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Dennis J. Murphy, PhD, CSP
Agricultural Safety & Health
Penn State University
djm13@psu.edu
www.agsafety.psu.edu
An Overvi...
Animal Safety
Outline of Presentation
Respiratory Hazards OSHA & Ag Safety & Health Management
Confined Space Tractors & M...
Animal behavior – Animal-caused injuries
• One out of every 6 on-farm injuries involves
livestock; 2nd only to equipment.
...
Animal Behavior – Vision
• Eyes are set wide apart on face giving them panoramic vision
– Cattle: 300 degrees
– Binocular ...
Animal Behavior – Hearing
• Ears can work independently, moving towards a sound, so the head
can stay still
• Ears will po...
Animal Behavior – Bulls
• Bulls are not pets -- no matter how they were raised; most
fatalities from gentle, tame, pet bul...
Animal Behavior – Bulls
• Signals of agitation: staring, rigid body, ears perked, pawing,
high head; lowering head means z...
Animal Behavior – Bulls
Every bull should have a ring and a bell!
Animal Behavior – Bulls
A pass-through allows a person to slip into an area easily
and quickly without opening a gate.
Animal Behavior – Bulls
General Safety:
• Pipe fencing to control a large bull is more effective than a wire
fence.
• Desi...
OSHA Confined Space:
A space that:
• Has limited or restricted means of entry or exit
• Is large enough to enter
• Is not ...
OSHA Permit-required Confined Spaces:
• Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere,
• Contains a material...
• Manure Gas Hazards: 1) Oxygen Deficiency; 2) Presence
of Combustible Gases; 3) Presence of Toxic Gases
• None of these c...
Effects of Various Hydrogen Sulfide Levels
Levels in PPM Effect on people
0.13 Minimal noticeable odor.
4.60 Easily detect...
Confined Spaces on Dairy Farms
Best safety practices:
• Post signs that warn people of a potential hazardous atmosphere.
•...
Tractor and Machinery Safety
Noisy = hearing loss Rotating parts Collapsing hydraulics
Traffic crashes Floor collapse ATV ...
Hay and Silage Safety Issues
Respiratory Hazards and Safety Practices
• Silo Gas (Nitric oxide (NO); Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2); Nitrogen
Tetroxide (N2O4)
...
Minimizing Silo Gas Exposure:
Respiratory Hazards and Safety Practices
• Immediately level off and place
unloader
• Ventil...
Dust Hazards
Respiratory Hazards and Safety Practices
Pulmonary Health Effects:
• Acute respiratory symptom (sneezing)
• A...
Understanding Respirators
Respiratory Hazards and Safety Practices
OSHA Safety and Health Standards and Agriculture
• Has to be an employer-employee relationship
• OSHA Ag Small Farm Exempt...
OSHA Safety and Health Regulations
OSHA Ag Specific Regulations Affecting Dairy Operations:
• 1928.51: Roll over protectiv...
OSHA Safety and Health Regulations
OSHA Ag Specific Regulations Affecting Dairy Operations:
• 1928.57: Guarding of farm fi...
OSHA Safety and Health Regulations
OSHA General Industry (29 CFR 1910) Regulations Directly
Applicable to Dairy Operations...
OSHA Safety and Health Regulations
OSHA General Industry (29 CFR 1910) Regulations Directly
Applicable to Dairy Operations...
OSHA Dairy Dozen
1. Manure Storage Facilities and Collection Structures:
– Fatal or serious drowning hazards.
– Fatal or s...
OSHA Dairy Dozen
6. Guarding of Power Take-Offs (PTOs):
– Fatal or serious entanglement or amputation hazards.
7. Guarding...
OSHA Dairy Dozen
10. Confined spaces:
– Serious or fatal chemical asphyxiation, oxygen deficiency,
inhalation, engulfment ...
Title: Safety and Health
Management Planning for
General Farmers and
Ranchers
Code: AGRS-123
Pages: 64
Cost: $17.00
Online...
Ag Safety & Health Management Planning
Underlying Principles:
– Injuries have identifiable causes which are either
prevent...
Ag Safety & Health Management Planning
1. Management Leadership
2. Employee Participation
3. Hazard Identification and Ass...
3. Hazard Identification and Assessment
• Three actions for each hazard:
1. Identify hazards
2. Evaluate hazards
3. Rank h...
4. Hazard Prevention & Control
Job Safety
Analysis
Type of job: Unloading Corn
PPE: Work boots with steel toe, leather gloves
Basic Job Steps Potential H...
5. Education and Training
Training Methods: Structuring the way a group talks
about a topic so that specific learning take...
5. Education and Training
Job Instruction Technique: a simple yet systematic
method for how you teach or train others. JIT...
6. Program Evaluation and Improvement
Can organize by:
• Major components --
Management Leadership,
Employee Participation...
Dennis J. Murphy, PhD, CSP
Agricultural Safety & Health
Penn State University
djm13@psu.edu
www.agsafety.psu.edu
An Overvi...
An Overview of Work Safey and Health Issues on Dairy Farms
An Overview of Work Safey and Health Issues on Dairy Farms
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An Overview of Work Safey and Health Issues on Dairy Farms

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Dr. Dennis Murphy presented this as part of a DAIReXNET educational video released in February 2017. To see the full presentation, visit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ap864V2Feag

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An Overview of Work Safey and Health Issues on Dairy Farms

  1. 1. Dennis J. Murphy, PhD, CSP Agricultural Safety & Health Penn State University djm13@psu.edu www.agsafety.psu.edu An Overview of Work Safety and Health Issues on Dairy Farms
  2. 2. Animal Safety Outline of Presentation Respiratory Hazards OSHA & Ag Safety & Health Management Confined Space Tractors & Machinery
  3. 3. Animal behavior – Animal-caused injuries • One out of every 6 on-farm injuries involves livestock; 2nd only to equipment. • Caused by biting, kicking, butting, pinning • Key to prevention: ‒ Become familiar with the instinctive behavior and habits of livestock. Vision & Hearing
  4. 4. Animal Behavior – Vision • Eyes are set wide apart on face giving them panoramic vision – Cattle: 300 degrees – Binocular vision: 25-50 degrees in front; perceive depth, distance and speed. – Monocular vision on each side; movement only • Blind spot directly in front and back • Vision: 20/60 • Will generally move towards light; darkness reduces stress
  5. 5. Animal Behavior – Hearing • Ears can work independently, moving towards a sound, so the head can stay still • Ears will point towards a sound – usually in the direction the eyes are looking. • Funnel shape amplifies sounds, making them louder and clearer • Are sensitive to high pitch noises; will try to move away from source • Background noise (music) may reduce the startling effect of sudden loud noises. • Use your voice to let your animals know where you are.
  6. 6. Animal Behavior – Bulls • Bulls are not pets -- no matter how they were raised; most fatalities from gentle, tame, pet bulls. • A bull’s temperament changes as it matures, from playful aggression to defensive aggression. • Dairy bulls should be shifted regularly to prevent strong territorial behavior developing. • Don’t turn your back! You can’t see signals of aggression if you aren’t watching.
  7. 7. Animal Behavior – Bulls • Signals of agitation: staring, rigid body, ears perked, pawing, high head; lowering head means zeroing in, attack may be imminent. • What to do? Look away from the bull; back away slowly; withdraw by at least 20 feet to remove yourself from the flight zone
  8. 8. Animal Behavior – Bulls Every bull should have a ring and a bell!
  9. 9. Animal Behavior – Bulls A pass-through allows a person to slip into an area easily and quickly without opening a gate.
  10. 10. Animal Behavior – Bulls General Safety: • Pipe fencing to control a large bull is more effective than a wire fence. • Design or modify bull holding facilities so bulls may be fed, watered, and used for breeding with worker having minimal direct contact. • Cull bulls that show any signs of aggression, that reach over 2 years in age, or become unpredictable. • Never work bulls alone or allow workers to work a bull alone. • Plan an escape route before beginning work.
  11. 11. OSHA Confined Space: A space that: • Has limited or restricted means of entry or exit • Is large enough to enter • Is not designed for continuous occupancy Confined Spaces on Dairy Farms
  12. 12. OSHA Permit-required Confined Spaces: • Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere, • Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant, • Has an internal configuration that might cause an entrant to be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section, and/or • Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazards. Confined Spaces on Dairy Farms
  13. 13. • Manure Gas Hazards: 1) Oxygen Deficiency; 2) Presence of Combustible Gases; 3) Presence of Toxic Gases • None of these conditions can be seen. • Toxic Gases: 1) Hydrogen Sulfide; 2) Carbon Dioxide; 3) Methane; 4) Ammonia • Hydrogen Sulfide: colorless; rotten egg odor, deadens sense of smell; stops ability to breathe. Confined Spaces on Dairy Farms
  14. 14. Effects of Various Hydrogen Sulfide Levels Levels in PPM Effect on people 0.13 Minimal noticeable odor. 4.60 Easily detected, moderate odor. 10 Beginning eye irritation. 27 Strong, unpleasant odor, but not intolerable. 100 Coughing, eye irritation, loss of smell after 2-5 minutes. 200-300 Eye inflammation and respiratory tract irritation after one hour of exposure. 500-700 Loss of consciousness, stopping or pausing of breathing, and death. 1000-2000 Immediate unconsciousness with loss of breathing. Death will occur in minutes. Death may occur even if individual is removed to fresh air immediately. Confined Spaces on Dairy Farms
  15. 15. Confined Spaces on Dairy Farms Best safety practices: • Post signs that warn people of a potential hazardous atmosphere. • Develop a written entry plan for each space that is known to be hazardous. • Minimum two people at site • Lockout/Tagout power • Test atmosphere for oxygen deficiency & combustibles & toxic gases. • Ventilate space before entry & continuous while in pit. Use ANSI/ASABE S607 as guide (http://extension.psu.edu/business/ag- safety/confined-spaces/manure/standards). • Wear body harness with life line attached to a suitable anchor with a mechanical retrieval system
  16. 16. Tractor and Machinery Safety Noisy = hearing loss Rotating parts Collapsing hydraulics Traffic crashes Floor collapse ATV overturns
  17. 17. Hay and Silage Safety Issues
  18. 18. Respiratory Hazards and Safety Practices • Silo Gas (Nitric oxide (NO); Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2); Nitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4) • Also called Silo Filler’s Disease • Reactions often delayed several hours • Mild exposure-eye irritation and flu like symptoms (cough, nausea, vomiting, dizziness) • Higher concentration: Severe local irritation, choking and burning in chest, violent coughing, yellow staining of mucous membranes, yellow colored sputum, headache, vomiting • Death from asphyxiation can occur hours after exposure
  19. 19. Minimizing Silo Gas Exposure: Respiratory Hazards and Safety Practices • Immediately level off and place unloader • Ventilate silo with silo blower • Ventilate unloader room, keep doors closed, lock if children in area • Post warning sign • Use portable gas monitor • Wait ~ 3 weeks to re-enter; wear SCBA if entering sooner. • Have 2nd person standing by • Leave immediately if you smell gas or feel effects; seek medical attention
  20. 20. Dust Hazards Respiratory Hazards and Safety Practices Pulmonary Health Effects: • Acute respiratory symptom (sneezing) • Acute and / or chronic airway obstruction • Asthma • Chronic bronchitis (chronic cough, phlegm) • Pulmonary fibrosis - Farmer’s Lung Disease (FLD) - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis • Organic Dust Toxicity Syndrome • General symptoms
  21. 21. Understanding Respirators Respiratory Hazards and Safety Practices
  22. 22. OSHA Safety and Health Standards and Agriculture • Has to be an employer-employee relationship • OSHA Ag Small Farm Exemption • OSHA Standards: ‒ Agricultural Standards (29 CFR 1928). ‒ If there is not a standard in Agriculture (29 CFR 1928) OSHA reverts to General Industry (29 CFR 1910). ‒ If not found in General Industry they then revert to General Duty ‒ Clause Section 5(a)(1). OSHA General Duty Clause: • Section 5(a)(1) requires employers to "furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees".
  23. 23. OSHA Safety and Health Regulations OSHA Ag Specific Regulations Affecting Dairy Operations: • 1928.51: Roll over protective structures (ROPS) for agricultural tractors • 1928.52: Protective frames for wheel-type agricultural tractors • 1928.53: Protective enclosures for wheel-type agricultural tractors
  24. 24. OSHA Safety and Health Regulations OSHA Ag Specific Regulations Affecting Dairy Operations: • 1928.57: Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins
  25. 25. OSHA Safety and Health Regulations OSHA General Industry (29 CFR 1910) Regulations Directly Applicable to Dairy Operations: • 1910.111: (a) and (b): Storage & Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia • 1910.145: Slow Moving Vehicles 1910.1201: • DOT lighting and markings 1910.1200: • Hazard Communication • 1910.1027: Cadmium
  26. 26. OSHA Safety and Health Regulations OSHA General Industry (29 CFR 1910) Regulations Directly Applicable to Dairy Operations (cont.): • Occupational Noise Exposure (29 CFR 1910.95). • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (29 CFR 1910.132). • Respiratory Protection (29 CFR 1910.134). • The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) (29 CFR 1910.147)
  27. 27. OSHA Dairy Dozen 1. Manure Storage Facilities and Collection Structures: – Fatal or serious drowning hazards. – Fatal or serious inhalation hazards. 2. Dairy Bull and Cow Behavior/Worker Positioning: – Fatal or serious crushed-by hazards. 3. Electrical Systems: – Electrocution and electrical shock hazards. 4. Skid-Steer Loader Operation: – Fatal or serious crushed-by, struck-by, caught in-between, rollover hazards. 5. Tractor Operation: – Fatal or serious fall, struck-by, caught in-between, and/or rollover hazards.
  28. 28. OSHA Dairy Dozen 6. Guarding of Power Take-Offs (PTOs): – Fatal or serious entanglement or amputation hazards. 7. Guarding of other power transmission and functional components: (gears, belts, chains, pulleys, sprockets and idlers, etc.) – Fatal or serious entanglement or amputation hazards. 8. Hazardous energy control while performing servicing and maintenance on equipment: – Fatal or serious crushed-by, struck-by, caught in-between, entanglement, or amputation hazards. 9. Hazard communication: – Serious chemical ingestion, absorption, splash, fire, or other hazards.
  29. 29. OSHA Dairy Dozen 10. Confined spaces: – Serious or fatal chemical asphyxiation, oxygen deficiency, inhalation, engulfment or caught-in hazards. 11. Horizontal Bunker Silos: – Serious or fatal engulfment or struck-by hazards. – Serious or fatal fall hazards. 12. Noise: – Serious hearing loss hazards. OSHA Local emphasis Program (LEP) Resources: • http://www.nycamh.org/osha-ny-dairy-lep/ • http://fyi.uwex.edu/agsafety/2015/12/01/osha-lep-dairy-dozen- continues-for-2015-16/
  30. 30. Title: Safety and Health Management Planning for General Farmers and Ranchers Code: AGRS-123 Pages: 64 Cost: $17.00 Online: http://extension.psu.edu/pu blications/agrs-123/view Phone: 877-345-0691
  31. 31. Ag Safety & Health Management Planning Underlying Principles: – Injuries have identifiable causes which are either preventable or controllable. – An injury incident normally derives from multiple causes – To be human is to error – Occupational safety and health is a function of management
  32. 32. Ag Safety & Health Management Planning 1. Management Leadership 2. Employee Participation 3. Hazard Identification and Assessment 4. Hazard Prevention and Control 5. Education and Training 6. Program Evaluation and Improvement
  33. 33. 3. Hazard Identification and Assessment • Three actions for each hazard: 1. Identify hazards 2. Evaluate hazards 3. Rank hazards
  34. 34. 4. Hazard Prevention & Control
  35. 35. Job Safety Analysis Type of job: Unloading Corn PPE: Work boots with steel toe, leather gloves Basic Job Steps Potential Hazards Recommended Actions Line up the wagon with auger hopper Hitting equipment; spilling grain causing a slip/fall Use markers, tractor mirror, helper Shut off tractor, secure it & dismount Crushed feet/body from tractor & wagon rolling; slips while dismounting Shut tractor engine off, use PARK gear or neutral w/ brakes locked. Use chocks if on hill. Etc.
  36. 36. 5. Education and Training Training Methods: Structuring the way a group talks about a topic so that specific learning takes place
  37. 37. 5. Education and Training Job Instruction Technique: a simple yet systematic method for how you teach or train others. JIT has four steps: 1. Preparation. 2. Presentation. 3. Performance. 4. Follow-up
  38. 38. 6. Program Evaluation and Improvement Can organize by: • Major components -- Management Leadership, Employee Participation, etc. • Activities -- Hazard inspections, training programs, incident investigations, etc. • Topics -- Hazardous materials, noise hazards, regulations compliance, etc. Activity Score Notes, Action to Improve Date Completed / Improved Are safety inspections being conducted as scheduled? 6 Are workers using inspection forms correctly? 4 Training scheduled for early 2014 Are identified hazards being corrected quickly enough? 6 Are records of inspections and corrections being kept? 2 Couldn’t find last 3 monthly inspections. Need to organize inspection files 1/15/14 Have the number of reported incidents reduced or increased over the past year? 8 Has the severity of incidents improved over the past year? 6 Stayed same 8 = Excellent; 6 = Good but could be improved; 4 = OK but can do better; etc.
  39. 39. Dennis J. Murphy, PhD, CSP Agricultural Safety & Health Penn State University djm13@psu.edu www.agsafety.psu.edu An Overview of Work Safety and Health Issues on Dairy Farms

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