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PDAs for Nursing Students: Technology at Your Fingertips


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A slideshow prepared for a class presentation on the use of PDAs in nursing schools. Data are presented for two surveys, one with students who were required to use PDAs and one with students who were not required to use PDAs.

Published in: Business, Health & Medicine
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PDAs for Nursing Students: Technology at Your Fingertips

  1. 1. PDAs for Nursing Students: Technology at Your Fingertips Stacy Garza Jerry Russell Rebecca Show Brenda Stalls Kelli Young
  2. 2. Identified Problem BCHS needs to continue being a leader in educating nursing students who have experience with the latest technologies that support the provision of evidence-based care for positive patient outcomes. Other schools of nursing require students to use PDAs in their undergraduate programs. We were interested in collecting information that could help BCHS administration & faculty decide whether to initiate a PDA requirement.
  3. 3. Triggers for the Study <ul><li>Students need fast access to a variety of information at the point of care </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Books & printed reference materials are out of date as quickly as they are printed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BCHS students are not keeping up with the competition </li></ul>
  4. 4. Significance to Nursing Practice <ul><li>PDAs are portable </li></ul><ul><li>PDAs are timesavers </li></ul><ul><li>PDAs promote evidence-based decision-making by providing reliable, trustworthy information </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of Required PDA Software <ul><li>Quick Drug References </li></ul><ul><li>Calculators </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary </li></ul>George, L. E., & Davidson, L. J. (2005). PDA use in nursing education: Prepared for today, poised for tomorrow. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics, 9 (2). Retrieved November 6, 2006, from
  6. 6. Quick Drug References <ul><li>Latest drug updates </li></ul><ul><li>Many free programs </li></ul><ul><li>Adult & pediatric dosages </li></ul><ul><li>ePocrates: >3,300 brand and generic drugs, including dosing, interactions, black box warnings, safety & monitoring, adverse reactions, & pricing </li></ul><ul><li>MultiCheck multiple-drug interaction checker </li></ul><ul><li>Replace outdated unit medication manuals </li></ul>ePocrates
  7. 7. Calculators <ul><li>Drug dosages </li></ul><ul><li>IV drip rates </li></ul><ul><li>Pediatric/adult conversions </li></ul><ul><li>BMI </li></ul><ul><li>Glasgow coma scale </li></ul><ul><li>Urine output </li></ul><ul><li>Mean arterial pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy calculator </li></ul><ul><li>And more! </li></ul>MedCalc
  8. 8. Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Laboratory, imaging, & microbiology tests </li></ul><ul><li>Unbound Medicine’s Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which test is best to diagnose, screen, or follow a certain condition? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do I interpret an abnormal diagnostic test? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do I collect the appropriate specimen or prepare the patient for testing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where can I find more information on this test in the medical literature? </li></ul></ul>Unbound Medicine
  9. 9. Clinical Reference <ul><li>Look up diseases & diagnoses </li></ul><ul><li>Differential diagnosis information </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended diagnostic tests </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Updated frequently with web resources </li></ul>Unbound Medicine
  10. 10. Dictionary <ul><li>Definitions of medical terms </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-links to other content in dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciations for some terms </li></ul>Unbound Medicine
  11. 11. Research Questions <ul><li>What are the attitudes, opinions, & experiences of BCHS and UTHSC senior nursing students about PDAs? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the attitudes, opinions, & experiences of the two groups compare? </li></ul><ul><li>We hoped to obtain data that could assist BCHS administration & faculty to identify the need for & recognize possible issues associated with instituting a PDA requirement for nursing students. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rationales for PDA Use in Nursing Schools <ul><li>The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, National League for Nursing, and the Institute of Medicine all recommend the incorporation of technology into the processes of nursing education. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Two distinct benefits: 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant access to a tremendous amount of clinical information in one small mobile device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain technical skills from using the devices that can be used throughout their careers </li></ul></ul>1 George, L. E., & Davidson, L. J. (2005). PDA use in nursing education: Prepared for today, poised for tomorrow. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics, 9 (2). Retrieved November 6, 2006, from 2 White, A., Allen, P., Goodwin, L., Breckinridge, D., Dowell, J., & Garvey, R. (2005). Infusing PDA technology into nursing education. Nurse Educator, 30 , 150-154.
  13. 13. How Schools Implement PDAs in Nursing Programs <ul><li>Selection of software & web-based programs most supportive of BSN program & clinical course objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation of students & faculty to PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of support services to students & faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of program </li></ul>Miller, J., Shaw-Kokot, J. R., Arnold, M. S., Boggin, T., Crowell, K. E., Allgri, F., et al. (2005). A study of personal digital assistants to enhance undergraduate clinical nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 44 , 19-26.
  14. 14. Examples of Schools Currently Using PDAs in Nursing Education
  15. 15. Other Benefits & Challenges of Using PDAs in Nursing Education Programs <ul><li>Anywhere/anytime use </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student-faculty time management in documenting clinical performance </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages timely recording of events from clinical setting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces paper use through wireless transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Complying with HIPAA regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting patient confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging consistent use by faculty & students </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting synchronization problems </li></ul><ul><li>Breakage or inoperable units </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring software beyond available freeware </li></ul>Benefits Challenges White, A., Allen, P., Goodwin, L., Breckinridge, D., Dowell, J., & Garvey, R. (2005). Infusing PDA technology into nursing education. Nurse Educator, 30 , 150-154.
  16. 16. Gaps Found in the Literature <ul><li>Sample sizes too small </li></ul><ul><li>Research needs to be broadened </li></ul><ul><li>More schools need to be included in research </li></ul><ul><li>Research needs to be more rigorous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most studies used surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most data based on personal opinions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Steps of the Research Project <ul><li>Used an exploratory/descriptive survey approach </li></ul><ul><li>Data to be used to provide the basis for BCHS to explore instituting a PDA requirement for nursing students </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of Surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain superficial information (breadth vs. depth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to clarify responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages of Surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain large amount of information from a variety of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily administered </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Survey Process & Sample <ul><li>Senior graduating class </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone asked to respond </li></ul><ul><li>All questions pertained to PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Yes/No, Likert-type scale, Open-ended </li></ul>BCHS N=35 n=30, 86% PDAs not required In-class survey UTHSC N=31 n=11, 35% PDAs required Online survey COMMONALITIES
  19. 19. Online Survey Process <ul><li>Online survey program </li></ul><ul><li>No-cost </li></ul><ul><li>UTHSC students commonly respond to surveys in this program </li></ul><ul><li>Survey okayed by the Director of the Professional Entry Program </li></ul><ul><li>Survey link distributed by the Assistant Director of the Professional Entry Program </li></ul><ul><li>UTHSC faculty member entered questions in program & printed off final results for our group </li></ul>My name is Jerry and I am a senior nursing student at Baptist College of Health Sciences. Like you, I will be graduating in December. I am in my last class and we are required to do a project. Our group decided to do a survey on PDAs in nursing school. I understand at UTHSC that you are required to purchase and use a PDA. Please take a few minutes to answer the few questions on our survey, located at . The survey is anonymous. If you would, please help out your fellow nursing students by responding no later than 8am Monday, November 20. Thank you so much, in advance, for your help.
  20. 20. Validity & Reliability Issues <ul><li>Diverse questions used because of the exploratory nature of the survey </li></ul><ul><li>Questions were worded differently because of the difference between the two groups </li></ul><ul><li>We primarily focused on taking steps to enhance the validity of our study, realizing this was an exploratory study whose results should be viewed as a first step </li></ul><ul><li>yes/no </li></ul><ul><li>Likert-type scale </li></ul><ul><li>open-ended </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think about this </li></ul><ul><li>versus </li></ul><ul><li>What was your experience </li></ul><ul><li>We enhanced the reliability of our study by using inter-rater reliability procedures </li></ul>Haber, J., & LoBiondo-Wood, G. (2006). Reliability and validity. In G. LoBiondo-Wood & J. Haber (Eds.), Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice (6 th ed., pp. 335-356). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
  21. 21. Validity <ul><li>Do the survey items adequately reflect the needed breadth of students’ opinions, attitudes, & experiences with PDAs? </li></ul><ul><li>Survey content determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewing literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consulting with faculty experts in use of PDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does the survey appear to appropriately explore opinions, attitudes, & experiences with PDAs in an understandable way? </li></ul><ul><li>Survey items reviewed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty experts in use of PDAs </li></ul></ul>Content Validity Face Validity
  22. 22. Inter-rater Reliability <ul><li>Independent analysis of answers to open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of our analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of rationales for coding where we disagreed </li></ul><ul><li>Arrive at consensus on the final coding </li></ul>
  23. 23. Survey Questions <ul><li>Costs of PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Learning about PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial effects of PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of PDA use on stress </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for future use </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages/Disadvantages of PDA </li></ul>BCHS UTHSC COMMONALITIES <ul><li>Likelihood of attending BCHS if PDA required </li></ul><ul><li>PDA ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Observations of PDA use </li></ul><ul><li>Other programs installed on PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage of PDA costs </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty encouragement </li></ul>
  24. 24. PDA Ownership <ul><li>Do you own a PDA? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes = 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No = 28 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use in clinical setting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes = 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No = 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did you own a PDA </li></ul><ul><li>before coming to UTHSC? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes = 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No = 10 </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Likelihood of Attending BCHS if PDA were Required
  26. 26. Type of Person Observed Using PDA in Clinical Setting 80% of respondents reported seeing others use PDAs in the clinical setting.
  27. 27. Learning About PDAs
  28. 28. Learning about PDAs
  29. 29. Advantages of PDA Use Responses: BCHS = 53 UTHSC = 39
  30. 30. Disadvantages of PDA Use Responses: BCHS = 39 UTHSC = 13
  31. 31. Required & Other Programs on PDA <ul><li>Mosby's 2006 Nursing Drug Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Mosby’s Nursing PDQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference (7th ed.). </li></ul><ul><li>Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (20th ed.). </li></ul><ul><li>Games (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Medication program (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Medical dictionary (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish-English dictionary (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Music (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures (1) </li></ul>Required Other
  32. 32. Perceptions of how Beneficial a PDA would have been in School
  33. 33. Benefits of PDAs
  34. 34. Perceptions of Effects of PDA use on Stress Levels
  35. 35. Maximum Amount to Pay for PDA Hardware & Software
  36. 36. Actual Cost of PDA
  37. 37. Additional Costs
  38. 38. Recommend PDA for Future Nursing Students
  39. 39. Implications for Nursing Education <ul><li>Coordinated effort to incorporate PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Involve students, faculty, library, information technology, & administration </li></ul><ul><li>Develop PDA hardware & software requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Design PDA training – variety of methods </li></ul><ul><li>Identify PDA support system </li></ul>
  40. 40. Implications for Nursing Practice <ul><li>All nurses on a unit use PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals provide PDA hardware, software, & docking stations </li></ul><ul><li>PDA training provided by hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>PDA support groups developed across units </li></ul><ul><li>Develop PDA competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Administrator, nurse, & patient satisfaction & perception of usefulness </li></ul>
  41. 41. Evaluation <ul><li>Does BCHS institute a PDA requirement? </li></ul><ul><li>Do faculty evaluations of students who use PDAs differ from those who do not? </li></ul><ul><li>Do student evaluations support the usefulness of PDAs? </li></ul><ul><li>Do students continue using PDAs after graduation? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Summary <ul><li>Embrace the future: PDAs are here to stay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several schools implementing PDA use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BCHS should explore implementing PDA use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conduct further research on PDA use </li></ul><ul><li>Our findings showed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most students would have attended BCHS even with PDA requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception & experience of stress levels with PDA use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other people observed using PDAs in clinical settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There needs to be support for PDA use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost & financial aid are considerations </li></ul></ul>