Naturnet - Redime                         NEWSLETTER                         No. 2 January 2006                           ...
Call for Collaboration of EC DG RTD Projects Relating to                         Sustainable Development                  ...
model fragment. Transition rules determine valid                      There is no space in this newsletter to explaintrans...
Let us consider the facts in Figure 4 in more          intermediate sizes. This result reflects a typicaldetail. The state...
Information sources for Sustainable Development                                          Enviromental Network Limited     ...
usage, must be used it is advisable to make the new                    2nd Page - user makes choices based ondefinition cl...
checking sources - where possible accurately                 Academic Institutions, with sub-divisions          attributin...
Broken internal links, one site in particular, at     service offering a single point of access to a fast-        http://w...
NaturNet Redime SDI                                    Frank Hoffmann, Karel Charvat, Petr Horak                          ...
from each of the servers could be data sources,              and a metadata search will be implemented. Also ametadata and...
dd NNR2 Deployment model 2        ILIIAS Serv er                    NNR Data Serv er                                      ...
Progress in developing cognitive models of sustainability: case         studies from European and Brazilian river basins T...
Specifying modeling goals is very important step                  the entire Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Scenariosbeca...
Figure 2. Some biotic processes in the River Mesta, Bulgaria. P’s and I’s show different kinds of       influences. P+ mea...
Analysing Broadband Access for Rural Development                                                    Martine Ruzza         ...
e-LUP                                       Land Use Processes                                               Mikael Pihlst...
Development of Long-term shared vision on AMI Technologies for                 a Networked Agri-food sector              S...
RAEIRLS    ’Rural Areas as Engines for Implementing the Renewed Lisbon                              Strategy’             ...
of rural development as one of the key public policy            the BSCW5 portal provided by the FP6 financedareas of the ...
Naturnet newsletter02
Naturnet newsletter02
Naturnet newsletter02
Naturnet newsletter02
Naturnet newsletter02
Naturnet newsletter02
Naturnet newsletter02
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Naturnet newsletter02

  1. 1. Naturnet - Redime NEWSLETTER No. 2 January 2006 ContentCall for Collaboration of EC DG RTD Projects Analysing Broadband Access for RuralRelating to Sustainable Development DevelopmentPeter K A Barz Martine Ruzza The NNR Project is inviting the coordinators, A-BARD (Analysing Broadband Access for Ruraldissemination work package leaders and partners of Development) is a "Coordination Action" within theongoing DG RTD projects relating to sustainable EUs Information Society Technologies (IST)development (SD) to link with the NNR Portal … Programme. A-BARD is running for 2 years having started in January 2005 … Page 2 Page 15Garp3 – Workbench for capturing conceptualknowledge e-LUP Land Use ProcessesBert Bredeweg, Anders Bouwer and Jochem Liem Mikael Pihlström Garp3 is a software package for qualitative The strength of the Sustainability Impact Assessmentmodelling and reasoning. It offers an integrated set of approach, is paying equal attention to all “three pillars”tools for building conceptual models … of sustainable development (environment, economy, society) and their holistic integration … Page 2 Page 16Information sources for Sustainable Development Development of Long-term shared vision on AMIEnviromental Network Limited Technologies for a Networked Agri-food sector This review of the sustainable development (SD) Fernando Ubietainformation resource on the Internet is part of theestablishment of the background of the NATURNET- The objective of AMI@Netfood project is toREDIME (NNR) project for the establishment of the SD support the implementation of the IST ResearchPortal for the European Commission … Priority and Framework Programme, providing a long- term vision on future trends … Page 5 Page 17NaturNet Redime SDI ’Rural Areas as Engines for Implementing theFrank Hoffmann, Karel Charvat, Petr Horak Renewed Lisbon Strategy’ The NaturNet Redime analysis demonstrate, that Patrick Crehan, Adam Turowiec, Karel Charvatthere exist lists of spatial data, which are currentlyavailable through the NNR portal … A conference held in Valencia on 3 and 4 February 2003 and entitled Information Society as a Page 9 Key Enabler for Rural Development resulted in theProgress in developing cognitive models of elaboration and adoption of The Valencia Declarationsustainability: case studies from European and Page 18Brazilian river basins Events of interestREDIME team Page 25The goal of work package 6 of the NaturNet-Redimeproject is to develop cognitive simulation models that contactcan be used to teach diverse kinds of learners … Page 26 Page 12 NATURNET-REDIME team wish you all a HAPPY NEW YEAR České centrum pro vědu a společnost, Radlická 28/263, 150 00 Praha 5, Czech Republic ISSN 1801-6480 <META NAME="DC.Identifier" CONTENT="(SCHEME=ISSN) 18016480">
  2. 2. Call for Collaboration of EC DG RTD Projects Relating to Sustainable Development Peter K A Barz The NNR Project is inviting the coordinators, The DG RTD Project Synergy Meeting indissemination work package leaders and partners of Brussels in June 2005 stated that the NNR project wasongoing DG RTD projects relating to sustainable able to assist in overcoming current problems in termsdevelopment (SD) to link with the NNR Portal and use of the need for increased project integration and theits added facilities for the promotion and dissemination promotion of the SD agenda, and further stressed theof project contents and results across Europe and importance of the collaboration of existing projects withinternationally. the NATURNET web portal for improved project synergy. The NNR STREP project has beencommissioned by DG RTD to provide forward-looking, It is hoped that the new NNR Portal facility willinteractive web services for sustainable development be of interest to the coordinators, work packagethat integrate existing research, knowledge, leaders and partners of the 20 or so ongoing DG RTDeducational practices and content of SD with the most projects, who are invited to contact NNR projectadvanced information and communication partner Environmental Network Limited (pkab@env-technologies. for further details. Garp3 – Workbench for capturing conceptual knowledge Bert Bredeweg, Anders Bouwer and Jochem Liem Garp3 is a software package for qualitative modelling and reasoning (Figure 1). It offers an integrated set of tools for building conceptual models as well as for running and inspecting simulations based on those models. Conceptual models (also referred to as qualitative models) are formal models that provide insight in the causal mechanisms behind the simulated behaviour of a system without the need for numerical data or complex mathematical formulas. This makes the Garp3 workbench especially useful for issues such as sustainable development, because it can be used by stake- holders as a means to develop insight and argumentation. Garp3 implements a compositional approach to qualitative modeling. The reasoning engine works on the basis of three main constructs: scenarios, model fragments and transition rules (Figure 2). Scenarios specify initial situations for the simulator to start behavior prediction. Model fragments capture knowledge about behavior of system parts, and are Figure 1: Main screen of the Garp3 workbench used to assemble states of behavior. Assumptions may be used to further detail the applicability of a -2-
  3. 3. model fragment. Transition rules determine valid There is no space in this newsletter to explaintransitions between states of behavior. After selecting all the details concerning the Garp3 workbench.a scenario the engine proceeds with the prediction Readers are advised to visit the QRM sub-portal oftask by recursively consulting the library for the NaturNet-Redime project for additional detailsapplicable model fragments. This search is ( User groupexhaustive and each consistent subset of model meetings are planned for those who want to learn tofragments represents a behavior interpretation that work with the software. Please check the websitematches the selected scenario. regularly for information on this (or send an email). However, as an illustration consider Figure 3 which shows a small model fragment made with the workbench. Figure 3 illustrates how typical characteristics of populations can be represented. For instance, there is an entity population (which applies to ‘any population’) that has three quantities: Number of, Birth, and Death. The quantity Number of can take on four values: Zero (there is no population), Small, Figure 2: Basic architecture of the qualitative Medium, and Large. Birth and Death can be Zero reasoning engine (there is no birth or death) or Plus (there is a certain amount of birth and death). Birth has a positive To support modelling, Garp3 offers a graphical influence (I+) on Number of: due to the Birth rate thetoolkit that allows the user to build a qualitative model population increases in size. The death processof a particular system in an intuitive way. A model is details are similar, except that there is a negativebuilt by creating building blocks, such as entities and influence (I–): due to the Death rate the populationquantities, and combining these into aggregates, decreases in size.The P’s is Figure 3 representsuch as scenarios and model fragments. The ‘indirect’ influences. The P+ from Number of on Birthgraphical modelling toolkit of Garp3 contains multiple states that changes in the former cause similarscreens in which different parts of the model are changes in the latter (if the size increases, morespecified. This supports users in managing their individuals will be born, if the size decreases lessmodel building tasks. Furthermore, restrictions built individuals will be born).into the software prevent users from creatinggrammatically incorrect models. The P+ from Number of on Death represents a similar notion. The V’s between the zero values of the quantities is a value correspondence. It specifies that when the Number of is Zero (that is: the population does not exists), there is also no Death and Birth. When a model is sufficiently specified, it can be used to run simulations. The built-in simulation engine generates a state- graph based on a particular scenario (Figure 4, LHS). The state-graph represents the possible behaviour(s) of the system, given the knowledge specified in the model. Each state represents the system at a particular point (or interval) in time. Garp3 includes adaptable views to inspect this state-graph and theFigure 3: Garp3 – A model fragment representing contents of specific states in detail. Figure 4 (RHS) typical population features shows one of those views, namely the value history. -3-
  4. 4. Let us consider the facts in Figure 4 in more intermediate sizes. This result reflects a typicaldetail. The state-graph shows the simulation results feature of a qualitative simulation, namely showing allfor the possible behaviours of the imaginary ‘Green possible behaviours of a system.frog’ population. For more advanced models see e.g. While each of the tools in Garp3 hasBredeweg, B. and Salles, P. 2005. The Ants’ Garden: considerable value in itself, the complete set of toolsComplex Interactions between Populations and the for model building and inspecting simulation resultsScalability of Qualitative Models. AI Communications, constitute a uniquely powerful software package. AsVolume 18, Issue 4, pages 305-317. a whole, Garp3 allows users to build interactive In this particular scenario Birth is greater (or knowledge representations that reflect and supportequal to) Death, hence the population grows and their understanding of the behaviour of systems instabilises. The state-graph starts in state 1, in which ecology and other domains.the quantities Number of, Birth and Death are all Zero For those interested in learning more about theand increasing (meaning: the population becomes QRM ideas and software, the following information isinto existence). This state of behaviour may change available online:into the behaviour represented by state 2 (small andsteady) or state 3 (small and further increasing). 2 has no successors and is apparently an end- (the Garp3 software)state. State 3, on the other hand, has successors 4 and steady) and 5 (medium and increasing),and state 5 has successors 6 (large and steady) and (model examples)7 (large and still increasing). State 4, 6, and 7 are all Summarising, under the conditions (Garp3 – User manual)specified in the scenario (including: Birth ≥ Death)this population start at Zero and may grow to its possible size, or it may stabilise at certain (mailing-list for modellers) Figure 4: Garp3 – Some simulation results (LHS: state-graph and RHS: value history) -4-
  5. 5. Information sources for Sustainable Development Enviromental Network Limited This review of the sustainable development (SD) By the general user, we refer to all potentialinformation resource on the Internet is part of the users requiring SD information, that neither areestablishment of the background of the NATURNET- environmental science academics nor primarilyREDIME (NNR) project for the establishment of the SD professionally involved in the field of SD; includingPortal for the European Commission. This report is students, teachers, planners, industrialists, developers,provided in the context of the development and farmers, concerned citizens and etc.provision of the necessary information and educational There is still some way to go before SDcontent of this web portal and the information and information delivery, via the internet, achieves a truecommunication technology (ICT) required for this user friendliness. For example; a person wishing topurpose. build a sustainable dwelling, with sustainable materials, by sustainable means while complying with all necessary local regulation, would still have aThere are Sample Search Results considerable task in assembling and correlating all theGoogle standard search necessary pertinent information for their specific project.sustainability 60,100,000 Similarly, a problem of information still exists for"sustainable development" 47,900,000 the many tradesmen, farmers, and businessmen etc."sustainability resource" 16,400 who desire to achieve a more sustainable working practice and for consumers who aspire to a more"sustainability resources" 156,000 sustainable lifestyle - but are unclear how best to"sustainable development resource" 743 achieve this."sustainable development resources" 890 The current focus of most data service providers and web publishers in general, could be characterised as academic whether it is aimed at primary school levelThe following are to establish in how far sustainability or professional research. There is a need tois recognised in these subjects: develop/design systems that better supply the data resource and assessment needs of those undertakingEcology +sustainability 4,570,000 actual practical SD projects.Economics +sustainability 8,100,000 A first hurdle for many users is the plethora ofGovernance +sustainability 8,170,000 jargon used. In particular there is a ubiquitous use of acronyms. Acronyms are not just often obscure toSociology +sustainability 2,530,000 non-initiates, they frequently have numerous differentIT +sustainability +software -GI –GIS 4,890,000 meanings within different disciplines, and sometimes they even have more than one meaning within a singleEnvironment +sustainability 31,000,000 discipline. It is good practice to expand an acronym to the full text at least at its first use in any document/web-page in order to establish its definition Obviously as with all Google and other search at the outset for further use.engine searches these results will include a largenumber of miss-hits, especially where a common word A similar possible cause of confusion is where asuch as sustainability, applied in many other contexts, new meaning has been coined for a word within ais used on its own or in phrases without double quotes. specialist field. This is exampled by the use of theUsing such general search terms also tends to invoke word ontology in the esoteric world of semantic webportal sites and directories. The user seeking direct initiatives ("defined as a semantic system that containsaccess to more specific information would be better to terms, the definitions of those terms, and theuse search terms related to the particular field of specification of relationships among those terms"). It isinterest for example: "sustainable agriculture", "Agenda important to remember that if the user recognises such21" or "sustainable energy use" +UK. a word at all they are most likely to know it in the context of its original meaning (ontology, in philosophy Users may be distinguished by the level and is the most general branch of metaphysics, concerneddetail of information they require and divide in to with the nature of being, it can also mean, a theory of‘professional’ and ‘general’ users. existence, or a particular theory of being). If a new coinage, that has a tenuous connection to the original -5-
  6. 6. usage, must be used it is advisable to make the new 2nd Page - user makes choices based ondefinition clear. It would of course be even better, location, project level etcwherever possible, to avoid jargon and use words as Final page offers links to data/informationdefined in a dictionary particularly for users who are not sources in a variety of knowledge areas, but allnative speakers of the language in use. relevant to the users project and environment. Many potential users will be seeking SD The web is a truly international medium, a stateinformation under time constraints. One of the which some web publishers are slow to adapt to. Forproblems for all web users is the number of occasions example some national organisations declareon which the net is used, hoping it will be a quick way themselves as such on their home pages withoutto find information, only for it to take longer than getting realising it might be helpful if they mentioned in the textthe same information from a book. Information which nation that might be. A similar fault is shown byproviders should attempt to mitigate this problem using sites aimed at local audiences which frequently useall available strategies, including: designations that are geographically ambiguous to Immediately obvious, logical and intuitive site those outside the locality, e.g. a typical phrase might navigation be "we are dedicated to a sustainable future for the two rivers region". Logical site structure Clarity is particularly important if the information Clear descriptions of resources linked to relates to a localised human construct as is the case Avoidance of unnecessary or useless page with most legislation and regulation. Europeans often elements find the U.S.A. can be insular, but it would seem sometimes to be a human trait, common to all, to Avoidance of over large file sizes, assume the local condition is the universal condition. inappropriate file types and slower technologies such as Flash where there is no Ironically the web also contains much out-of-date good reason to use them. information, e.g. pages that refer to “next June” when what is being referred to actually happened in 2002. Proper site maintenance The inconvenience of this can be greatly mitigated by clear dating of time-sensitive information near the top of pages or consistent indication of publishing/updating A more imaginative structuring of links to dates.information would be useful to many potential non-academic users. While the current use of categorised A clear description of linked files is structures are appropriate for many purposes One often finds oneself waiting for very large PDF fileswe feel there is an opportunity for a new approach. to download, hoping they contained the informationWhat we see a place for is a structure of information one required, only to find they were irrelevant oraccess that is predicated on predicted user frequently a scan of a printed flyer with no extrarequirements. information. To expand on this, the conventional conceptual Within NNR a great deal of energy has beenstructures according to which data is organised are spent on discussing metadata and Resourcedictated by the nature of the information, analogous to Description Framework (RDF), (seethe taxonomic classification of plants or animals. The and while this is of undoubteddirectory tree offered to the user conventionally mirrors importance, it is vital to remember that for many usersthis kind of structure. Thus if we take the sample the most important resource descriptor, is what is saidscenario, mentioned at 4.1, of the imaginary house about the resource, in plain language, on the page thatbuilder he will be forced to take multiple paths through links to it. Honesty in describing resources isthe tree to different limbs. First seeking information on desirable. In the course of compiling this report wetechniques, and then starting again at the bottom of the have encountered grandiose descriptions of resourcestree to look for information on regulation, and so on. At that turn out to be mediocre, not completed to a pointeach top level stage the user is presented with data of usefulness or not functioning at all.that is mostly irrelevant to his project (usually because The web is a notorious source of misinformationit applies to a geographic or political region he is not as well as information, and represents a mediumoperating in). We suggest instead a user centred whose novelty often makes it harder for users to makeparadigm for structuring information. It should be sound evaluations of information sources. The ultimatepossible to predict likely user needs and produce a responsibility for evaluating the value of informationuser path that fits these needs, so that the user will has to lie with the user; however the providers of thefinally arrive at an appropriate cross section of the data information resource should give what assistance theytree. Something like the following: can in making such an evaluation. Most of the ways 1st Page - user chooses from likely user this can be done are standard good practice in serious projects writing but are often forgotten by web authors, such as: -6-
  7. 7. checking sources - where possible accurately Academic Institutions, with sub-divisions attributing the original source of information (so relating to different academic disciplines: that a user may make their own value Environmental Sciences judgments concerning the source, i.e. distinguishing between statements of fact as Economics they occur in scientific papers, governmental Social Sciences information, journalism or polemic). stating how statistical information is collected Agricultural Science and or calculated so users may make valid Commercial organisations - covering a wide comparisons or evaluate the comparisons of spectrum from small consultancies to multi- others. For instance, it is necessary to know national companies and their lobby how gross domestic product, GDP is organisations. calculated before making a valid judgement of it as an indicator of economic wellbeing, or International organisations as diverse as the making direct comparisons between UN and the WTO. economies with different methods of Groups and individuals with diverse activist calculation). agendas. keeping information up to date or making it As with other WWW resources a primary clear where it is historical assessment of who exactly is providing the resource An important factor, in the assessment of and therefore what bias may exist, can be problematic.Sustainable Development Information Resources on It often depends on quite subtle semiotics complicatedthe Internet, is the different approaches to the concept in occasional cases by a degree of intentionalof SD that different authors and publishers of dissembling. Examples of such semiotic deception areinformation have. Although almost all publishers would activist or politically motivated organisations that use aconcur with the definition "Sustainable development is title that suggests an academic institute. The samedevelopment that meets the needs of the present device is also sometimes adopted by somewithout compromising the ability of future generations commercially motivated meet their own needs1." This definition however Some SD sites that are very good in concept areleaves plenty of room for differences of opinion on how compromised by a poor functionality or major designthat result may be achieved. faults. Most of these faults are common on the web The different approaches to SD cover a wide but a few SD sites seem to suffer to a disproportionatespectrum of diverse ideologies and originate from degree, especially considering the highmany different cultural sub-groups. At one extreme is profile/pretensions of some of the site publisherthe consumerist approach of those commercial organisations. One major cause of problems wouldenterprises that see SD as a branding opportunity for appear to be that online resources are established in athe selling of products and services, at the other state of enthusiasm or a condition of good funding thatextreme are individuals and organisations with an then wanes, leaving the site subsequently neglectedactivist anti-globalisation agenda. Between these two and un-maintained. Other faults are simply the resultextremes are numerous different flavours and levels of of poor design at the inception.the SD concept according to the sub-group providingthe information, to typify some of the data providersthey include: Common faults observed: Governmental organisations - divided as local, Old fashioned frame designs without an national and inter-national escape route, resulting in users entering from a search engine being trapped on a single page, Concerned with economic, political, social or with no site navigation. environmental considerations (thus different interpretations of SD may be being espoused An excessive proportion of broken external by different sectors of one regime.) links. NGOs, the International Aid Community and a Incomplete sites where internal links lead to wide variety of voluntary organisations. pages labelled under construction although they are not of recent date. Use of underlining for text items that are not links. 1 Missing files, including image files used as from the World Commission on Environment navigation buttons.and Development (WCED). Our CommonFuture.Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987 p. 43 -7-
  8. 8. Broken internal links, one site in particular, at service offering a single point of access to a fast- growing range of full text electronic journals from the SD section of the web site of the European leading publishers. This web-based service allows Foundation for the Improvement of Living and anyone, anywhere in the world, to search and browse a Working Conditions, an autonomous agency of database of articles free of charge, and to display the EU (and as such belonging within the bibliographic information and abstracts (the availability constellation of EU bodies) had many of these, and cost of the full-text depending on the individual the site claims to host 5 separate databases publisher). As such database-based academic none of which I have managed to access, due resources cover many disciplines they will not have a to the server being offline, despite several high-rank in the results of search engine searches, attempts over an extended period of time. using terms such as "sustainability". However they are liable to be of great importance to those looking for Miscellaneous small faults: such as precise (primary source) scientific, economic, uncorrected, typos/spelling errors, incompetent regulatory or sociological information at the higher design (such as floating navigation bars academic levels. Edinburgh Universitys obscuring text), and layouts insufficiently in particular covers several topic checked at different screen resolutions, links areas relevant to SD. that do work but are to the wrong file etc. The economic realities of site maintenance costs A failure on the part of site creators to take into and copyright mean data service providers and account the level of understanding of likely publishers need to generate income. The result is users. many potential individual users will be excluded from There are numerous subscription-based, or some of the best internet information resources on theotherwise restricted-access Data Service Providers grounds of the costs of subscriptions to databases oractive on the internet that provide registered users fees charged for individual documents.(usually academic institutions or similar organisations) There is a plethora of Internet resources devotedwith access to scholarly publications and research data to the sustainable development (SD) concept. Allthrough online databases. Many organisations utilise conceivable SD themes are being covered on the web.access management systems such as, the Athens There are several excellent portal sites in existence,Access Management system which provides UK users run by independent networks, academic organisationswith a single sign-on to numerous web-based data and NGOs. Inevitably given the complexity andservice providers (DSP) throughout the UK and comprehensiveness of the subject these portals canoverseas see: Similar require the new user to spend some time learning howservices exist specific to other countries. This class of best to utilise them.resource is currently likely to be already available tothe proposed NNR portal users who are in the Higher On moving through from these portals to theEducation sector or are members of other already next strata of resource, that relating to specific topics orregistered organisations. geographic areas, the theory and political rhetoric of SD is well represented. At the level of specific practical Free registration is also available to individual information, although much of this type of information isresearchers for services such as, the ingentaJournals available, users need to show some determination to( a full-text delivery actually get to it. -8-
  9. 9. NaturNet Redime SDI Frank Hoffmann, Karel Charvat, Petr Horak web portal has internal functional and data The NaturNet Redime analysis demonstrate, that components for system management, e-learning andthere exist lists of spatial data, which are currently information technologies. There are also implementedavailable through the NNR portal, portals of the project interfaces for a communication with external dataregions or external data sources, which could be used servers, functional and analytical servers on the Openby the NNR portal for training. Source base. The data & service resources now located at and Micka – Catalogue client with ISO 19115to be served from NaturNet-Redime (NNR) GeoPortal, implementation, which could be integrated intodeveloped and integrated by HSRS (CZ) will now be the map application. It works on OGSused by CCSS as the main platform to support the specification base.NNR project team. This will give the opportunity tonetwork all the sources publicly available between Analytical tools – non server analytical tools,ŕNNR portal, ŕportals of the pilot regions or test regions, which can be implemented for decision supportas well as ŕthe external portals with open data & exactly into the NNR portalservices that will be used for internal or external Gazetteer – supporting geographical searchtraining actions. based on NUT5 boarders This part of the analysis could not identify, study Visualization tools – non-server tools forand analyze all the sources, but it can be used for providing a data visualization on the differentfuture implementations in and extensions of the NNR levels including mobile visualization and 3D-portal.. visualisation. There are some recommendations, from the Thesaurus Client supporting search for themesperiod of analysis, which have to be taken intoconsideration in the next stage of the design of the Authorization server – authorization andportal: verification utility It is important to support an ease of searching Web Services Server – server offers Web for regions within the application. When the Services on W3C and OGC standards user is starting from a global scheme and would like to find regions, it can be a Project Manager – Utility for project managing complicated process. It is recommended that a and controlling including workflow management gazetteer based NUTS GISCO data is implemented. For users, who are not specialists in SDI it is NNR SDI server – this is the primary project difficult to work with a single layer derived from data server, which contains the main global data for the different data sources. There has to be the project (typical data which covers all or most of possibility of defining map compositions, where Europe). The data are now stored on NNR facilities, in maps will already have been predefined from future, if this data will be available, it is expected to use several layers by specialists. this data directly from Eurostat and EES servers. It is necessary to have the possibility of storing GISCO user defined applications, which could be accessed by other users. CLC 2000 It is necessary to prepare a GI&SDI training Image 2000 environment. On the NNR server there will be available also The UML scheme shows the result of analysis of metadata for data stored on this server and on regionalavailable data sources. This deployment diagram servers, which will not have their own metadata systemdemonstrates the model for data deployment. Detailed (Krimulda, Francavilla, Gybon).interfaces and descriptions of single modules and ISO19115 Metadata (Micka)interfaces will be described in D3.1. External Data Servers NNR – these are data NNR portal – this is the project foundation servers of project partners and regions where thestone, where users will find appropriate learning project testing will be provided. The used componentobjects to lead them through the learning process. The -9-
  10. 10. from each of the servers could be data sources, and a metadata search will be implemented. Also ametadata and functions offered as Web Services. All client to exchange data with Micka will bedata will be accessible through the NNR Web portal, implemented.through WMS, and a part of the data for analysis will SCORM metadatabe available through WFS, WCS. Internal learning Data German SDI includes German Catalogues and data servers e-Learning tools Liberec data server includes the Metadata system Micka, regional data and a Web Functional and Analytical Servers – external service data server servers, which provide services or analysis on demand Krimulda includes regional data and a Web and return the results to the NNR portal. service data server. In the initial phase the Grass server is allocated on CCSS premises and will be moved to Krimulda later on eTrails FMI data server includes the Metadata Other analytical tools on the base of analysis system Micka, OPRL data and a Web from WP5 service data server. Gybon server stores data prepared by students and teachers. In the initial phase External Thesaurus for searching terms and the server is allocated on CCSS premises supporting multilingualism. The Thesaurus will be used and will be moved to Gybon later on. directly from FAO, EEA, etc. Hradec server includes regional data and a GEMET (EEA thesaurus) Web service data server AGROVOC (FAO thesaurus) Francavilla regional data and Web service data server. In the initial phase the server is allocated on CCSS premises and will be External Metadata Servers moved to Francavilla later on Spatial Metadata based on OGC standards Corsica data server includes a Metadata and supporting exchange of information system, regional data and a Web service Non Spatial Metadata based on OGC data server standards and supporting exchange of Vysocina data server includes the Metadata information system Micka, regional data and a Web service data server Other External Servers will be recognized in a later stage and will be accessible through external ILIAS Server: main server where tools, metadata tools.methods, metadata and data for e-Learning are stored.To ILIAS a plug-in from NNR portal for visualization - 10 -
  11. 11. dd NNR2 Deployment model 2 ILIIAS Serv er NNR Data Serv er External Data Serv ers NNR Corsica Serv er FMI Serv er Francav illa serv er SCORM GISCO Metadata Corsica Metadata Metadata Micka Internal CLC 2000 Corsica Data FMI Data - Francav illa Learning OPRL Metadata Data Corsica Web FMI Web Francav illa Image 2000 Serv ices e-Learning Sev ices Data Tools German Serv ers GYBON Serv er Hradec Serv er German Metadata Serv ers GYBON Data Hradec Data NNR Portal German Data MicKa Visualisation Serv ers & Tools Serv ices GYBON Web Hradec Web Serv ices Serv ices Analytical Thesaurus tools Client Krimulda Serv er Liberec Serv er Vysocina Serv er Liberec Vysocina Gazetteer Autorisation Metadata Metadata serv er Krimulda Liberec Data Vysocina Proj ect Web Data Data manager serv ices serv er Krimulda Liberec Web Vysocina Web Serv ices Web Serv ice Serv ices Functional & Analytical Serv ers External Metadata Serv ers External Serv ers others Grass Spatial metadata Non spatial metadata Other Serv ers ISO19115 DC eTrails External Tesaures Other thesauruss FAO Serv er EEA Serv er AGROVOC GEMET - 11 -
  12. 12. Progress in developing cognitive models of sustainability: case studies from European and Brazilian river basins Tim Nuttle (University of Jena, Germany), Ana Luiza Rios Caldas and Paulo Salles (University of Brasilia, Brazil), Elena Nakova, Emilia Varadinova, Yordan Uzunov (Central Laboratory of General Ecology, Bulgaria), Eugenia Cioaca (Danube Delta National Institute, Romania), Richard Noble (University of Hull,England), Andreas Zitek (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria), Bert Bredeweg, Anders Bouwer, Jochem Liem (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands), Michael Neumann (Federal Environment Ministry, Germany) University of Jena is using the Framework in The goal of work package 6 of the NaturNet- developing cognitive models of a variety ofRedime project is to develop cognitive simulation sustainability issues to support the Curriculum formodels that can be used to teach diverse kinds of Learning about Sustainable Development Using QRlearners about sustainability. These models are based (NNR Task 6.10) and the University of Amsterdam ison qualitative reasoning (QR), which is a modeling using the Framework in educational settings to teachparadigm that approximates how human beings QR modeling and sustainability to university studentsactually think about cause and effect. By using such a (NNR Task 7.2).natural ontology, our models should be especiallyuseful for development of deep understanding that Members of the Bulgarian, Romanian, andpeople can apply to the sustainability issues that affect Brazilian teams have so far completed two milestonesthem. towards their models (NNR milestones 6.1 and 6.2, one from each case study). The first milestone An important step towards this goal is to gather identifies the focal system, specifies the main goals forand organize expert knowledge about the processes each model, and describes the structural relationshipthat affect sustainable use of Earth’s ecosystems. Our between components of the system.approach follows five case studies of different riverbasins in both Europe and in Brazil. We chose a Table 1. Main modeling goals identified incatchment-based approach because rivers integrate Milestone 6.1 for three case studiesthe many processes happening in the surroundingecosystem. Hence, by assessing the quality of the Romania: To understand connectionsaquatic environment in the river—and how that affects between water pollution in the Danubehuman society—one can learn a lot about the River catchment basin and health ofprocesses going on in the entire ecosystem. By human populations in and around thestudying river catchments, we address a variety of DDBR, for education of decisionenvironmental pressures that affect us all, whilst also makers and stakeholders. These musthaving a concrete focus that everyone can relate to. be based on the best current understanding of the phenomena which In October 2005, work package 6 partners occur within and beyond the delta,gathered in Amsterdam for hands-on training in using including the whole basin of the Danubethe newly developed Single-User QR Workbench (NNR and the Black Seadeliverable 4.1) and were introduced to the Frameworkfor conceptual QR description of case studies (NNR Bulgaria: To develop an understandabledeliverable 6.1). This document, prepared by the and manageable model of the RiverUniversity of Amsterdam and University of Brasilia Mesta, a mountain stream, ,that can beteams, lays out a step-by-step procedure to identify, used for education of differentfocus, and organise the various kinds of information community groups to understand howthat lead to the successful development of a QR organic pollution affects functioning ofmodel. This procedure is being followed throughout the stream ecosystems.process of developing cognitive models based on case Brazil: To improve understanding ofstudies from Brazil, Bulgaria, and Romania, leading up environmental systems and problemsto NNR deliverables that lay the groundwork of that may affect sustainability in thedocumentation for each case study (NNR deliverables Riacho Fundo basin (near Brasilia); to6.2.1, 6.3.1, and 6.4.1) and then the fully implemented demonstrate the effects of humanQR models (NNR deliverables 6.2.2, 6.3.2, and 6.4.2). actions, both positively and negativelyA similar procedure will be followed later in the project influencing different aspects of thefor case studies from England and Austria, using the Riacho Fundo basin system; and toCollaborative QR Workbench; these case studies will support communication betweenfocus on interacting with models in collaborative stakeholders, scientists, and the public.modelling and learning environments. Additionally, the - 12 -
  13. 13. Specifying modeling goals is very important step the entire Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Scenariosbecause no model can cover everything. Furthermore, relevant to each of these models include specifying theby clearly identifying the goals to start with, it helps degree of pollution, the starting conditions for bioticnarrow down the topics to cover and through identifying and abiotic factors (like algal populations and dissolvedwhom the target audience is, helps focus what level of oxygen, contaminant levels), and the activity ofdetail needs to be incorporated. Table 1 identifies the polluting factors like industry and agriculture. Expectedmain modelling goals for each of the three case behavior outlines how the causal processes shouldstudies. lead to change in the components of the model. For example, if pollution gets worse, the behavior graph Each case study also includes a concept map of should show how the status of the biotic and abiotichow the various processes and components relevant to components changes over time. These details are alsothe case study and model goals inter-relate. The contained in the milestone and will be elaborated in theconcept map serves as a valuable heuristic both for the first deliverable.modeler in the development process and forcommunication to learners. An example for the Riacho The Framework for conceptual QR descriptionFundo, Brazil, case study is provided in Figure 1. The of case studies has so far provided an excellentconcepts in the concept map are then further platform for developing cognitive models of the threedeveloped, outlining specific interacting entities and case studies, as well as additional models on otherhow they should best be represented in the model. sustainability issues for other tasks of the NaturNet-These details are specified in the milestone, and will be Redime project. The next phase of work for the caseincorporated within the first deliverable for each case studies is to translate the conceptual ideas of the firststudy. two milestones into the more formal language of the QR workbench. This will be accomplished in the next The second milestone for each case study builds milestone. These three milestones collectively form thefrom the first. This milestone details the Global first deliverable for each case study, which will provideBehaviour for each model, identifying causal a springboard for the actual programming of the modelprocesses, scenarios to investigate with the model, and into the QR workbench. Beyond the scope of theexpected outcomes based on those scenarios. Here, NaturNet-Redime project, this process is proving ofwe provide some examples from the milestones, which great value for building up expertise in using the novelshould be viewed as works in progress. Figure 2 shows QR approach to modeling ecological systems. Thesesome causal processes related to biological activity in case studies are helping to expand the frontier of QRthe River Mesta, Bulgaria, just a part of the global modeling in ecology, which we anticipate will be helpbehavior of the whole River Mesta system. The achieve a greater public understanding of processesrelations within these processes show how values or affecting the sustainable use of services we all rely onchanges within the system affect other system that are provided by Earth’s ecosystems.components. Figure 3 shows how many processesmight be interconnected into a single causal model of Environment Riacho Fundo basin interact with Occupies Human society uses creates Land influences Economy influences covers influences explores Vegetation requires protects Water maintains Energy pollutes Atmosphere interact with Figure 1. Concept map of sustainability issues in the Riacho Fundo basin, Brazil. Boxes represent things, arrows represent relations. - 13 -
  14. 14. Figure 2. Some biotic processes in the River Mesta, Bulgaria. P’s and I’s show different kinds of influences. P+ means, for example, “if Number of algae goes up, then Photosynthesis rate tends to go up”. I+ means, “if Photosynthesis rate is positive, then Amount of dissolved oxygen goes up.” Negative signs have the opposite effect. Figure 3. Draft causal model for effects of water pollution on Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. This causal modelincludes many separate interacting processes that combine to form the global behavior. See Figure 2 for explanations of the different kinds of influences (I’s and P’s). - 14 -
  15. 15. Analysing Broadband Access for Rural Development Martine Ruzza Communications Technologies (ICT) offer even greater A-BARD (Analysing Broadband Access for Rural opportunities to facilitate structural changes in ruralDevelopment) is a "Coordination Action" within the areas. ICT can offer new work opportunities, but moreEUs Information Society Technologies (IST) importantly, a better and more cost effective approachProgramme. A-BARD is running for 2 years having to deliver other services that can enhance the "qualitystarted in January 2005. During this time A-BARD aims of life" in rural areas. In this context ICT can act as ato research rural broadband provision and use and to major external factor in the widespread transformationmake recommendations on possible future initiatives and improvement in the rural domain.for rural areas. A-BARD provides a technology watchfunction, convenes workshops and undertakesstrategic and issues analysis in order to encourage Key questions that A-BARD addresses include:total rural broadband coverage in the immediate future.Broadband is recognized as an external driver of What applications and services exist, what ischange in rural economies and its widespread emerging, how, when and who shoulddeployment is seen as critical to the future well being of implement the solutions?Europe’s rural areas. The focus of the CoordinationAction is rural and the inhabitants and economies of When will they be accessible and affordable inrural areas. Rural areas tend to equate with the less rural areas?developed regions of Europe particularly in the context What socio-economic aspects need to beof telecommunications infrastructure supply. They are considered to ensure that meaningfulalso synonymous with areas that are becoming applications and services development andincreasingly disadvantaged and excluded from the implementation takes place in rural areas?emerging Information Society. At present broadband Usability and acceptability issues are critical topenetration figures compiled by the European the widespread deployment and use of ICT inCommission are showing that broadband penetration rural areas and will have a far reaching impactand take up are growing faster in Urban and sub-urban on the extent that ICT can act as an externalareas than in rural arewas. This may due to these rural driver of change in rural areas.areas having less access to broadband infrastructuresbut also to a lack of knowledge and awareness of ruralpopulations regarding the potential offered by the A-BARD uses a research methodology thatinternet and by fast connections. The central mission of examines and reports on rural broadband deploymentA-BARD is to identify and propose strategies that will on a continual basis. This approach includes examiningrectify this situation. In this context, A-BARD is a current experience with rural broadband developmentspolicy-orientated research study that will identify how in the form of case-studies. Rural broadband issuesinformation technologies can be used both to protect and themes are also developed in preparation forand transform rural areas. Rural areas are a discussion in rural based workshops. In this manner itfundamental and core element underpinning the is expected that A-BARD will provide a grassrootseconomic potential and cohesion of a larger and more feedback and endorsement to any emerging initiativesintegrated European Union, especially in the context of in this area.the eEurope Action Plan the I2010 strategy. Europeanrural areas are at present in a state of flux, ongoing In this manner A-BARD provides a rollingCAP reform, impact of enlargement and changes in continuous monitoring, reporting and analysis ofworld trade are impacting on the nature of employment, current trends and developments in broadbandsocial fabric and make-up of rural areas. REPS and provision, access and use in the rural areas of Europe.other CAP schemes have had a major impact on rural Dissemination of his on-going intelligence and findingsenvironment preservation. LEADER has demonstrated identified by A-BARD is continuous and relayed in theopportunities for new types of employment. publications of eNewsletters, themes and Issues reports, Cases studies and Technology Watch reports. The advent of the Information Society and thewidespread adoption of Information and - 15 -
  16. 16. e-LUP Land Use Processes Mikael Pihlström assessment tools in a unified exercise primarily The strength of the Sustainability Impact for training in strategic policy analysis, butAssessment approach, is paying equal attention to all secondarily for other end-users also (e.g. local“three pillars” of sustainable development and regional administrations, research,(environment, economy, society) and their holistic education).integration, at the same time making a proportionateanalysis and weighing = impacts differ in importance. To embed the project and it’s main deliverable at the science/society interface, mainly by case studies in forested landscapes over a involving administrations, company personnel, large Eurasian area (figure below) will provide researchers and students from the start, in examples for simulation tools and texts. producing the material for the e-textbook and in the last year of the project testing it. Main outcome The measurable and verifiable outcomes in chronological sequence are: (a) case studies, which are (b) combined with models in visualization software, which forms (c) the core of the e-textbook on SIA developed in co-operation with other societal sectors end-users are primarily policy makers, but also and tested by end-users (d) all during project time. In professionals from land-use and spatial the e-textbook the user identifies the issue and is planning sectors, students and teachers, guided to different chapters addressing e.g. the land scientists, local stake-holders, industrialists use topics in the figure below and NGO’s … people who need to accurately assess complex impacts. Aim To develop a new tool for training on sustainable impact assessment (SIA), applicable in a broad Eurasian context. The tool will be easy to use and easy to disseminate: a freeware electronic textbook and simulation tool based on complex, proven dynamic models. To train in particular the use of dynamic models in policy assessment. To train modern landscape analysis and sustainability - 16 -
  17. 17. Development of Long-term shared vision on AMI Technologies for a Networked Agri-food sector Sixth Framework Programme, Priority, Information Society Technologies. Fernando Ubieta creation; sharing and exploitation through The objective of AMI@Netfood project is to collaborative activities involving the individual - thesupport the implementation of the IST Research mobile user and worker.Priority and Framework Programme, providing a long-term vision on future trends on Scientific and AMI@Netfood analysis will be developedTechnology Research oriented to the development and involving key regional and national policy makers withapplication of Ambient Intelligence technologies to the responsibility in the design of RTD policies andagri-food domain. The project will be carried out programmes in the area of ICTs and Ruraldeveloping an ERA Pilot joint collaboration platform development at regional and/or national scale. By this,resulting from a roadmap the area of Applications and the project will generate a basis to identify mechanismsservices for collaborative working. to mobilise public-private partnerships and investment needed on Research. Project results will also be widely As a result AMI@Netfood provides a path, in the disseminated so that they can be used to help inform of a Strategic Research Agenda, common to a preparations for future Community, National ornumber of EU Member States and Regions, which will Regional research and technological developmentbe designed to guide RTD in ICTs to provide an policy activities. AMI@Netfood will help creating aanswer to identified needs of the sector. The project sustainable network that will be used as the basis forprovides a framework to discuss about the increasingly the definition of a set of common objectives that woulddemanding need of having collaborative and mobile be applied to a potential Technology Platform for theapplications and services and innovative ways to tackle EU research in the area of ICTs for agri-food and Ruralsocial issues and to bring benefits to consumers, Development.industry and the environment. AMI@Netfood resultswill specifically focus on the solutions adaptable to theneeds of local/regional SMEs in the Agri-food sector in See like innovative extended products andservices, rural development, efficient knowledge - 17 -
  18. 18. RAEIRLS ’Rural Areas as Engines for Implementing the Renewed Lisbon Strategy’ Conclusion of the Conference Brussels, 29 November 2005 Patrick Crehan, Adam Turowiec, Karel Charvat continued dialogue on projects, initiativesBackground and good practices relating to the use of Information Society technologies in the The Valencia Declaration rural regions of Europe. A conference held in Valenciaon 3 and 4 February 2003 and entitled So as to realise theseInformation Society as a Key ambitious goals the ValenciaEnabler for Rural Development Conference the first @ruralresulted in the elaboration and conference was organized inadoption of The Valencia Brussels2 on 15th September 2003Declaration 1. This recognized that by EFITA and the CCSS with supportrural development needs to be a key from the DG INFORMATIONpublic policy area for the 21st Century SOCIETY AND MEDIA. A secondand emphasized the role that new European @rural Conference wastechnologies would play as a tool for held in Brussels on 29 Novemberterritorial cohesion and for socio- 2005. The title was ‘Rural Areas aseconomic equality in rural areas. It Engines for Implementing thecalled upon all stakeholders to work Renewed Lisbon Strategy’. It puttogether to achieve goals in terms of: special emphasis on enlargement and the role of new infrastructure and services member states. traditional Sectors and new business opportunities The second @rural meeting reviewed progress Information Society for All made since Valencia and acknowledged initiatives intended to contribute towards achieving the Valencia Declaration goals. Its significance was confirmed by With a view to harnessing new technologies as active participation of representatives from DGenablers for the development of rural regions it called Agriculture and Rural Development, DGupon stakeholders to support: ENVIRONMENT, DG INFORMATION SOCIETY AND MEDIA, DG Science and Research, and ESA – the the development of communications European Space Agency. The views of key speakers infrastructure for rural areas, provide a basis for understanding how a Knowledge the location of new activities in rural areas, Society could contribute to reaching rural development goals and objectives laid out in various policy domains. the design of active policies by those involved in public administration, multi-disciplinary research to enable a This meeting was an opportunity to review the better understanding of the drivers of the Valencia Declaration and to see how, with the wisdom information society and their impacts on gained since then, we might refine the Declaration’s rural areas, and goals and key statements so as to guide our work for the future and better direct research efforts in support1 2 al_at_work/index_en.htm - 18 -
  19. 19. of rural development as one of the key public policy the BSCW5 portal provided by the FP6 financedareas of the 21st Century. COMIST project. These initiatives bring together stakeholders with What has been achieved since representatives from industry, academia and civil Valencia? society to develop a dialogue on future research needs in these domains. They provide feedback to the One of the most significant achievements since European Commission, national research programmes,Valencia has been the development of networks for local administration and the private sector on relevantstakeholder dialogue and the exchange of good policy issues with a view to shaping the researchpractice on issues relating to the development of an agenda and driving investment in research in line withInformation Society in rural areas. With support from the Lisbon goals.FP6 IST funded initiatives such as MOSAIC andCOMIST3 a series of horizontal and vertical networks An important milestone since Valencia has beenhave been established known as the AMI@Work the Rural Wins Roadmap for rural broadband and ICTCommunities. The four horizontal networks are: adoption6. Progress has also been made in traditional and new areas of rural business. Specific projects have Knowledge@Work been implemented in areas such as the use of mobile Collaboration@Work internet technologies to support precision farming and food traceability. Other initiatives addressed issues Mobility@Work such as farm related administration, documentation SEEM@Work4 and cross compliance. Although some conference speakers referred to the challenge faced by large agrifood value chains, it is The five vertical networks are: worth noting that most of the current research work Rural@Work seems to address needs of large farms or production systems based on contract farming. The application of Engineering@Work IST to other economic sectors has also been Logistics@Work considered. Examples provided in Brussels in November include applications to forestry and fresh Well-being@Work water recreational fishing. Media@Work. One of the many insights gained since Valencia All of these address IST challenges of interest was the key role of logistics in the sustainability of thefor the development of rural regions, but one in rural economy. This insight led to the establishment ofparticular gets to grips with the specificities of the rural the fifth vertical AMI@Work Community -environment – the Rural@Work Community. Logistics@Work, in the mid-2005. This community proactively addresses the ruraldimension of the Information Society in the enlargedEuropean Union. At the conference in Brussels in New or Emerging QuestionsNovember 2005, Rural@Work representativeswelcomed the launch of four new initiatives under theumbrella of EFITA. These take the form of highly Despite such progress, further work remains tofocused working groups: be done not only in areas already being addressed but perhaps in new areas as well: The agri-food@rural Working Group The use of information technologies to The broadband@rural Working Group support alternative, non traditional or non- The eLearning@rural Working Group farm related employment in rural areas. The eContent@rural Working Group The application of information technologies in the context of small scale production systems that involve part-time or mixed- They will cooperate closely with the production farmers and local processing.Rural@Work community and their work will besupported by access to on-line collaborative spaces at3 5 To join a working group go to http://www.mosaic-4 SEEM stands for the Single European Electronic 6Marketplace - 19 -