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OBJECTS THAT HOLD THEMSELVES TOGETHER
By Cynthia Willett
STRUCTURES BOOK LIST
Amazing Buildings (DK Level 2 reader) by Kate Hayden
Architecture Animals Michael J. Crosbie and Stev...
Bloom's Taxonomy Verbs
The ideas presented in the following matrices are “scaffolded” from simple
to complex. You will see...
Matrices: Structures
On the following frames you will find a complete set of
Understanding by Design (UbD) matrices, based...
1. A structure is an object that holds itself
together.
Knowledge: define, describe, recall
What is a structure?
What were...
3. We can compare the structures built by
humans to those built by animals and insects.
Structures are used for many purpo...
5. People all over the world have built
structures that are important to them. .
Knowledge: name, list, locate, recall, te...
8. The shapes and forms used are organized
in the best arrangement for the structure
stand up against special forces.
Comp...
10. Structures must be built in special
ways to hold together and stand up.
Application: apply, change, dramatize,
model, ...
picture Type of
structure
Special need served
dam stops flooding
bridge
tower
tunnel connects land
house
school people lea...
Lessons Essential questions Project/evidence
14.Structures are all different and unique
because they reflect the needs and...
Make a Booklet About
Structures
On the following frames you will find task
sheets that are written to review lesson
ideas,...
MY BOOK ABOUT
STRUCTURES
These pages may be used for further docu-
mentation of the child’s building process.
STRUCTURE BO...
__ __ __ __
__ __ __
__ __ __
__ __ __
__ __ __ __ __ __
ANIMAL STRUCTURES
Print your words next to the animal structures ...
__ __ __ __ __
__ __ __ __
__ __ __ __ __ __
__ __ __ __ __
__ __ __ __ __
HUMAN STRUCTURES
Print your words next to the h...
MATCH THE STRUCTURES
Draw a line between the animal structure and the human structure that you think is
most similar.
USES OF STRUCTURES
How are these structures used?
STRUCTURE USE
_____________________________________________
____________...
MY FAVORITE
STRUCTURE
Draw your favorite structure.
Where is it located?____________________________________
What is it us...
A BEAUTIFUL STRUCTURE
In the box, draw a beautiful structure. Afterwards, answer the questions
below.
Where is it located?...
STRUCTURES IN THREE
CLIMATES
In each box below, draw a different structure that is designed for a spe-
cific climate. Your...
WHY DO WE NEED THESE
STRUCTURES
Next to each picture, print the need that is fulfilled by the structure.
_________________...
MY STRUCTURE LAW
Discussion: Laws
Think of how the world would change if there were a law that said: Structures must
only ...
MY STRUCTURE
Tell a story about the structure or structures you have designed and built
on your foundation board.
________...
MY STRUCTURE
Mount
a photo
of your
struc- ture
here
By ___________________________________
Completed _____________________...
Trace the Shapes
In Structures
On the following frames you will find im-
ages of structures. Laminate the pages
and create...
Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow.
PyramidatGiza
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kheops-Pyrami...
http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=18974&picture=urban-office-architecture&large=1
Tracearoundalloft...
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sydney_Opera_House_Night.jpg?uselang=fr
Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestr...
http://publicdomainpictures.net/pictures/20000/velka/village-house-1310154704BLP.jpg
Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindin...
Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow.
LightHouse
http://www.public-domain-image.com/architecture-public-...
Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow.
Cathedral
http://www.public-domain-image.com/architecture-public-d...
Architectural Images
On the following frames you will find im-
ages of several types of buildings all
around the world. Pr...
Image files and URL’s
On the following frames you will find im-
ages shown in the matrices. All of these
are found in Crea...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Step_pyramid
http://commons.wikimedia.org/
wiki/
File:Gateway_Arch_illuminating
_on_Strong_T...
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
File:A_Classical_View_of_Leaning_To
wer_in_Pisa.jpg
Author: Lee Cannonhttp://en.wikiped...
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bienenwabe_mit_Eiern_und_Brut_5.jpg
http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/51/330...
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wetherby_fire_station_001.jpg
http://www.public-domain-image.com/architecture-publi...
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together
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Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together

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This is a complete unit devoted to the study of structures—full of ideas for guiding awareness of the physical properties of existing structures, as well as motivating creative thought and production of newly built objects.

Beginning with simpler knowledge concepts and exercises, and moving through a taxonomy (Bloom) of learning objectives, the study culminates in a creative synthesis of ideas.

Essential questions are posed and knowledge sought through personal schema, hands-on experiences and thoughtful reflection. These questions are meant to give meaning, relevance and definition to the unit. “Students must construct their own answers and make their own meaning from the information they have gathered.” (Wiggins and MacTigue, 1995)

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Structures -Objects That Hold Themselves Together

  1. 1. OBJECTS THAT HOLD THEMSELVES TOGETHER By Cynthia Willett
  2. 2. STRUCTURES BOOK LIST Amazing Buildings (DK Level 2 reader) by Kate Hayden Architecture Animals Michael J. Crosbie and Steve Rosenthal Architecture Shapes Michael J. Crosbie and Steve Rosenthal Beavers: Dam Builders (Animal Architects) by Lynn George Building Big by David Macauley Building on Nature: The Life of Antoni Gaudí by Rachel Victoria Rodriguez , Julie Paschkis (Illustrator) Built by Animals: The Natural History of Animal Architecture by Mike Hansell Design for Fun: Playgrounds By Marta Rojals Del Alamo Frank Gehry in Pop-Up Jinny Johnson and Roland Lewis Henry David's House by Steven Schnur (Editor) , Steven Schnur , Henry David Thoreau , Steven Schnur (Editor) , Peter M. Fiore (Illustrator) Henry Builds a Cabin (e-book) by D.B. Johnson , D. B. Johnson (Illustrator) Iggy Peck, Architect Andrea Beaty with Illustrations by David Roberts Palazzo Inverso by D. B. Johnson Roberto, The Insect Architect by Nina Laden Structures, Materials, & Art Activities (Arty Facts) [Paperback] Barbara Taylor The Ant's Nest: A Huge, Underground City (Spectacular Animal Towns) Miriam Aronin The Magic School Bus Gets Ants In Its Pants: A Book About Ants by Joanna Cole, John Speirs and Bruce Degan The Itaipu Dam: World's Biggest Dam (Record-Breaking Structures) by Mark Thomas
  3. 3. Bloom's Taxonomy Verbs The ideas presented in the following matrices are “scaffolded” from simple to complex. You will see the appropriate learning objective recorded in green text below each lesson. The learner will enter the study exploring the familiar and known concepts about structures, and advance slowly to the higher levels of thinking, where the activities related to insight, imagination and invention reside. It is helpful to keep this list handy as you formulate ad- ditional essential questions, think about lessons for exploration of these queries, and create learning activities. Knowledge Count, Define, Describe, Draw, Find, Identify, Label, List, Match, Name, Quote, Recall, Recite, Sequence, Tell Comprehension Conclude, Demonstrate, Discuss, Explain, General- ize, Identify, Illustrate, Interpret, Paraphrase, Predict, Report, Restate, Re- view, Summarize, Tell Application Apply, Change, Choose, Compute, Dramatize, Interview, Prepare, Produce, Role-play, Select, Show, Transfer, Use Analysis Analyze, Characterize, Classify, Compare, Contrast, Debate, Deduce, Diagram, Differentiate, Discriminate, Distinguish, Examine, Outline, Relate, Research, Separate Evaluation Appraise, Argue, Assess, Choose, Conclude, Critic, De- cide, Evaluate, Judge, Justify, Predict, Prioritize, Prove, Rank, Rate, Select Synthesis Compose, Construct, Create, Design, Develop, Integrate, Invent, Make, Organize, Perform, Plan, Produce, Propose, Rewrite
  4. 4. Matrices: Structures On the following frames you will find a complete set of Understanding by Design (UbD) matrices, based upon the ideas of Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins (2004), and organized around essential questions. Essential questions are designed to engage students’ personal perspectives, invite explanation, motivate ap- plication and inspire reflection on the topic of structures. Of course, you may add and expand upon the basic ideas presented here to differentiate based upon readi- ness, learning profile and personal preferences of your learners.
  5. 5. 1. A structure is an object that holds itself together. Knowledge: define, describe, recall What is a structure? What were the first structures? Example: What are same of the structures we can find in nature? Crystal structures Egg Invertebrate shells Wasps and bees hives Spider web Bird’s nests Beaver dams Termite tower Groundhog tunnel Chart lesson Brainstorm naturally occurring and animal structures known to the class and print them on chart paper. Example: 3 D Construction exercise: Build structures with manipulative sets Show samples Animal shelter task sheet 1 2. Human structures are built for protec- tion from animals and the environment Structures are built to house the family. Read: Children All Over the World Comprehension: conclude, discuss, ex- plain , generalize Why do we need structures? What some of the types of structures built by humans? Example: Human structures: Shelters Houses Buildings Skyscrapers Tunnels Bridges Dams Towers Dome Chart lesson Brainstorm all structures built by humans known to the class. Print them on chart pa- per. Example: Show models 3 D Construction exercise: Build struc- tures with unit blocks. Human structures task sheet 2 STRUCTURES Knowledge: There are many types of structures and they serve various purposes 1 Human structures Office building Anasazi cliff homes Guggenheim Geodesic Bridge Aswan dam Dome Lincoln Tunnel Skyscraper Animal structures Bee hive Wasp nest Conch shell Crystal Spider web Beaver dam Egg Groundhog tunnel Termite tower Lessons Essential questions Project/evidence
  6. 6. 3. We can compare the structures built by humans to those built by animals and insects. Structures are used for many purposes. Analysis: analyze, compare, differentiate, What are the similarities between natural and human structures Why are these structures built? What do we learn from them? What are the uses for these structures? Chart lesson Match the human structure with the animal structure on the chart. Example: Picture/picture matching sheet 4. When we speak of structure we are speak- ing of the parts or elements of a built object. Structures are built of many types of materi- als. Comprehension: conclude, demonstrate, generalize What materials are used for structures that humans build? Name some of the materials that are used in building structures you have learned about so far. Example: 1. Wood 2. Mud 3. Concrete 4. Steel 5. Stone 6. Plaster 7. Glass 8. Ice Hands-on exploration: Show samples of building materials and have the children manipulate them. Ask them to describe some of the properties of each one Discuss: What do these materials have in common? What are the differences in these materials? Which you think is the strongest? Chart lesson Create a materials chart. Ask the children to place the material sample in its place on the chart (labeled). Ask them to find a picture of the structure that may have been built from the material and place the picture next to the sample. Animal structures Human structures Bee hive Office building Mud wasp nest Anasazi dwellings Conch shell Guggenheim Spider web Bridge Beaver dam Aswan dam Egg Dome Groundhog tunnel Lincoln Tunnel Termite tower Skyscraper 2 Lessons Essential questions Project/evidence
  7. 7. 5. People all over the world have built structures that are important to them. . Knowledge: name, list, locate, recall, tell What are some famous structures around the world? List some famous structures you have seen or read about in books. Example: 1. Empire state building 2. Cinderella’s castle 3. Twin arches St. Louis 4. Eiffel tower 5. Pyramids at Giza 6. Temple of Dendur 7. Sydney Opera House 8 . Ice Station Zero 9. Great Wall of China Discussion Where in the world do we find these famous structures? Chart lesson Have the children share knowledge of struc- tures around the world. Create a display that shows a sample of each of the world’s grat structures. Example: 6. Structures show the needs and wants of the culture that built them. Knowledge: identify, name, list, locate What are the uses of these structures? Print the names of the structures on chart paper. Ask the children to listen to the name of the structure and look at the design of the structure. Print their ideas for the uses of each on chart paper. Task sheet: Uses of structures task sheet 7.People who design and build structures think about the shapes and forms they want to use. Comprehension: conclude, demonstrate, explain, generalize, interpret What are some of the forms you can find in these pictures of famous structures? How do these sets of shapes and forms make the structure hold together and stand up? How do the shapes and forms make the struc- ture pleasing to look at or beautiful? Trace out with finger the geometric forms found on a picture of a given structure. Flip book Laminate the photographs. Add more from you own collection. Organize them into a flip book. Have the child use a wipe-off marker to trace around all of the shapes found in the structures shown. 3 Lessons Essential questions Project/evidence Continent Structure Asia Great Wall of China Africa Great Sphinx North America Empire State Building South America Mexican pyramids Oceania Opera House Antarctica Ice Station Byrd Europe Eiffel Tower
  8. 8. 8. The shapes and forms used are organized in the best arrangement for the structure stand up against special forces. Comprehension: conclude, demonstrate, explain, generalize, interpret How do these sets of shapes and forms make the structure hold together and stand up? What are some of the forms you can find in these pictures of famous structures? How do the shapes and forms make the structure pleasing to look at or beautiful? Have the children look at thematic posters, cards and books. 3 D Construction exercise: Ask for a volunteer to try to build a facsim- ile of the structures they traced with the classroom blocks. Give each child a foundation board. Have the children choose three favorite foam forms from the collection. Have them paint their forms and place them on their boards. 9. A force is a type of action. Two types of forces that builders have to be designed into any structure to make it hold together and stand up. Comprehension: conclude, demonstrate Application: apply, dramatize, show What are the two forces that builders use to make a structure strong? 1. Tension is pulling and stretching action 2. Compression is pressing, pushing, squeez- ing or compacting action. Kinesthetic exercise: Show tension and compression with your body Show tension and compression with your hands. Ask the children to demonstrate. Tension: Stand facing a partner with your feet very close together. Hold each other's hands and lean backwards. The pulling and stretching you feel in your arms is tension. Compression: Face your partner and stand a feet away. Straighten your arms. Press your hands against your partner’s hands and lean into one another. The pressing and pushing you feel in your arms is com- pression. Gym activity Use your body to act out these forces. Talk about adding gravity as you push and pull. Model different types of bridges with your bodies—beam truss, cantilever, arch, sus- pension and cable-stayed. 4 Lessons Essential questions Project/evidence
  9. 9. 10. Structures must be built in special ways to hold together and stand up. Application: apply, change, dramatize, model, design, test, imagine Analysis: deduce , examine Synthesis: compose, construct, crate, design, develop, invent, , produce What do builders have to remember when building a structure? Structures are built to withstand the natural forces working against them. What are these forces? 1. Gravity--the force that holds everything in the universe together 2. Weight of the structure itself and the mate- rials inside of it like walls, furniture and people 3. Intensity of the wind, rain, ice snow 4. Vibration of the earth and of the machines inside of the structure? 3 D Construction exercise: Build a simple structure out of blocks, card- board tubes, straws, tape and folded paper forms. Test out your structure by: Build as high as you can with lightweight materials. Blow your structure with your breath, an electric fan or a hair dryer. Drip water on your structure. Shake the table your structure is built upon. Brainstorm ways to improve the construc- tions to withstand the external forces that you have simulated. Booklet page Write a poem about an animal or insect in their structure during a storm. 11.When builders design a structure, they must think about the forces of na- ture that will affect their structure. Analysis: analyze, produce, model, de- sign, test, imagine What forces of nature will a structure have to withstand? 1. Earthquakes 2. Ice, snow 3. Heat 4. Water 5. Soil and sand Booklet page: Illustrate and label Draw the types of structures that can be found in three different types of climates. 3 D Construction exercise: Have each child make several geometric forms including cubes, cones, cylinders, spheres, pyramids, triangular and rectangu- lar prisms. Use materials such as clay, paper, foam board, sticks, straws. Perform several ac- tions on some of these forms including soaking, freezing, baking, shaking and bur- ying them. Have the children place the remaining forms on their foundations. 5 Lessons Essential questions Project/evidence
  10. 10. picture Type of structure Special need served dam stops flooding bridge tower tunnel connects land house school people learn church cathedral temple store mall gym 12. Structures are designed to serve the special needs for the people who build them. Analysis: analyze, deduce, compare What special needs are fulfilled by the struc- tures in our world? Examples: 1. Dams 2. Bridges 3. Towers 4. Tunnels 5. Houses 6. Schools 7. Churches 8. Temples 9. Cathedrals 10. Stores 11. Malls 12. Tombs Observe and discuss the wall chart, poster and structure cards. Example: 13. Structures can be designed for pur- poses other than special needs. Evaluation: decide, conclude, rate, as- sess, argue Are all structures built out of need? What makes a structure necessary? List some of the structures that may not be nec- essary. Example: 1. Playground 2. Ferris wheel 3. Sculpture 4. Mansion 5. Ice cream shop 6. Disneyland 7. Tree house 8 . Swimming pool 9. bowling alley Discussion: Laws Think of how the world would change if there were a law that said: Structures must only be built if they are need- ed. or Structures must only be built in they are not needed. Which law will your structure follow? Booklet page: Illustrate and tell Draw a picture of your idea for a structure that follows one of the laws. Why did you choose this law? 6 Lessons Essential questions Project/evidence
  11. 11. Lessons Essential questions Project/evidence 14.Structures are all different and unique because they reflect the needs and wants of the people who design and build them. Synthesis: design, construct, create, develop What type of structure would be the most inter- esting for you if you were a builder? Construction exercise: Find the structure in pictures, posters or in your imagination that you that you like the best. Assemble elements of your favorite using such materials as foam board, cardboard, toothpicks, clay, wood pieces, rubber bands, straws. Make several geometric forms out of these materials and attach them to your foundation board in any way you wish. Toothpicks 1. See if you can build a small model of your favorite by connecting the toothpicks to- gether with marshmallows, gumdrops, or small balls of clay. Clay 1. Roll your clay into a smooth ball. 2. Push a small hole in the middle. 3. Model a small bowl shape. 4. Roll out another slab. 5. Pick it up and bend it into a cylinder Glue them on your foundation in a design that you like . 15. Structures are important to people for a variety of reasons that include both needs and wants. Evaluation: choose, judge, decide, ar- gue How would you describe the structure you have built? Tell a story about the structure or struc- tures you have designed and built on your foundation board. Print the story out and have your teacher take a picture of you holding your model. This is the cover of your Structures booklet. 7
  12. 12. Make a Booklet About Structures On the following frames you will find task sheets that are written to review lesson ideas, motivate thought and stimulate creative approaches to the discussion ideas. After the full set is competed the child may assemble a booklet that shows his or her progress, culminating in an indi- vidualized hands-on structure.
  13. 13. MY BOOK ABOUT STRUCTURES These pages may be used for further docu- mentation of the child’s building process. STRUCTURE BOOK CONTENTS
  14. 14. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ANIMAL STRUCTURES Print your words next to the animal structures below.
  15. 15. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ HUMAN STRUCTURES Print your words next to the human structures below.
  16. 16. MATCH THE STRUCTURES Draw a line between the animal structure and the human structure that you think is most similar.
  17. 17. USES OF STRUCTURES How are these structures used? STRUCTURE USE _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ slide church tower barn bridge
  18. 18. MY FAVORITE STRUCTURE Draw your favorite structure. Where is it located?____________________________________ What is it used for? ___________________________________________________ Why do you like it?____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________
  19. 19. A BEAUTIFUL STRUCTURE In the box, draw a beautiful structure. Afterwards, answer the questions below. Where is it located?____________________________________ What is it used for? ___________________________________________________ Why do you like it?____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________
  20. 20. STRUCTURES IN THREE CLIMATES In each box below, draw a different structure that is designed for a spe- cific climate. Your ideas may be realistic or imaginative. ___________________________________ HOT TEMPERATE COLD
  21. 21. WHY DO WE NEED THESE STRUCTURES Next to each picture, print the need that is fulfilled by the structure. _______________________________ STRUCTURE NEED
  22. 22. MY STRUCTURE LAW Discussion: Laws Think of how the world would change if there were a law that said: Structures must only be built if they are needed. OR Structures must only be built in they are not needed. Which law will you choose for your structure? Needed, or not needed? _____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________
  23. 23. MY STRUCTURE Tell a story about the structure or structures you have designed and built on your foundation board. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________
  24. 24. MY STRUCTURE Mount a photo of your struc- ture here By ___________________________________ Completed __________________________
  25. 25. Trace the Shapes In Structures On the following frames you will find im- ages of structures. Laminate the pages and create a flip book of traceable imag- es. The child can use a wipe-off marker to find all of the shapes contained in the structures.
  26. 26. Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow. PyramidatGiza http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kheops-Pyramid.jpg
  27. 27. http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=18974&picture=urban-office-architecture&large=1 Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow. ApartmentBuilding
  28. 28. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sydney_Opera_House_Night.jpg?uselang=fr Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow. SydneyOperaHouse
  29. 29. http://publicdomainpictures.net/pictures/20000/velka/village-house-1310154704BLP.jpg Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow. House
  30. 30. Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow. LightHouse http://www.public-domain-image.com/architecture-public-domain-images-pictures/house-public-domain-images-pictures/light-house.jpg.html
  31. 31. Tracearoundalloftheshapesyoucanfindinthestructurebelow. Cathedral http://www.public-domain-image.com/architecture-public-domain-images-pictures/house-public-domain-images-pictures/light-house.jpg.html
  32. 32. Architectural Images On the following frames you will find im- ages of several types of buildings all around the world. Print out the images, neatly trim around the borders, mount on a background color and laminate. These can be used for display and discussion in your classroom as you present your unit on Structures.
  33. 33. Image files and URL’s On the following frames you will find im- ages shown in the matrices. All of these are found in Creative Commons at Wikipedia. All other images, including clip art, are from personal files.
  34. 34. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Step_pyramid http://commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ File:Gateway_Arch_illuminating _on_Strong_Thunder_Storm.jpg Author: Shobi Ram http:// wallpa- pers.windowsace.c om/pics/w/o/world -map-wallpaper- planet-continents- land-hd-desktop- wallpapers-a-e- iback- groundz.com.jpg
  35. 35. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:A_Classical_View_of_Leaning_To wer_in_Pisa.jpg Author: Lee Cannonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Suspension_tower#mediaviewer/ File:Pylon_ds.jpg
  36. 36. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bienenwabe_mit_Eiern_und_Brut_5.jpg http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/51/33051-004-
  37. 37. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wetherby_fire_station_001.jpg http://www.public-domain-image.com/architecture-public-domain-images-pictures/house-public-domain-images-pictures/light-house.jpg.html

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