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This presentation is part of a Master's course on Computer Assisted Language Learning at Victoria University of Wellington

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  2. 2. What bridges? Digital immigrants  Digital Natives (Prensky 2001) Teaching styles  Learning styles (Becker Formal learning 2006) Surface Learning  Informal learning Extrinsic motivation  Deep learning Direct instruction  Intrinsic motivation Linear modes  Inductive teaching style  Inclusive, collaborative modes No single theory, different ways of learning & teaching
  3. 3. In a nutshell (Jonnassen, Wilson & grabinger, 1993) Behaviourist game design Constructivist game design No extraneous information  Natural complexity and content of language Simplifies comprehensibility  Avoids oversimplification Reconstructs/replicates knowledge  Present multiple representation / Abstracts instruction perspectives experience  Real world contexts Focuses on acquiring skills  Engages reflective Prescriptive sequences of practice instruction  Offer open learning Supports individual learning environments
  4. 4. The situated perspective tenets Knowledge not an object, memory not a location Social interaction and negotiation in new situations Learning happens in authentic contexts Bridges the artificiality of classroom learning to real-life situations Knowledge construction through participation In given communities with specific  Culture, Language (jargon included) & Tools
  5. 5. MUVEs & MMORPGS  Multi-User Virtual Environments  Massive Multi-user Online Role Play Games  Add the 3d Component (≠ 2D – cards, chess)  Users evolve through an avatar (presence)  Interact with the environment & often with otherMUVEs avatars MMORPGsFreedom Objectives, rules and rewardsSocial (Special Interest Groups = Competitive (individual, teams, guilds)SIGs)Creative  Creative Communities of Practice
  6. 6. Some MMORPGs used in Edu MinecraftEdu widely used in primary, secondary SecondLife soft and hard sciences WoW Both Secondary & Higher Ed Atlantis Remixed 9-16 y-o Civilization V
  7. 7. Gee’s Affordances (foreword in Reinders2012)A good game design include: Well-ordered problems Tools (and other players) to solve problems Learning by negotiating, building, sharing, Copious feedback to prepare for next stages, higher level Next stages have new challenges (ZPD – cycle of expertise) Playing & Learning through social interaction and mentoring Two way narratives Reach standards in different ways Easy design so gamers can become designers(See Jonassen 1994)
  8. 8. Challenges for educators Opportunity or disruption? – mechanics of gameplay Learning to play versus learning language Requirements (hardware and human resources, time) Institutional buy-in Curriculum Integration (alignment goals- assessment)  feedback, on-going assessment, formative vs summative Needs more research & practice, check livebinders See Stephen Thorne’s IATEFL 2012 Keynote Read this post of teacher of German using WoW
  9. 9. Further Readings: Becker, K., (2006) Games and Learning Styles, Academia.Edu [online] Brown, J.S., Collins, A. & Duguid, S. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. Jonassen, D.H., Wilson, B.G., Wang, S., & Grabinger, R.S. (1993). Constructivist uses of expert systems to support learning. Journal of Computer- Based Instruction, 20(3), 86-94. Kkorthagen F.A.J., (2010) Situate Learning Theory and the Pedagogy of Teacher Education: Towards an integrative View of Teacher Behaviour and Teacher Learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26 (pp98-106) [online] Lave, J., & Wenger, E., (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Prensky M.,(2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, MCB University Press, Vol. 9 No. 5, October 2001 Reeve J. K. (2010) . Constructivism and Its Application to Game-Based Learning [online] Reinders, H. (2012) Digital Games in Language Learning and Teaching, New Language Learning & Teaching Environments. Basingtoke, England: Palgrave MacMillan Young, F. Y. (1993). Instructional Design for Situated Learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 41 (1), 43-57.
  10. 10. Second Life Platform 3d MUVE, not a game Role Play is more than half of users’ activities Artists also promote their work Learning Higher Ed for simulation Language learning - CoPs & Slanguages symposium  Edunation, Virtlantis, Cypris Chat, Instituto español, etc  Simulation, explorations and treasure hunts  French FL and VUW language program
  11. 11. VUW languages – Aims ofproject
  12. 12. Pedagogical principles
  13. 13. Various Activities – levels ofcompetence  Explorations, interviews, treasure hunts,  Set lessons directed by the course outline
  14. 14. Student Impressions (survey)
  15. 15. Recommendations
  16. 16. Questions ?