Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
The Need forPsychological SciencePsychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses
The Need forPsychological Science Hindsight Bias we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon Overconfidence we tend to think we know more than we do
The Need forPsychological Science Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions examines assumptions discerns hiddenThe Amazing Randi--Skeptic values
The Need forPsychological Science Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations Hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory
The Need forPsychological Science Operational Definition a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables Example- intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
The Need forPsychological Science Replication repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances usually with different participants in different situations
DescriptionPsychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation
DescriptionCase Study Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all Is language uniquely human?
Description Survey technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Description False Consensus Effect tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors Population all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Description If marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count them
Description Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation Correlation Coefficient a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Correlation r = +.37 coefficient Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00)
Correlation Scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation little scatter indicates high correlation also called a scattergram or scatter diagram
CorrelationPerfect positive No relationship (0.00) Perfect negativecorrelation (+1.00) correlation (-1.00)Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations
CorrelationThree Possible Cause-Effect Relationships could cause (1) Depression Low self-esteem or (2) could cause Low self-esteem Depression or Low self-esteem (3)Distressing events could cause and or biological predisposition Depression
Illusory Correlation Illusory Conceive Do not conceive Correlation confirming evidence disconfirming evidence the perception Adopt of a relationship disconfirming confirming where none Do not evidence evidence exists adopt
Two RandomSequences Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.
Experimentation Experiment an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors
Experimentation Placebo an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent Double-blind Procedure both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
Experimentation Experimental Condition the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable Control Condition the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Experimentation Random Assignment assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups
Experimentation Independent Variable the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied Dependent Variable the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process
Research Strategies Subliminal tape content Self-esteem Memory Design of theTape label subliminalSelf-esteem tapes experiment Memory
Statistical Reasoning 100%Percentagestill functioning 99after 10 years 98 97 96 95 Our Brand Brand Brand Brand X Y Z Brand of truck
Statistical Reasoning 100%Percentage 90still functioning 80after 10 years 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Our Brand Brand Brand Brand X Y Z Brand of truck
Statistical Reasoning Mode the most frequently occurring score in a distribution Mean the arithmetic average of a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores Median the middle score in a distribution half the scores are above it and half are below it
Statistical Reasoning A Skewed Distribution15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 90 475 710 70 Mode Median MeanOne Family Income per family in thousands of dollars
Statistical Reasoning Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean Statistical Significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Frequently Asked Questionsabout Psychology Does behavior depend on ones culture? Culture--the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Frequently Asked Questionsabout Psychology Does behavior vary with gender?
Frequently Asked Questionsabout Psychology Why do psychologists study animals? Is it ethical to experiment on animals? Is it ethical to experiment on people?