Introduction to Biotech


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Introduction to Biotech

  1. 1. Biotechnology<br />A Rapidly-Developing Industry<br />
  2. 2. What is Biotechnology & What Does it Mean to You?<br />
  3. 3. What is Biotechnology?<br />Standard Definition:<br />technology that uses living organisms (or their products) for human or environmental benefit, to make a product, or to solve a problem<br />
  4. 4. Biotechnology has a long history<br />Humans have been using organisms for benefits for centuries<br />Examples:<br />Domestication of animals<br />Fermentation: some yeast break down sugars and produce alcohol/CO2<br />Selective breeding of plants/animals<br />Gene cloning<br />Genetic engineering & recombinant DNA technology<br />Human Genome Project<br />Human Proteome Project<br />
  5. 5. Biotechnology is an Interdisciplinary Industry<br />Biotech companies are always looking for people with training in:<br />Molecular biology<br />Computer science<br />Mathematics<br />Engineering<br />Philosophy<br />Economics<br />Bioinformatics: application of computer science to study DNA & protein data<br />Etc.<br />
  6. 6. What Types of Biotechnology are There?<br />Your subtopic goes here<br />
  7. 7. Microbial Biotechnology <br />Photo Courtesy of ASM MicrobeLibray<br />Yeast used for fermentation<br />Bacterially-derived components can:<br />Help leach oil & minerals from the soil to increase mining efficiency<br />Decontaminate industrial waste<br />Genetically-engineered bacteria can:<br />Produce batch amounts of medically important proteins like insulin & HGH<br />
  8. 8. Agricultural Biotechnology<br />Photo Courtesy of<br />Plants can be genetically engineered to become resistant to:<br />Pests<br />Severe weather<br />Molecular pharming: use of plants as sources of pharmaceutical products<br />Produce with new characteristics, such as enhanced flavor or vitamin content, can be developed via genetic engineering<br />
  9. 9. Animal Biotechnology<br />Photos Courtesy of the Roslin Institute & the University of Arizona<br />Animals can be used as sources of antibodies for therapeutic or research purposes<br />Transgenic animals can produce various therapeutic protens in body fluids (e.g., milk)<br />Knock-outexperiments reveal information concerning gene function<br />Animal cloning has been carried out and is controversial<br />
  10. 10. Forensic Biotechnology<br />Picture Courtesy of <br />Santa Monica College<br />DNA fingerprinting is a powerful technique for gathering evidence concerning crime scenes, paternity cases, and genetic research<br />
  11. 11. Bioremediation<br />Picture Courtesy of <br />Alken-Murray Corp.<br />Bioremediation: use of biotech to process & degrade substances that pose environmental threats<br />Example: genetically-engineered bacteria broke down components in crude oil and cleaned up areas affected by Exxon Valdez oil spill (Prince William Sound, Alaska)<br />
  12. 12. Bioremediation<br />
  13. 13. Aquatic Biotechnology<br />Photos Courtesy of <br />The Marine ScienceInstitute<br />Aquaculture can be used to replenish endangered and over-harvested species (giant clams, sea urchins…)<br />Genetically-engineered oysters<br />Disease-resistant strains which resist salmon-infecting viruses<br />Vaccines against such viruses<br />Transgenic fish w/enhanced GH production<br />Aquatic extremophile gene products<br />
  14. 14. Medical Biotechnology<br />Gene discovery (HGP)<br />Gene therapy pioneering<br />Stem cell technologies<br />
  15. 15. Regulatory Biotechnology<br />Quality Assurance (QA) - All activities involved in regulating the final quality of a product<br />Quality Control (QC) - lab testing and monitoring of production processes to ensure consistent product standards (part of QA)<br />
  16. 16. Biological Challenges of the 21st Century<br />Your subtopic goes here<br />
  17. 17. What to do with the HGP?<br />We now know that humans have ~20,000-30,000 genes<br />Genomics provides insights into the function/regulation of genes, how genes direct cell activities, & how altered genes function in disease<br />Proteomics will be the next logical frontier<br />Comparative genomics will give insight into evolution & taxonomy<br />
  18. 18. How might we benefit from the HGP?<br />Early detection & diagnosis of genetic abnormalities<br />Customized drug regiments for individual genomes<br />Application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and correlation with disease states<br />DNA microarray (gene chip) – contains thousands of gene sequences; can be used to ID SNPs in particular patients<br />Pharmacogenomics = “customizable medicine” for both an individual’s physiology & specific types of tumors<br />Gene therapy – the replacement or augmentation of a defective gene<br />Stem cell technologies & regenerative medicine – work is progressing with both ES cells and AS cells<br />
  19. 19. The Biotechnology Workforce<br />Jobs in Biotechnology<br />
  20. 20. Research & Development (R&D)<br />Laboratory technicians – clean & maintain scientific equipment & lab inventory – A.S., B.A., B.S. Degrees<br />Research assistants/associates – carry out experiments under supervision of senior scientists – B.S. or M.S.<br />Senior Scientists – manage large scientific projects – Ph.D. & post- doctoral experience<br />
  21. 21. Manufacturing & Production<br />Job details are typically company- or product-specific<br />Entry-level jobs are plentiful<br />Supervisory/management jobs usually require B.S./M.S. in a science and several years of experience<br />Engineers are highly sought after by biotech manufacturing and production companies<br />
  22. 22. Marketing & Sales<br />Academic training in both science and business are ideal<br />Sales reps work with medical personnel to promote their company’s products<br />Marketing specialists develop advertising campaigns and promotional material<br />