Iradiasi buah apel

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Iradiasi buah apel

  1. 1. Application of Irradiation on Sliced Apple Cynthia Setiawan 0811010019
  2. 2. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  3. 3. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  4. 4. Apple Temperature • Temperate zone Respiration • Non-climacteric • Low temperature Storage • Relative humidity maintenance • Nutritional Quality • Organoleptic • Functional
  5. 5. Apple Temperature • Temperate zone Respiration • Non-climacteric • Low temperature Storage • Relative humidity maintenance • Nutritional Quality • Organoleptic • Functional
  6. 6. Quality of Apple Organoleptic Quality Nutritional Functional
  7. 7. Quality of Apple Organoleptic Quality Nutritional Functional
  8. 8. Nutritional Quality of Apple Carbo 95% Phenols Fat 3% Apple Fiber Protein 2,4% 2% Water Vitamins 85,6%
  9. 9. Quality of Apple Organoleptic Quality Nutritional Functional
  10. 10. Quality of Apple Organoleptic Quality Nutritional Functional
  11. 11. Functional Quality of Apple Flavonoids • Anti-oxidant • Anti-carcinogen • Anti-asthma • Blood sugar suppressant • Etc.
  12. 12. Quality of Apple Organoleptic Quality Nutritional Functional
  13. 13. Quality of Apple Organoleptic Quality Nutritional Functional
  14. 14. Organoleptic Quality of Apples • Firm Texture • Crispy • Sweet Flavor • Astringent Aroma • Organic acid • Reddish Color yellow • Off-white
  15. 15. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  16. 16. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  17. 17. Common Problem in Marketing andDistribution Deterioration Demand Environment
  18. 18. Common Problem in Marketing andDistribution Deterioration Demand Environment
  19. 19. Deterioration Lower Price• Nutrition • Tax• Functional • Consumer • Exchange• Organoleptic • Distributor • Common • Farmer wealth Lower Quality Loss Income
  20. 20. Common Problem in Marketing andDistribution Deterioration Demand Environment
  21. 21. Common Problem in Marketing andDistribution Deterioration Demand Environment
  22. 22. Demand Supplying
  23. 23. Common Problem in Marketing andDistribution Deterioration Demand Environment
  24. 24. Common Problem in Marketing andDistribution Deterioration Demand Environment
  25. 25. Environment
  26. 26. EnvironmentMarketing Distribusi
  27. 27. Common Problem in Marketing andDistribution Quality Demand Apple Shelf-life Distribution
  28. 28. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  29. 29. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  30. 30. Radiation Technology Extend Shelf-life Minimally Keeping Process Fresh Radiation
  31. 31. Radiation Technology Source Labeling Radiation Effect Mechanism
  32. 32. Radiation Technology Source Labeling Radiation Effect Mechanism
  33. 33. Source of Radiation Electron Beam X Ray Gamma ray • Cobalt-60 • Cesium-137
  34. 34. Radiation Technology Source Labeling Radiation Effect Mechanism
  35. 35. Radiation Technology Source Labeling Radiation Effect Mechanism
  36. 36. Effect of Radiation Insects Shelf-life Chemical Controlling Extending Change
  37. 37. Radiation Technology Source Labeling Radiation Effect Mechanism
  38. 38. Radiation Technology Source Labeling Radiation Effect Mechanism
  39. 39. Mechanism of Radiation Emitting rays • Light passing trough plate (Radioisotope) • Produce rays of electron, photon, or neutron Radiolysis of H2O • Radiation + H2O  H2O+ + e • H2O+  H+ + OH• • e + H2O  H2O-  H• + OH- Cell destruction • Damage DNA • Decrease functionality and permeability of membrane • Leaking of electrolyte
  40. 40. Mechanism of Radiation Emitting rays • Light passing trough plate (Radioisotope) • Produce rays of electron, photon, or neutron Radiolysis of H2O • Radiation + H2O  H2O+ + e • H2O+  H+ + OH• • e + H2O  H2O-  H• + OH- Cell destruction • Damage DNA • Decrease functionality and permeability of membrane • Leaking of electrolyte
  41. 41. Radiolysis of H2O• Structure change• Slow down the maturity• Nutrient damage• Flavor change• Formation of new compounds• Free radical recombination
  42. 42. Radiation Technology Source Labeling Radiation Effect Mechanism
  43. 43. Radiation Technology Source Labeling Radiation Effect Mechanism
  44. 44. Labeling • FDA • Information for consumer • Radura symbol • Petal • Center circle • Stripped outer circle • Claimming “treated by irradiation” or “treated with radiation”
  45. 45. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  46. 46. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  47. 47. Application of Radiation on Apple Quality Demand Apple Shelf-life Distribution
  48. 48. Application of Radiation on Apple Quality Demand Radiated Shelf-life Apple Distribution
  49. 49. Application of Radiation on Apple Quality Demand Radiated Shelf-life Apple Distribution
  50. 50. Application of Radiation on Apple Quality Demand Radiated Shelf-life Apple Distribution
  51. 51. Application of Radiation on Apple Quality Demand Radiated Shelf-life Apple Distribution
  52. 52. Application of Radiation on Apple Quality Demand Radiated Shelf-life Apple Distribution
  53. 53. Application of Radiation on Apple Quality Demand Radiated Shelf-life Apple Distribution
  54. 54. Application of Radiation on Apple Sanitation Tools Water
  55. 55. Application of Radiation on Apple Sanitation Tools Water
  56. 56. Application of Radiation on Apple Sanitation Tools Water
  57. 57. Application of Radiation on Apple Sanitation Tools Water
  58. 58. Application of Radiation on Apple Electron Beam X Ray Gamma ray • Cobalt-60 • Cesium-137
  59. 59. Application of Radiation on Apple Electron Beam X Ray Gamma ray • Cobalt-60 • Cesium-137
  60. 60. Cesium-137 Gamma Ray Electron • 0,51 MeV charge Penetrability • 30 – 40 cm Holding time • minutes • High energy photon + radioisotope = High Mechanism energy electron + H2O = Free radicals
  61. 61. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  62. 62. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  63. 63. Process Steps Specification of Apple • Rome Beauty apple • Commercially harvested • Farming at Batu • Weight: 0,1 kg of each • CAS: 1,5% O2 + 0,5% CO2 (N2 equivalent) + 1,5°C + RH 98%
  64. 64. Process Steps Preparation • Common temperature: 8°C • Sorting: by specification • Cleaning: 300 ppm NaOCl solution (pH 9,2) • Slicing: 8 slices + remove seeds
  65. 65. Process Steps Preparation • Dipping: Calcium ascorbate 3,5% solution 2 – 3 minutes in container 2,5 liters (48 slices) • Draining: Plastic drainer
  66. 66. Process Steps Preparation • Packing: Multilayer Polyolefin 12 x 18 cm (8 slices ~ 160 grams) • Gas transmission rate • O2: 15,3 nmol/m2/s/kPa (3000 mL/m2/24 hours/atm) • CO2: 50 nmol/m2/s/kPa (9800 mL/m2/24 hours/atm)
  67. 67. Process Steps Irradiation • Source: Cesium-137 • Gamma ray • Targeted dosage: 1,6 KGy • Actual dosage: 0,08 KGy 52 seconds • 4°C
  68. 68. Process Steps Harvesting Transporting Receiving Storaging • By farmer • From farmer • Inspection • CAS • To processor
  69. 69. Process Steps Cleaning & Trimming Slicing Sanitizing • If necessary • 8 slices • Tools • Rotten part • Materials • Unwanted • Worker part
  70. 70. Process Steps Dipping Packaging Radiating • CaA 3,5% • Primary • Cs-137 packing gamma ray
  71. 71. Process Steps Packing Distributing • Secondary • From packing processor Consumption • To retail, consume r
  72. 72. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  73. 73. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  74. 74. Procedures Analysis Sorting Distributing Storaging Radiating Cooling Radiated Apple Packaging Cleaning Dipping Slicing
  75. 75. Procedures Analysis - Variety - Ripeness - Roundness - Color Sorting - Specification Distributing Storaging Radiating Cooling Radiated Apple Packaging Cleaning Dipping Slicing
  76. 76. Procedures Analysis - CAS Sorting - 1,5% O2 - 0,5% CO2 + Distributing Storaging N2 equivalent - 1,5 C - RH 98% Radiating Cooling Radiated Apple Packaging Cleaning Dipping Slicing
  77. 77. Procedures Analysis Sorting Distributing Storaging -8 C Radiating Cooling - 9000 Btu Radiated Apple Packaging Cleaning Dipping Slicing
  78. 78. Procedures Analysis Sorting Distributing Storaging Radiating Cooling Radiated Apple - Chlorinated Packaging Cleaning water - NaOCl 30 ppm (pH 9,2) Dipping Slicing - Alcohol 70% - Trimming
  79. 79. Procedures Analysis Sorting Distributing Storaging Radiating Cooling Radiated Apple Packaging Cleaning Dipping Slicing - Low width - High surface - Convenience - Bulk density
  80. 80. Procedures Analysis Sorting Distributing Storaging Radiating Cooling Radiated Apple Packaging Cleaning - Browning Dipping Slicing - Discoloration - Firmness - vitamin C
  81. 81. Procedures Analysis Sorting Distributing Storaging Radiating Cooling Radiated Apple - Dirt Packaging Cleaning - Aesthetic- Communication - Polyolefin Dipping Slicing
  82. 82. Procedures Analysis Sorting Distributing Storaging Radiating Cooling - 1,6 Kgy Radiated Apple -4 C Packaging Cleaning Dipping Slicing
  83. 83. Procedures Analysis - Export Sorting - High-end - CAP Distributing Storaging Radiating Cooling Radiated Apple Packaging Cleaning Dipping Slicing
  84. 84. Procedures Analysis Materials/Processes Price (IDR) / kg end product“Rome Beauty” apple 12.000,00Sorting 200,00Storaging 500,00Cooling 500,00Cleaning and Sanitizing 225,00Slicing 310,00Dipping 15,00Packaging 50,00Radiation 800,00Distribution 2.000,00Margin (1 USD = 8500 IDR) 12.500,00 TOTAL (3.5 USD) ~ 29.100,00
  85. 85. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  86. 86. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  87. 87. Advantages of Radiation Microbial destruction Decrease ethylene production rate Stability of heat-labile compound Cost reduction by Cs-137 Exchange gain
  88. 88. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  89. 89. What’s inside?AppleCommon Problem in Marketing and DistributionRadiation TechnologyApplication of Radiation on AppleProcess StepsProcedures AnalysisAdvantages of RadiationDisadvantages of Radiation
  90. 90. Disadvantages of Radiation Nutrition loss Firmness decreasing Oxide forming Unable to destruct virus
  91. 91. Disadvantages of Radiation Long-term use uncertainty Domestic consumer rejection Decreasing field work Inapplicable for home industry
  92. 92. Thank You

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