Animal Science University of California, Davis DAIReXNET, April 4, 2011
  2. 2. Pollution Lifecycle 4) Mitigation and Regulation 2) Transport and Transformation <ul><li>3) Deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Airways </li></ul>1) Emissions
  3. 8. CAA Legislative History <ul><li>1963 – Congress enacts the CAA </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act </li></ul><ul><li>1967 – CAA Amendments </li></ul><ul><li>1970 – CAA Amendments established: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environmental Protection Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Implementation Plans (SIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Enforcement </li></ul></ul>
  4. 9. 1990 CAA Amendments <ul><li>Title I – Air Pollution Prevention and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonattainment designations and SIP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Title II – Emissions Standards for Moving Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Title III – Air Toxics </li></ul><ul><li>Title IV – Acid Deposition and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid rain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Title V – Permits </li></ul><ul><li>Title VI – Stratospheric Ozone Protection </li></ul>
  5. 10. CAA and Agriculture <ul><li>Mostly focused on traditional sources of air pollution (cars and factories) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural sources may not have been fully considered during development and amendment of the CAA </li></ul>
  6. 11. Ozone Nonattainment Areas for 1-Hour Standard
  7. 12. Counties Designated Nonattainment for PM10 C o n t i g u s a . s h p S e r i o u s M o d e r a t e S t a t e s . s h p 0 1 / 2 0 0 2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n For convenience the entire county is shown as nonattainment; however, only a portion of many counties are designated nonattainment.
  8. 13. Counties with Violating Monitors for 8-Hour Ozone and PM2.5 Standards (based on 1999-2001 data) Population PM 2.5 Only 16,413,096 (60 counties) Ozone Only 62,123,154 (222 counties) Both 48,772,716 (69 counties) Totals 127,308,966 (351 counties)
  9. 14. <ul><li>Until 2003, California Agriculture was excluded from CAA regulation (permitting) </li></ul><ul><li>Sen Florez; SB 700 </li></ul><ul><li>Emission inventory for many Ag industries is insufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies have limited experience with Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Many agricultural operations have to apply for air permits and implement Conservation Management Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation has to be implemented to reduce air emissions </li></ul><ul><li>AB32 – Greenhouse gas </li></ul>CA Regulation
  10. 15. Environmental quality issues? <ul><li>National ambient air quality standards (PM, ozone) </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous air pollutants (e.g., methyl bromide) </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility (regional haze) </li></ul><ul><li>Air deposition (acid rain, nitrification) </li></ul><ul><li>Global climate change (greenhouse gases) </li></ul><ul><li>Odors (nuisance complaints) </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality (nitrate, salts, phosphorus) </li></ul>
  11. 16. What are the pollutants of concern? <ul><li>PM 10 (directly formed particles) </li></ul><ul><li>PM2.5 (secondarily formed particles) </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia (potential PM precursor) </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile organic compounds (ozone precursor) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) </li></ul><ul><li>Methane (“greenhouse” gas) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Oxides (NOx, an ozone precursor) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate, phosphorus, salts (ground water) </li></ul>
  12. 18. Setting Priorities <ul><li>For emission important on a national, regional, or global scale, focus control of emissions per unit of food production (considering the entire animal production system). </li></ul><ul><li>For emissions important on a local scale, focus control at the farm boundary. </li></ul>Global, National, and Emissions Regional Local Primary Effects of Concern NH 3 Major Minor Atmospheric deposition, haze N 2 O Significant Insignificant Global climate change NO X Significant Minor Haze, atmospheric deposition, smog CH 4 Significant Insignificant Global climate change VOCs Insignificant Minor Quality of human life H 2 S Insignificant Significant Quality of human life PM10 Insignificant Significant Haze PM2.5 Insignificant Significant Health, haze Odor Insignificant Major Quality of human life “ The approach to measurement, analysis, and control must match the scale of the problem”
  13. 19. Gaseous Emissions Microbial Processes of Feed & Manure <ul><li>Ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile organic compounds </li></ul>Anaerobic conditions <ul><li>Ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Nitric oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile organic compounds </li></ul>Aerobic conditions
  14. 20. Particulate Matter Emissions (PM, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) Influenced by Soil Dander Feathers Manure Feedstuffs <ul><li>Moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Air movement </li></ul><ul><li>Animal activity </li></ul><ul><li>Animal type </li></ul>
  15. 21. Emission Control <ul><li>Control strategies should: </li></ul><ul><li>Be Site-specific </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid transfer of emissions to other locations </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid adverse cross media impacts (e.g., water quality) </li></ul>Confinement Facilities “… technically and economically feasible management practices designed to decrease emissions should not be delayed.” Inhibition Suppression Emission Control Storage and Stabilization Facilities Inhibition Suppression Emission Control Land Application Rapid Incorporation Into the Soil Low-Emitting Application Methods Manure Manure
  16. 22. NAEMS National Air Emission Monitoring Study
  17. 23. Process based models
  18. 24. Pollutants, Exposure & Health - Cal DEHRI Cal ifornia D airy E nvironmental H ealth R esearch I nitiative
  19. 27. Clearing the Air: Livestock’s Contributions to Climate Change Maurice Pitesky, Kim Stackhouse, and Frank Mitloehner Advances in Agronomy, Vol 103
  20. 28. “ Livestock’s Long Shadow” (FAO, 2006) <ul><li>“ The Livestock sector is a major player, responsible for 18% of GHG emissions measured in CO 2 e. This is a higher share than transport” </li></ul>
  21. 29. U.S. – the big GHG picture Source: EPA (2009)
  22. 30. Mt CO2-eq Time (years)
  23. 31. Global vs US Livestock GHG
  24. 32. Production Efficiency (IPCC, 1996) Dairy CH4 emission factor (kg/head/yr) Milk production (kg/head/yr) Non-dairy emission factor (kg/head/yr) North America 118 6,700 47 EU 100 4,200 48 Latin America 57 800 49 Africa 36 475 32
  25. 33. FAO (2010)
  26. 34. Dairy trends <ul><li>Today, there are 9 million dairy cows in the US, 16 million fewer than existed during World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though cow number have decreased dramatically, milk production nationally has increased 60 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>The carbon footprint of a glass of milk is 2/3 smaller today than it was 70 years ago. </li></ul>
  27. 35. Dairy trends <ul><li>Over the last 10 yrs, total lactation of a cow’s life has decreased from 31 to 25 months (largely because of reduced reproductive performance - fails to get pregnant) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the time that a cow is not milking during her approximate 54 month lifetime is about 29 months (time during growth, prior to her first lactation, and time between lactations) </li></ul><ul><li>This reduced reproductive performance increases culling and therefore replacement herd animals </li></ul>
  28. 36. Research Needs Are Significant <ul><li>Health and environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li> understand which emissions are most harmful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard measurement protocols </li></ul><ul><li> that research results can be directly compared </li></ul><ul><li>Process‑based emission simulation models </li></ul><ul><ul><li> replace emission factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport and fate of emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li> better understand significance on local, regional, and national scales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best management practices to reduce emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li> understand the applicability, cost, and performance of emission control practices </li></ul></ul>
  29. 37. Crop Residue Animal Manure Food Processing By-Product
  30. 39.
  31. 40. Sustainability means… … more from less, not just less!
  32. 41. Frank Mitloehner, PhD Air Quality CE Specialist Animal Science Department University of California, Davis (530) 752-3936 [email_address]