Stem Cell Power


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Stem Cell Power

  1. 1. Dr. Danny Kainer & Anitha Iyer
  2. 2. What are stem cells and why are they important?  Stem cells have the potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth.  in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system
  3. 3. What is a stem cell? Identical stem cells Stem cell SELF- RENEWAL (copying) Stem cell Specialized cells DIFFERENTIATION (specializing)
  4. 4. Properties of stem cells they are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods they are unspecialized they can give rise to specialized cell types.
  5. 5. Where are stem cells found? embryonic stem cells blastocyst - a very early embryo adult stem cells fetus, baby and throughout life
  6. 6. A few terms……  Potency: A measure of how many types of specialized cells a stem cell can make  Totipotent: Each cell can develop into a new individual Ex. Cells from early (1-3 days) embryos  Pluripotent: Can make all types of specialized cells in the body. Ex. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent  Multipotent: Can make multiple types of specialized cells, but not all types Ex. Adult stem cells are multipotent
  7. 7. Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Where we find them blastocyst outer layer of cells = ‘trophectoderm’ cells inside = ‘inner cell mass’ embryonic stem cells taken from the inner cell mass culture in the lab to grow more cells fluid with nutrients
  8. 8. Embryonic stem (ES) cells: What they can do embryonic stem cells PLURIPOTENT all possible types of specialized cells differentiation
  9. 9. neuron s Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges embryonic stem cells skin blood live r?
  10. 10. Adult stem cells: Where we find them muscles skin surface of the eye brain breast intestines (gut) testicles bone marrow
  11. 11. Tissue stem cells: What they can do
  12. 12. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) cell from the body ‘genetic reprogramming’ = add certain genes to the cell induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell Advantage: no need for embryos! all possible types of specialized cells culture iPS cells in the lab differentiation
  13. 13. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) cell from the body (skin) genetic reprograming pluripotent stem cell (iPS) differentiation
  14. 14. Potential uses of human stem cells
  15. 15. Experimental model system Heart muscle cells beating in a petri dish! ogram=746 1:37 – 2:43 Videos by the Exploratorium
  16. 16. Bone marrow transplant: Example of adult stem cell-based therapy
  17. 17. Human trials:  The FDA approved the first clinical trial involving human embryonic stem cells on January 23, 2009. Geron Corporation - spinal cord injuries  In 2010 Stargardt’s Macular Dystrophy and Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration  In 2013 Severe myopia
  18. 18. Stem cells & Parkinson’s Stem cells and ALS  Astrocytes in the spinal cord. Year 3 toward human trial Stem cells and Arthritis oint_replacement