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Davis Hill
Sr. Extension Associate
Managing Agricultural Emergencies
PSU Ag Safety & Health
Farm Confined
Space Safety
Agr...
Objectives
• Define confined space and ID farm spaces
• Talk about permits/checklists/best management practices
• Discuss ...
Typical Farm Confined Spaces
Determination of Confined Spaces
1. Large enough to enter
AND
2. Limited or restricted
means of entry and exit
AND
3. Not ...
Standards & Documents
• OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146
o Confined Space
o Permit required confined space
o Reclassification of confi...
Permit required confined space
1. Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere, OR
2. Contains a material t...
To permit or not?
Permit depends on
• Work to be performed and
the inherent, potential, or
introduced hazards in the
space at the time of en...
Entry permit-checklist
Pre-entry evaluation
Non-permit confined space
• After pre-entry evaluation:
if no hazards are identified
and none will be introduced
then no p...
Reclassified space
• A confined space with
hazards that have been
eliminated after the pre-
entry evaluation will not
need...
Hazard identification
Inherent hazards
o Size & shape of portal
o Products stored
o Fixed equipment
o Physical location
Hazard identification
Introduced hazards
• Things brought into the
space that create a
hazardous environment
• Electrical ...
Hazard identification
• Adjacent hazards
o Hazards from adjoining
areas may affect entered
space.
o E.g., silo gas can set...
Types of hazards
• Mechanical
• Electrical
• Physical
• Chemical
• Atmospheric
• Biological
• Psychological
Atmospheric Hazards
1. Oxygen Deficiency
2. Presence of
Combustible Gases
3. Presence of Toxic
Gases
None of these
conditi...
Oxygen Deficiency
• High risk of asphyxiation
• Very common in confined spaces
• Caused by
o Combustion (welding/cutting t...
Effect of hot water inerting on oxygen
Combustible Gas Hazards
3 components must be
present at once
1. Fuel (combustible gas)
• Methane
2. Air (oxygen)
3. Heat (...
Toxic Gas Hazards on the Farm
• Hydrogen Sulfide
• Carbon Monoxide
• Carbon Dioxide
• Nitrogen Dioxide
• Ammonia
Silos
• Physical
• Mechanical
• Electrical
• Atmospheric
• Biological
• Psychological
Silos
• Silo gas
• Falls
• Entrapment in unloader
• Electrical shock
• Worker unable to descend
• Exposure to dust/mold
Silo gas
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
• Oxides of Nitrogen
o Nitric oxide (NO)
o Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-Most common
o Nitrogen t...
Properties
• Silo gas and CO2 produced
simultaneously
• Heavier than air
• Settle at silage surface and
down chute
• NO is...
Levels of NO, NO2 & CO2 during early fermentation
Toxic Gases in Tower Silos, by B.T. Comings, F.J. Raveney and M.W. Jesso...
Effects of Various CO2 Levels
Effects of Various NO2 Levels
Grain bins
• Physical
• Mechanical
• Chemical
• Biological
• Psychological
Grain bin hazards
• Engulfment in flowing
material
• Entrapment in unloader
• Falls from heights
• Exposure to
dust/mold/f...
Entrapment speed and force
Bulk milk tank
• Mechanical
• Physical
• Chemical
• Atmospheric
• Psychological
Manure storage/pits
• Electrical
• Mechanical
• Atmospheric
• Physical
• Chemical
• Psychological
Manure storage/pits hazards
• Manure/sewer gas
• Explosive
• Mechanical/electrical
mechanism entrapments
• Slips/falls
Hydrogen Sulfide — Manure Gas
• Colorless gas
• Rotten egg odor
• Byproduct of decomposition
• Prolonged exposure deadens ...
Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide Levels
Hazard evaluation
• Assess and evaluate risks
• Prioritize risks
• Determine control measures
o Eliminate
o Engineering co...
Hierarchy of controls
• Eliminate toxic atmosphere
by substituting fresh air
through ventilation.
• Train employees.
• Dev...
Hierarchy of controls
• Eliminate mechanical
hazards by employing lock
out/tag out.
• Train employees.
• Develop procedure...
Rescue — Is it needed?
• Recognition & Prevention
of existing and potential
hazards………NO!
• Train entrants to
understand a...
Summary
• Farms have spaces that meet the definition of confined
spaces
• Acknowledge and accept best practices
• Training...
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Farm Confined Space Safety

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In this presentation, Davis Hill defines confined space and helps identify some of the spaces on farms that may qualify, as well as discussing some specific hazards of common farm spaces. You’ll also learn about permits and best management practices, as well some strategies to safely manage confined space issues.
See the full presentation at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgZcICptXrY

Published in: Education
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Farm Confined Space Safety

  1. 1. Davis Hill Sr. Extension Associate Managing Agricultural Emergencies PSU Ag Safety & Health Farm Confined Space Safety Agricultural & Biological Engineering
  2. 2. Objectives • Define confined space and ID farm spaces • Talk about permits/checklists/best management practices • Discuss specific hazards of more common farm spaces • Discuss strategies farmers can use to safely manage confined space issues
  3. 3. Typical Farm Confined Spaces
  4. 4. Determination of Confined Spaces 1. Large enough to enter AND 2. Limited or restricted means of entry and exit AND 3. Not designed for continuous human occupancy.
  5. 5. Standards & Documents • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146 o Confined Space o Permit required confined space o Reclassification of confined space • ANSI/ASSE Z117.1 o Consensus standard for non-permit confined space • NFPA 350-Consensus standard o Guide for Safe Confined Space Entry & Work
  6. 6. Permit required confined space 1. Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere, OR 2. Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant, OR 3. Has an internal configuration that might cause an entrant to be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section, and/or 4. Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazards.
  7. 7. To permit or not?
  8. 8. Permit depends on • Work to be performed and the inherent, potential, or introduced hazards in the space at the time of entry. • All confined spaces with identified hazards need permits. • Permit is a documented checklist of important actions. • Can hazards be eliminated????
  9. 9. Entry permit-checklist Pre-entry evaluation
  10. 10. Non-permit confined space • After pre-entry evaluation: if no hazards are identified and none will be introduced then no permit is required.
  11. 11. Reclassified space • A confined space with hazards that have been eliminated after the pre- entry evaluation will not need a permit.
  12. 12. Hazard identification Inherent hazards o Size & shape of portal o Products stored o Fixed equipment o Physical location
  13. 13. Hazard identification Introduced hazards • Things brought into the space that create a hazardous environment • Electrical equipment • Ladders, etc. • Compressed gas, hot work • Chemical hazards E.g., hot water in bulk milk tank
  14. 14. Hazard identification • Adjacent hazards o Hazards from adjoining areas may affect entered space. o E.g., silo gas can settle in grain pit Confined space is not safe for entry until all hazards are identified, evaluated and eliminated or controlled.
  15. 15. Types of hazards • Mechanical • Electrical • Physical • Chemical • Atmospheric • Biological • Psychological
  16. 16. Atmospheric Hazards 1. Oxygen Deficiency 2. Presence of Combustible Gases 3. Presence of Toxic Gases None of these conditions can be seen.
  17. 17. Oxygen Deficiency • High risk of asphyxiation • Very common in confined spaces • Caused by o Combustion (welding/cutting torches) o Decomposition of organic matter (manure) and/or plant material (silage, grass clippings, etc.) o Inerting (purging silo with nitrogen or carbon dioxide or steam from hot water will purge oxygen from bulk milk tank)
  18. 18. Effect of hot water inerting on oxygen
  19. 19. Combustible Gas Hazards 3 components must be present at once 1. Fuel (combustible gas) • Methane 2. Air (oxygen) 3. Heat (some source of ignition) • Cutting torch, spark from electric equipment or cell phone, etc.
  20. 20. Toxic Gas Hazards on the Farm • Hydrogen Sulfide • Carbon Monoxide • Carbon Dioxide • Nitrogen Dioxide • Ammonia
  21. 21. Silos • Physical • Mechanical • Electrical • Atmospheric • Biological • Psychological
  22. 22. Silos • Silo gas • Falls • Entrapment in unloader • Electrical shock • Worker unable to descend • Exposure to dust/mold
  23. 23. Silo gas • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) • Oxides of Nitrogen o Nitric oxide (NO) o Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-Most common o Nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) • Exposure is called Silo Filler’s Disease Created by the fermentation process. Production begins within four hours after the silo begins to fill. Concentrations reach a maximum in one or two days after filling. Production continues at a decreasing rate for two weeks after filling.
  24. 24. Properties • Silo gas and CO2 produced simultaneously • Heavier than air • Settle at silage surface and down chute • NO is colorless • NO2 & N2O4 are red-brown
  25. 25. Levels of NO, NO2 & CO2 during early fermentation Toxic Gases in Tower Silos, by B.T. Comings, F.J. Raveney and M.W. Jesson; National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford conducted in December 1970.
  26. 26. Effects of Various CO2 Levels
  27. 27. Effects of Various NO2 Levels
  28. 28. Grain bins • Physical • Mechanical • Chemical • Biological • Psychological
  29. 29. Grain bin hazards • Engulfment in flowing material • Entrapment in unloader • Falls from heights • Exposure to dust/mold/fumigant
  30. 30. Entrapment speed and force
  31. 31. Bulk milk tank • Mechanical • Physical • Chemical • Atmospheric • Psychological
  32. 32. Manure storage/pits • Electrical • Mechanical • Atmospheric • Physical • Chemical • Psychological
  33. 33. Manure storage/pits hazards • Manure/sewer gas • Explosive • Mechanical/electrical mechanism entrapments • Slips/falls
  34. 34. Hydrogen Sulfide — Manure Gas • Colorless gas • Rotten egg odor • Byproduct of decomposition • Prolonged exposure deadens sense of smell • High concentrations can stop respiration • Low concentrations will burn respiratory tract
  35. 35. Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide Levels
  36. 36. Hazard evaluation • Assess and evaluate risks • Prioritize risks • Determine control measures o Eliminate o Engineering controls o Substitution o Administrative o PPE • Establish SOP’s • Implement and train
  37. 37. Hierarchy of controls • Eliminate toxic atmosphere by substituting fresh air through ventilation. • Train employees. • Develop procedures to follow. • Provide PPE.
  38. 38. Hierarchy of controls • Eliminate mechanical hazards by employing lock out/tag out. • Train employees. • Develop procedures to follow.
  39. 39. Rescue — Is it needed? • Recognition & Prevention of existing and potential hazards………NO! • Train entrants to understand and protect themselves from potential hazards. o Exit the space when bad happens
  40. 40. Summary • Farms have spaces that meet the definition of confined spaces • Acknowledge and accept best practices • Training of all involved • IF ENTRY IS NEEDED o ID and mitigate hazards o 2 person job o Lifeline with retrieval system

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