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Mr. Hunter Ch. 8


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Mr. Hunter Ch. 8

  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  2. 2. Learning  Learning  relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
  3. 3. Association We learn by association  Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence  Aristotle 2000 years ago  John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago Associative Learning  learning that two events occur together  two stimuli  a response and its consequences
  4. 4. Association Event 1 Event 2  Learning to associate two events Sea snail associates splash with a tail shockSeal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
  5. 5. Classical or PavlovianConditioning  We learn to associate two stimuli
  6. 6. Operant Conditioning  We learn to associate a response and its consequence
  7. 7. ClassicalConditioning  Ivan Pavlov  1849-1936  Russian physician/ neurophysiologist  Nobel Prize in 1904  studied digestive secretions
  8. 8. Pavlov’s ClassicExperiment Before ConditioningUCS (foodin mouth) Neutral UCR stimulus No (salivation) (tone) salivation During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral CS stimulus UCR (tone) (tone) (salivation) CR (salivation)
  9. 9. ClassicalConditioning  Pavlov’s device for recording salivation
  10. 10. ClassicalConditioning Classical Conditioning  organism comes to associate two stimuli  a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
  11. 11. Behaviorism  John B. Watson  viewed psychology as objective science  generally agreed-upon consensus today  recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes  not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
  12. 12. ClassicalConditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)  stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR)  unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus  salivation when food is in the mouth
  13. 13. ClassicalConditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR)  learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
  14. 14. ClassicalConditioning Acquisition  the initial stage in classical conditioning  the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response  in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
  15. 15. ClassicalConditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual CS arousal) (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal)
  16. 16. ClassicalConditioning  Extinction  diminishing of a CR  in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS  in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
  17. 17. ClassicalConditioning Acquisition Strength (CS+UCS) of CR Spontaneous Extinction recovery of (CS alone) CR Extinction (CS alone) Pause
  18. 18. ClassicalConditioning  Spontaneous Recovery  reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR  Generalization  tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
  19. 19. ClassicalConditioning  Discrimination  in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
  20. 20. GeneralizationDrops of saliva 60in 30 seconds 50 40 30 20 10 Hind Pelvis Shoulder Front 0 paw paw Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated
  21. 21. Nausea Conditioning inCancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea)
  22. 22. Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning  type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect  Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  23. 23. Operant Conditioning  Operant Behavior  operates (acts) on environment  produces consequences  Respondent Behavior  occurs as an automatic response to stimulus  behavior learned through classical conditioning
  24. 24. Operant Conditioning  B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)  elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect  developed behavioral technology
  25. 25. Operant Chamber  Skinner Box  chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer  contains devices to record responses
  26. 26. Operant Conditioning  Reinforcer  any event that strengthens the behavior it follows  Shaping  operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
  27. 27. Operant Conditioning
  28. 28. Principles ofReinforcement  Primary Reinforcer  innately reinforcing stimulus  i.e., satisfies a biological need  Conditioned Reinforcer  stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer  secondary reinforcer
  29. 29. Schedules ofReinforcement Continuous Reinforcement  reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement  reinforcing a response only part of the time  results in slower acquisition  greater resistance to extinction
  30. 30. Schedules ofReinforcement  Fixed Ratio (FR)  reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses  faster you respond the more rewards you get  different ratios  very high rate of responding  like piecework pay
  31. 31. Schedules ofReinforcement  Variable Ratio (VR)  reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses  average ratios  like gambling, fishing  very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
  32. 32. Schedules ofReinforcement  Fixed Interval (FI)  reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed  response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
  33. 33. Schedules ofReinforcement  Variable Interval (VI)  reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals  produces slow steady responding  like pop quiz
  34. 34. Schedules of ReinforcementNumber ofresponses Fixed Ratio 1000 Variable Ratio 750 Fixed Interval Rapid responding near time for 500 reinforcement Variable Interval 250 Steady responding 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (minutes)
  35. 35. Punishment  Punishment  aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows  powerful controller of unwanted behavior
  36. 36. Punishment
  37. 37. Cognition andOperant Conditioning Cognitive Map  mental representation of the layout of one’s environment  Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent Learning  learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  38. 38. Latent Learning
  39. 39. Cognition andOperant Conditioning Overjustification Effect  the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do  the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
  40. 40. Cognition andOperant Conditioning Intrinsic Motivation  Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Extrinsic Motivation  Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
  41. 41. Operant vs ClassicalConditioning
  42. 42. ObservationalLearning Observational Learning  learning by observing others Modeling  process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Prosocial Behavior  positive, constructive, helpful behavior  opposite of antisocial behavior
  43. 43. ObservationalLearning Mirror Neurons  frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so  may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy