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# Memory 2010

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### Memory 2010

1. 1. You have 30 seconds to remember as many symbols ON THE NEXT SLIDE as possible READY???
2. 2. You have 30 seconds to remember as many symbols as possible 1 = 5 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 = 9 =
3. 3. Now write down as many as you can 1 = 5 = 9 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 =
4. 4. How many did you get right??? 1 = 5 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 = 9 =
5. 5. This time I will give you five seconds to remember them all... 1 = 5 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 = 9 =
6. 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
7. 7. 1 = 5 = 9 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 =
8. 8.  In groups 1. How would you define memory? 2. Is there anything that you do that does not rely on memory? 3. What would your day be like if you had no memory? 4. Could you learn if you could not remember? 5. Could you remember if you were unable to learn?
9. 9. Memory is learning that has persisted over time. Memory is an active system that enables us to acquire, store and retrieve information.
10. 10. 1st Process Encoding: Converting information into a useable form 2nd Process Storage: Holding this information in memory for later use 3rd Process Retrieval: Finding the information and retrieving out of storage
11. 11.  In groups - consider learning for a test 1. What factors influence your ability to encode memories? 2. What factors may influence your ability to store memories? 3. What factors may influence your ability to retrieve memories?
12. 12. Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Attendedto Encoded andstored Not attended to Forgotten if not rehearsed or encoded Interference
13. 13.  Stores an exact copy of incoming information for a few seconds or less; the first stage of memory.  Eg taste, feeling, smell, sight, sound etc  Depends upon selective attention.
14. 14.  Iconic: A fleeting mental image or visual representation .  This mental image persists for about 1/3rd of a second.
15. 15.  George Sperling - 1960s.  Using a tachistoscope, Sperling showed his test subjects letters arranged to form a box shape, three letters tall and four letters across.
16. 16.  The tachistoscope, invented in 1859 and used to increase memory or reading speed, is a projector apparatus that flashes images on a screen for only a fraction of a second.  http://sandfly.net.nz/apps/wordup/
17. 17.  Sperling recorded how many blocked letters subjects could read during the visual flash. Generally, participants could read three or four letters during the iconic memory test.
18. 18. Sperling’s results:  Iconic store is transient, decaying to less than 50% of peak performance within one second.  All items in the array are placed in the iconic store.
19. 19. Iconic memory Test http://playwithyourmind.com/memory- workout-program/iconic-memory-game/
20. 20. Why study Iconic Memory?
21. 21.  Echoic: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system.  Lasts for 2-4 seconds.  Helps us understand speech.
22. 22.  Echoic memory is dramatically lower after 2 seconds, and disappears by 5 seconds.
23. 23.  Holds small amounts of information briefly  Effectively retained for about 6s, declines after 12, gone after 20s  Often called “working memory”
24. 24. Google: short term memory test http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stm0. html
25. 25.  Write a hypothesis  Conduct the experiment and collect the data  Describe any uncontrolled variables  Describe any ethical considerations that would need to be taken into account if this was conducted as a formal experiment using participants
26. 26. Short-term memory is characterised by its limited capacity and quick loss of information. In a test of capacity, such as a digit span task, it can hold only approximately seven (+ or - 2) items.
27. 27.  You can increase the amount of information stored in the STM by using chunking.  Eg Remember 18952012
28. 28.  Remember 1895 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDbAYMU XpcA
29. 29.  Why is some information in short-term memory lost and can only be held in storage for a short time?
30. 30.  Information in short-term memory is lost quickly; it can only be held in storage for a short time.
31. 31.  1. Decay - information is slowly lost, (memories fade away over time).  2. Interference, the information pushes memories out of the short-term storage. Two types of interference: proactive and retroactive.
32. 32. Proactive Interference:  Older memories make it more difficult to encode new ones.  Eg I have trouble recalling my new phone number, because I get it mixed up with my old number. (My old memories project (interfere) with my new memories. )  A student finds a new concept to be hard to understand because she confuses it with similar ideas she has already learned.
33. 33. Retroactive Interference:  New memories disrupt and "push out" older memories.  I have trouble recalling my old phone number, because I get it mixed up with my new number.  A student understood a concept two weeks ago, but can no longer discuss the concept correctly, because he confuses it with a new concept he studied yesterday.
34. 34.  Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM  Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM  Good way to transfer STM information into LTM
36. 36.  Storing information relatively permanently  Stored on basis of meaning and importance  After a test how much information do you remember – a) After 5 minutes? b) After 5 hours? c) After 5 days?
37. 37. Forgetting curve
38. 38. The stronger the memory, the longer period of time that a person is able to recall it. The forgetting curve shows that humans tend to halve their memory of newly learned knowledge in a matter of days or weeks unless they consciously review the learned material.
39. 39.  Learning again something that was previously learned  Used to measure memory of prior learning  Savings Score: Amount of time saved when relearning information
40. 40. 1. Procedural: Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills –eg playing the piano, driving, sending an SMS list 3 more
41. 41. 2. Declarative: LTM section that contains factual information. a. Semantic Memory: Facts and everyday knowledge- Melbourne is the capital of Victoria b. Episodic: Personal experiences linked with specific times and places – Remembering your holiday to Melbourne
42. 42.  Supply or reproduce facts or information with a minimum of external cues; direct retrieval of facts or information  Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list; known as Serial Position Effect  Easiest to remember last items in a list because they are still in STM
44. 44. Recency Effect - Easiest to remember last items in a list because they are still in STM Primacy effect – Next easiest is to remember items at the beginning of the list Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list;
45. 45.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vsYCSmBc M0  A mnemonic device is a mind memory and/or learning aid. Commonly, mnemonics are verbal—such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember something—but may be visual, kinesthetic or auditory.
46. 46.  Use mental pictures  Make things meaningful  Make information familiar  Form bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental associations  Keyword Method: Memory aid; using a familiar word or image to link two items
47. 47.  Form a Story or Chain: Remember lists in order, forming an exaggerated association connecting item one to two, and so on  Take a Mental Walk: Mentally walk along a familiar path, placing objects or ideas along the path  Use a system
49. 49.  Very persuasive in court Often faulty due to  High arousal levels  Lack of attentional focus  LTM can alter memories (eg false memories)
50. 50.  Police line-up evidence tainted due to  Witness being “led” by police  Witness eagerness to please police  The false belief that the perpertrator is present in the line-up.
51. 51.  Bomber on the roof http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7EpYl KaBM8  Line-up http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZPOHI ndSVQ&feature=related
52. 52. The theory that information stored in LTM sometimes changes over time to become more consistent with our beliefs, knowledge, and expectations. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzbRpMlEHzM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bfhIuaD183I
53. 53.  False memories (confabulations) are as “real” as real memories.  Some memories may be distorted through influences such as the incorporation of new information.
54. 54.  some are the result of the prodding, leading, and suggestions of therapists and counselors.  Some are the result of brain damage or lesions – (Korsakoff's syndrome)
55. 55.  Dr. Elizabeth Loftus has shown it is relatively easy to implant false memories, especially in an individual with an internal desire to please or to conform. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQr_IJvYzbA Wrongful conviction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QtEZYJRq7s
56. 56.  Memories created during times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant events that are especially vivid  Where were you when you heard that the USA was attacked on September 11th, 2001?  Includes both positive and negative events  Not always accurate  Great confidence is placed in them even though they may be inaccurate