SFFMA Objectives• ___ A. Mop up ___ H. Suppression• ___ B. Direct Attack ___ I. Fire Behavior• ___ C. Indirect Attack __ J. Incident Commander• ___ D. Fuel __ K. Incendiary Fire• ___ E. Backfire/Burnout __ L. Mutual Aid• ___ F. Barrier _ M. Fire Season• ___ G. Topography __N. Convection column• __O. Wildland tools
SFFMA Basic Objectives (cont.)• Given a specific wildland situation, describe the effects of fuel, weather and topography on the wildland fire, and predict the direction and speed of the fire spread.
Parts of a Fire Spot Fire Right Flank Pocket Head Finger Anchor Point Island Rear OriginLeft Flank Anchor Point
Nomenclature of a Fire• HEAD: That part of the fire moving with the wind. Hottest part of the fire; usually first suppression priority.• ORIGIN: Spot where fire started.• REAR: Part of the fire backing against the wind; usually last suppression priority.
Nomenclature of a Fire• FLANK: right flank: hottest flank due to quartering effects of wind; second suppression priority.• FINGERS: long narrow strip of fire extending from main fire.• POCKETS: indentations in a fire edge formed by fingers or slow burning areas.
Nomenclature of a Fire• SPOT FIRE: Separate fire occurring out ahead of main fire. (Can be up to 1/2 mile)• ISLAND: Area of unburned fuel inside the fire.• PERIMETER: Outside boundary of the fire.
Terminology DIRECT ATTACK A series of related actions to cool, drown, smother, starve, beat out, or otherwise extinguish the flames of an on going fire. All control action is carried on directly against the fire edge.
Terminology INDIRECT ATTACK Control action conducted a variable distance from and usually parallel to the edge of a wildland fire in such a manner as to deprive the advancing fire of fuel and thereby halt its further progress.
Terminology FUEL The substance upon which the fire feeds. In the case of a wildland fire; it is the flammable materials in the forest or rangeland.
Terminology BACKFIREA fire set between themain fire and controlline or barrier toburnout any unburnedfuels between thewildfire and the controlline.
Terminology BARRIER Any obstruction; natural or man-made, to stop the spread of the fire, typically an area or strip devoid of flammable fuel
Terminology TOPOGRAPHY The physical features of the land surface, both natural and man-made. Examples; rivers, mountains, roads, swamps, rock outcrops, etc.
Terminology SUPPRESSION Any action taken to extinguish a wildfire.
Terminology FIRE BEHAVIOR The manner in which fuel ignites, flames develop, fire spreads and exhibits other phenomena. The combined effects of the fire’s environment on how the fire acts or behaves.
Terminology INCIDENT COMMANDER The person responsible for all suppression and service activities on a fire.
Terminology INCENDIARY FIRE A fire set deliberately by someone to burn property not owned or controlled without the consent of the owner or agent.
Terminology MUTUAL AID In fire fighting situations; two-way assistance freely given under prearranged plans or agreements by fire departments or agencies of two or more areas on the basis that each will aid the other in time of emergency, providing for joint or cooperative response to alarms near their boundaries.
Terminology FIRE SEASON The period or periods of the year during which fires are likely to occur, spread, and do sufficient damage to warrant organized fire control.
Terminology CONVECTION COLUMN The thermally produced ascending column of gases, smoke, and debris produced by a fire.
Terminology ANCHOR POINT Point from which a fire line begins. Usually a natural or manmade barrier that will prevent fire spread and the possibility of the crew being flanked while constructing the fire line. Examples: lakes, streams, roads, etc.
Terminology MOP UP The process of making a controlled fire safe by extinguishing all remnants of fire within a specified strip adjacent to the control line. On small fires, the entire burned area should be gone over. On larger fires, a definite strip, usually 100 ft. wide and adjacent to the control line, should be made safe.
Review Unit 1 Objectives Wildfire Terminology TEST
___ A. Mop up ___ H. Suppression ___ O. Wildland tools___ B. Direct Attack ___ I. Fire Behavior___ C. Indirect Attack ___ J. Incident Commander___ D. Fuel ___ K. Incendiary Fire___ E. Backfire/Burnout ___ L. Mutual Aid___ F. Barrier ___ M. Fire Season___ G. Topography ___ N. Convection column 1- Physical features of land, both natural and manmade, such as rivers, mountains, swamps, etc.2- Two way assistance freely given under prearranged plans and agreements by fire departments or agencies of two or more areason the basis that each will assist the other in times of emergency. 3- Any action taken to extinguish a fire.4- Bulldozer, booster truck, red line, 1 ¾” hose, brooms, pumps, ¾” hose, nozzles, foam, shovels, Mcleod, Pulaski, rake, chainsaw,drip torch. 5- Officer at the top of the chain of command and is in overall command of the incident.6- Any obstruction, natural or manmade, to stop the spread of the fire. Typically, it is a strip devoid of flammable fuel. 7- Last step in fire suppression. Process of making control line safe by removing or extinguishing all burning material near (generally within 100 ft) the edge of the burned area.8- Thermally produced ascending volume of gas, smoke and debris produced by a fire. 9- Fire set between the main fire and the control line or barrier to burn out any unburned fuels between the wildfire and the control line.10- Fire set deliberately to burn property not owned or controlled without the consent of the owner or agent. 11- Series of related actions to cool, drown, smother, beat out, starve, or otherwise extinguish the flames of an ongoing fire.12- Period or periods of the year during which fires are more likely to occur, spread or do sufficient damage to warrant organized firecontrol. 13- Controlled action conducted a variable distance from and usually parallel to the edge of a fire in such a manner as to deprive the advancing fire of fuel and thereby halting its progress.14- Substance upon which the fire feed. Flammable materials in the forest or rangeland. 15- Manner in which fuel ignites, flames develop, fire spreads, and exhibits other phenomenon. Combined effects of the fire environment or how the fire reacts.
7__ A. Mop up 3__ H. Suppression 4__ O. Wildland tools11_ B. Direct Attack 15_ I. Fire Behavior13_ C. Indirect Attack 5__ J. Incident Commander14_ D. Fuel 10_ K. Incendiary Fire9__ E. Backfire/Burnout 2__ L. Mutual Aid6__ F. Barrier 12_ M. Fire Season1__ G. Topography 8__ N. Convection column1- Physical features of land, both natural and manmade, such as rivers, mountains, swamps, etc.2- Two way assistance freely given under prearranged plans and agreements by fire departments or agencies of two ormore areas on the basis that each will assist the other in times of emergency.3- Any action taken to extinguish a fire.4- Bulldozer, booster truck, red line, 1 ¾” hose, brooms, pumps, ¾” hose, nozzles, foam, shovels, Mcleod, Pulaski, rake,chainsaw, drip torch.5- Officer at the top of the chain of command and is in overall command of the incident.6- Any obstruction, natural or manmade, to stop the spread of the fire. Typically, it is a strip devoid of flammable fuel.7- Last step in fire suppression. Process of making control line safe by removing or extinguishing all burning material near(generally within 100 ft) the edge of the burned area.8- Thermally produced ascending volume of gas, smoke and debris produced by a fire.9- Fire set between the main fire and the control line or barrier to burn out any unburned fuels between the wildfire and thecontrol line.10- Fire set deliberately to burn property not owned or controlled without the consent of the owner or agent.11- Series of related actions to cool, drown, smother, beat out, starve, or otherwise extinguish the flames of an ongoingfire.12- Period or periods of the year during which fires are more likely to occur, spread or do sufficient damage to warrantorganized fire control.13- Controlled action conducted a variable distance from and usually parallel to the edge of a fire in such a manner as todeprive the advancing fire of fuel and thereby halting its progress.14- Substance upon which the fire feed. Flammable materials in the forest or rangeland.15- Manner in which fuel ignites, flames develop, fire spreads, and exhibits other phenomenon. Combined effects of the fireenvironment or how the fire reacts.
Steep Slopes Cause Rapid Fire Spread Convection and Radiant Heat Flame is closer to fuel
Convection• Convection from a fire results in more oxygen available for the fire.• As heat and smoke rises, more air rushes in to fill the void.• During extreme burning periods this can cause wind speed increase.
Factors That Influence Ignition And Spread INFLUENCE ON A FIRE FUELS WEATHER TOPOGRAPHY
Fuels Influences• Fuel moisture: amount of water in a fuel• The more moisture in a fuel…the more heat is required to ignite it• Fuel size is a factor: smaller fuels burn quicker than larger fuels at the same moisture content.
Fuel ModelsFuel Model 1 - Short Grass“Light” or “Flashy” Fuel
Fuel Models Fuel Model 2Open Timber, Grass Understory
Fuel Models Fuel Model 13“Heavy” Logging Slash
Fuel Influences Volume or Quantity• How much fuel is burning or will burn is also important. The amount of fuel available to burn is usually referred to as volume or quantity• The more fuel to burn, the more intense the fire can be.
Weather Influences One of the most important factors affecting the behavior of a fire is Weather In fire control, we usually break weather into three parts. These are:• Temperature• Relative Humidity• Wind.
Weather Influences Temperature• The effect of temperature is important because fuels that are preheated by the sun burn more rapidly than cold fuels.• Air is also preheated… rising up during the day, cooling at night and reverse direction.
Weather Influences RELATIVE HUMIDITY• It is expressed in (%) It is the amount of moisture present in a parcel of air compared to the total amount the air could hold at that temperature.• As air is heated…the (RH) decreases.
Weather InfluencesDay Night• Higher winds • Lower winds• Lower humidity • Higher humidity• Higher temps • Lower temps• Fire harder To • Fire easier To suppress suppress.
Weather Influences Wind• Of all influences on a fire’s behavior, wind has the greatest influence on both the rate and direction of spread.
Weather InfluencesVisible Wind Indicators THUNDERSTORMS Gusty winds usually flow out from the edge of a thunderstorm and can reach speeds up to 70 mph. Changing direction and rate of spread of the fire.
Weather InfluencesVisible Wind IndicatorsSMOKE Can show wind speed and wind direction .
Topography Influences Where the fire is burning, the lay of the land is an important factor in the rate and direction of fire spread.
Topography InfluencesTopography is broken into (3) parts:• SLOPE- how steep it is• ASPECT- The direction it faces• TERRAIN- The local features of the land.
Topography Influences SLOPE• Greatest influence on fire spread.• Flames are closer to the fuels.• Wind currents are normally uphill.• Burning embers can roll down hill, setting new fires.
Topography Influences SLOPE Convective heat rises along the slope increasing ROS (rate of spread).
Topography Influences ASPECT• Direction a slope is facing whether: north, south, east or west.• Southern aspects receive more direct radiation from the sun, drying both the soil and vegetation.
Topography Influences ASPECT On South facing slopes, there will normally be:• Higher temperatures• Stronger winds• Lower humiditys• Lower fuel moistures
Topography Influences TERRAIN• Terrain is special land features or obstructions.• Wind will take the path of least resistance. Which can cause turbulence or eddies on the lee side of obstructions.• Critical areas are chutes and steep “v”s .
Unit 3 Objectives• Define size up.• Size up considerations while en-route.• Demonstrate the ability to scout a fire and list factors used in on-scene size up.
Unit 3 Objectives• Analyze the observations and conditions and determine suppression alternatives.• Develop a safe and efficient plan of action to suppress the wildfire.• Locate the approximate point of origin of the fire and plan for protection of that area.
Overall Size Up Process of gathering and evaluating all available information as it relates to a particular fire.
PREPAREDNESS PRIOR TO DISPATCH: PERSONNEL EQUIPMENT• Protective clothing • Sufficient fuel• Training • Hand Tools• Fitness • Radio• Drinking water • Maps
Size Up Before Dispatch• Weather observations• Current conditions---forecast conditions• Recent fire occurrence---behavior
On Scene or En-route Indicators• Dust devils• Smoke column• Clouds / Thunderstorms
While Enroute To Fire Think About?• Fuels and terrain• Access roads• Fire barriers• Ownership• History of fire area• Water sources• Mutual aid resources
After Sighting Smoke Column:• Check size, height, color, direction and shape.• Verify your expected behavior of fire relative to the forecast and the resulting smoke column.
Approaching Fire Area:• Look for alternate routes.• Look for suspicious people or cars coming from fire area---record license number, protect evidence.• Look for gates or breaks in fence to enter fire area.
Size Up: Size up is a continuous action and is constantly changing.
Arrival On Fire Scene• Look at the total fire picture• Size up the entire situation and determine the best method of attack.• Use ICS
Planning The AttackBased on:• Reconnaissance of the fire• The fire situation• The availability of personnel• Other expected personnel
Factors To Consider• Where to attack-Head, Flank, Rear• Method of attack- direct or indirect
Factors To Consider:• Size of fire.• Location of head--- be sure you know what’s in the path of fire.• Point of origin and cause---preserve evidence.• Time of day---can greatly affect fire behavior (now/future).
Factors To Consider:• Improvements and other values threatened.• Weather at fire---wind speed and direction variable or steady?• Behavior of fire---How fast is fire spreading? How high are flames? Is it spotting? How far? Is it hotter than usual?
Factors To Consider: Safety Factors: Placement of personnel. Identify line of retreat for personnel and equipment.
Factors To Consider:• Fuel---type and arrangement of fuel? How clean is fire burning fuels in path of fire?• Do the fuels change---and if so, how will they affect the fire?• Terrain or Topography---slope and aspect, natural barriers, access roads.
Factors To Consider• Estimate probable spread and behavior of fire.• Determine possible danger spots---fuel buildup, snags, bogs, brush piles, etc.• Brief personnel---do not scatter personnel. Use as a team• Preserve evidence.
Unit 4 Objectives• Illustrate the standards of direct and indirect fire line construction necessary to control smoldering (creeping), and fast-moving fires in light fuels.• Location of fire line placement in flat and rough terrain.
Unit 4 Objectives• Illustrate when to use direct and indirect methods of line construction.• List potential safety hazards involved in the use of the direct and indirect line building methods and precautions which should be taken in each case.
Parts of a Fire Spot Fire Right Flank Pocket Head Finger Anchor Point Island Rear OriginLeft Flank Anchor Point
Three basic wildland fire types Crown Fire burns in top of fuels Surface Fire burns low- lying fuels and ground litter. Ground Fire burns below ground. Usually caused by a surface fire. Wildland Firefighting 112
Types of Wildland Fires SURFACE Fire that burns away ground litter.
Types of Wildland Fires SURFACE WITH TORCHINGFire that burns awayground litter and may ormay not ignite individualtrees. Depends on ladderfuels.
Types of Wildland Fires GROUND Fire that burns below ground level, usually caused by a surface fire.
Fire Suppression Limitations : Flame Length• 4’ Fires can generally be attacked at the head or flank by persons using hand tools. Hand line should hold the fire.• 4’-8’ Fires are too intense for direct attack on the head by persons using hand tools. Hand line cannot be relied on to hold the fire.• 8’-11’ Fires may present a serious control problem; torching out, crowning and spotting. Control efforts at the head will probably be ineffective.• >11’ Crowning, spotting and major fire runs are probable. Control efforts at the head of the fire are ineffective.
Direct Attack Consists of a series of related direct actions to cool, drown, smother, beat out, starve, or otherwise extinguish the flames of an on going fire.
Conditions To Use Direct Attack• Fire is small• Light fuels• Ground fire• On flanks and rear of large fires• Where conditions allow working close to the fire
Standards of Line Construction• Penetrate to mineral soil.• Line of adequate width.• Line constructed directly on edge of fire.
Width of Fireline Will Vary With:• Weather conditions• Part of fire i.e. head, flank, rear• Size and intensity of fire• Equipment and fire fighters available.
Width of Fireline Will Vary With: • Slope and Aspect • Fuels • Topography.
Rule of Thumb Regarding Fire Line Width:• Fast moving fires • Slow moving fires• Head- 2x flame height • Head- 3-4 ft. Wide• Flank- 1x flame height • Flank- 6-8 inches. G TH L EN A ME FL FLAM E HEIGHT
STRIKE-Structure Defense• Set-upEngine and hose lines lines• S et-up: : Engine and hose• Takeaa look: Area, locate escape routes• T ake look: Area, locate escape routes and safety and safety zones zones• Reduce fuels: Ready the structure• R educe fuels: Ready the structure•• Inform your crew: safety, nearby resources I nform your crew: Plan, Plan, safety, nearby• resourcesfire down: Save the structure if possible K nock the•• Knock the fire down: Save the E xtinguish and check: Stay loose and conserve water structure if possible• Extinguish and check: Stay loose and conserve water P
Mobile Attack• Methods of attack – From the black. • Positioning the engine and personnel in the black and directing the water stream towards the green. This method is used when terrain, obstacles and fuel type allow. • Hazards are: residual heat from the flaming fire front and burning debris under the engine.
Mobile Attack– From the green • Placing the engine and personnel in the unburned fuel on the fire perimeter. Directing the water stream towards the black. • Hazards are: Unburned fuel between you and the fire and hazards such as rocks or holes hidden by the fuels.
Brush Truck Tactics Routine Mobile Attack• Establish an anchor point• Start at rear of fire and move up one flank• Suppress entire perimeter working towards the head Wildland Firefighting 133
Engine Placement• Always adhere to LCES during all fire operations.• Always keep in mind ingress and egress during engine pumping operations.
Water & Foam UseWater application: Effective application is the key to conserving water and using it effectively Timing of water application Wetting down with water Reducing the heat build-up Duration of the heat wave Peak heat wave tactics
Water Application Peak Heat Wave Tactics Do not waste water by spraying at a wall of flame during the peak of the heat and smoke Seek refuge in the shade of something that blocks intense radiant heat Wait until you have an opportunity to do some good with your water Use water when and where you have the advantage, not on fire that is burning at its peak intensity
Water Application Wetting Down w/ Water Wetting down is the application of water to fuel and structures before the fire arrives. Wetting down is usually a waste of time and water Wetting down takes large quantities of water, far out of proportion to the amount of fire it extinguishes In some instances, it can reduce ignitions
Saving Water with Brush Trucks Work during wind lulls Meet fire in lighter fuels if possible Spray water parallel to the control line Use over and underspray to control flames Use a half gaited nozzle to control amount of water consumption Wildland Firefighting 138
Direct Attack Using Foam• Place foam directly at the base of the flame.• Use foam to coat burning materials. Leave a foam blanket over hot fuels to continue wetting the fuels.• When attacking the fire edge, also apply foam onto adjacent unburned fuels.
Indirect Attack Control action conducted a variable distance from and usually parallel to the edge of a fire in such a manner as to deprive the advancing fire of fuel and thereby halting its progress.
Conditions To Use Indirect Attack• When burning intensity, rate of spread and working conditions are too extreme.• Generally when flame length > 8 ft• Insufficient number of fire fighters.• Where good natural barriers exist.• On fast spreading/ hot fires.• To straighten the fire lines.
When to use Indirect Attack• Establish lines in lighter fuels, if possible• Make lines as straight as possible• Try to keep heavy fuels outside the control line• Make use of natural barriers.
Indirect Attack-• Clean line to mineral soil• Patrol established lines• Burnout when needed• Establish periodic rest breaks.
Brush Truck Tactics Hot Head Fire– Attack fire from rear (Anchor point)– Extinguish fire counter-clockwise or run two crews simultaneously up each flank ensuring that the crews run at the same speed– Mop-up entire perimeter Wildland Firefighting 145
Brush Truck Tactics Heavy fuels• Look for barriers – Establish an anchor point – Use hot head fire tactics Wildland Firefighting 146
Using Water with Brush TrucksDO: Think about spray vs. straight stream Work parallel to fire line Get in as close as safely possibleDON’T: Drag hose Run over hose Wildland Firefighting 147
Downwind Indirect Flank Attack• If there is no overriding priorities Convection of Main Fire Draws the attack right flank first. “Counter-Fire” In From Fireline• Right flank is usually the hottest flank. Indraft Safety Zone Created “In-the-Black” by Burnout
Indirect Attack---Don’t• Over extend yourself• Set unwatched backfires• Construct lines adjacent to tall fuels• Take unnecessary chances with fire fighters and equipment.
Fireline Construction Guidelines• Use the easiest route• Take advantage of light fuels• Take advantage of any natural barriers• Avoid sharp angles in the control line.
WHAT IS MOP-UP? DIGUSTINGDIRTY VERY IMPORTANTMISERABLE JUST PLAIN NO FUN
Mop Up Definition• Process of making a controlled line safe by removing or extinguishing all burning material along or near the perimeter edge of the burned area.• Comparable to Overhaul in structural fire fighting,
Mop Up Principles• On small fires: mop up entire burn• On large fires: mop up within 100 feet of fire line- variable with weather and fuel conditions• Cover stumps, logs and debris with dirt.
Mop Up Principles Cont.• Clear all flammable material down to the mineral soil• Do not bury burning fuels
Standards For Declaring Fire Controlled• Check outside the fire perimeter for spot fires• Inside perimeter check to see: no unburned patches of fuel are left, all fire is out of stumps and logs, and fire is mopped up and checked the next morning.
Mop Up Duration• Continue Mop Up Until Incident Commander Says It’s Safe!
Incident Commander WillDeclare Fire Controlled!!
Proper PPE• Structure Fire Gear is not suitable for an extended Wildland Fire incident.• SCBA is not normally used.• Emphasize eye and head protection
Safe Hand Tool Practices• DO: Keep cutting edges sharp Keep handles tight Keep tools clean and rust-proofed Store tools neatly Carry sharp edged tools by your side Keep 10 -12 ft distance between firefighters working with tools. Wildland Firefighting 172
Safe Hand Tool Practices• DON’T: Lean on tools Carry pump by hose Use tools for any non-fire purpose Throw tools around Allow tools to lie around Work beyond your endurance. Wildland Firefighting 173
Safe Brush Truck Practices• Be alert for stumps, rocks and other debris.• Don’t take your vehicle where hand crews are better.• Attack a head fire from inside the burn in light fuels.• If you run out of water - use hand tools until you are re-supplied or until the fire passes you by.REMEMBER TO STAY IN THE BLACK ANYTIME POSSIBLE!!!! Wildland Firefighting 174
STANDARD FIREFIGHTING ORDERS1. Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecast.2. Know what your fire is doing at all times.3. Base all actions on current and expected behavior of the fire.4. Identify escape routes and safety zones, and make them known.
STANDARD FIREFIGHTING ORDERS5. Post lookouts when there is possible danger.6. Be alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act decisively.7. Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor and adjoining forces.
STANDARD FIREFIGHTING ORDERS8. Give clear instructions and insure they are understood.9. Maintain control of your forces at all times.10.Fight fire aggressively, having provided for safety first.
LCES• Lookouts• Communication• Escape Routes• Safety Zones
SFFMA Basic Objective• Given a specific wildland situation, describe the effects of fuel, weather and topography on the wildland fire, and predict the direction and speed of the fire spread.• Size up, develop incident action plan, and type of attack
Fuel type 1-3 Short to medium Grass Fire area upon arrival-5 acresWeather Conditions:90 degreesWind-Southeast 15-20 mphRelative humidity-55%Cold front predictedarriving within 1 hour,West-Northwest winds- 20-25mphResources AvailableE-10, E-2B-1, B2, B4, CyCreek B22D-3SQ-1, SQ-2