Persuasive Psychology for Interactive Design

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The Per­sua­sive Com­mu­ni­ca­tion Model offers a con­ve­nient sys­tem that you can use to design mobile appli­ca­tions, web­sites, or social media cam­paigns. You can use the model when you are devel­op­ing new prod­ucts, try­ing to improve old ones, or seek­ing to iden­tify the suc­cess prin­ci­ples that lay behind your com­peti­tors’ products.

When design­ing new tech­nolo­gies or fix­ing old ones, the model pro­vides a check­list of per­sua­sion prin­ci­ples that you can use to com­pare your design with sci­en­tif­i­cally val­i­date influ­ence prin­ci­ples. If you wish to under­stand what makes your com­peti­tors’ tech­nol­ogy work, you can­not just copy their prod­uct. Rather, you can use the model to reverse engi­neer their per­sua­sive archi­tec­ture, and then adapt their per­sua­sive archi­tec­ture to your unique prod­uct and market.

This presentation does not include the Persuasive Design Cheat Sheet. Sign-up for my newsletter to be notified of the next public release: http://www.cugelman.com

Some of the science behind this presentation:
http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e17/

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  • What if they stopped playing with the change?
  • A persuasive experience is sum effect of all psychological influence componentsInfluence components: the individual psychological components that makeup a persuasive experience
  • RhetoricWriting style/clarityFramingPsychology of graphic design/layout (human perception)User Experience (UX), usability, information architectureEyeball tracking and web heat maps guidelinesTunnelling (and providing clear sequences)ReductionOne time vs multiple interactions (relationships)Foot-in-the-door techniqueDoor-in-the-face technique
  • AudioTextPicturesVideoMulti-media
  • TailoringPersonalizationProvide feedback on performanceAdaptation/content matching
  • TailoringPersonal influence (Kats and Lazerfeld)Diffusion of innovations(Rogers)Social network analysis metrics (centrality, betweeness, etc..)Strength of weak ties (Granovetter)Six-degrees of separation Viral spreadSocial influences (social norms) Environmental context and resources (Environmental constraints)Moral appealsScaricitySocial proofConsistency and commitmentPersonalizationProvide feedback on performanceAdaptation/content matching
  • Degree CentralityThis is a straight measure of the number of links to a node; it is based on the principle that the node with the most links must be the most important. As a limitation, this measure does not factor in the importance of network positioning, nor being connected to other well connected nodes. Consequently, degree centrality is considered a good, but limited measure and normally supplemented by other metrics.ClosenessIn some cases an actor may have many connections, but may be connected to a disconnected sub-network. This is sort of like being the tallest midget. To overcome this limitation, closeness measures how close one node is to all others. In other words, closeness measures how many hops a node must travel to reach all other nodes, and the node with the highest closeness is the best connected.BetweennessIn some cases, a person does not need to be well connected to everyone in a network to be influential, nor do they need to be connected to well connected persons; rather, they just need to be positioned between persons who don't know each other. Betweenness measures a node's brokerage position, between disconnected nodes. In other words, it measures how well a given node is able to connect disconnected nodes, and benefit from their ignorance. This is the match makers measure.CorenessThe inner circle, in-group, the elite--these are all terms that describe groups of individuals who are core to a given network or organization. They're the ones with access to information and who exert the most influence within networks. Capturing this notion, coreness is a measure that represents a core/periphery analysis which aims to break networks into the ‘in group' and ‘out group'.
  • Persuasive Psychology for Interactive Design

    1. PERSUASIVEPSYCHOLOGY FORINTERACTIVE DESIGNThe Persuasive Design Cheat Sheet (hard copy only)Brian Cugelman, PhDPodCamp TorontoRyerson University23 February 2013
    2. AGENDA1. What it Means to Persuade2. Humanized Interactive Technology3. Ingredients of Persuasive Medicine4. Persuasive Communication Model5. Persuasive Design Checklists6. Learn More 2
    3. WHAT IT MEANS TO PERSUADE 3
    4. TOBACCO INDUSTRY PERSUASIONhttp://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=gCMzjJjuxQI 4
    5. INTERNAL CHANGE PROCESS Beliefs Attitudes Behaviour Trust Not necessarily in this order. Behaviour can shape attitudes, and attitudes can shape beliefs. 5
    6. THE EFFICACY OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE CAMPAIGNS AND WEBSITES Digital health behaviour change websites Health communication campaigns Average impact is r = .10 Average impact: r = .05 (crudely 10%) (crudely 5%) Snyder, L. B. (2007). Health communication campaigns and their impact CUGELMAN, B., THELWALL, M., & DAWES, P. (2011) Online interventions on behavior. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 39(2), S32- for social marketing health behavior change campaigns: A meta-analysis S40. of psychological architectures and adherence factors. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13(1), e17. http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e17/•Cohens interpretation of effect size r: Small = r ≤ 0.1, Medium = r = 0.25, Large = r ≥ 0.4•These figures do not easily convert to percentages without distortion. However, as a ballpark figure, if 60% of people were doing the targetbehaviour before the campaign, you can predict that about 65% of people will do the health behaviour after the campaign . 6 6
    7. HUMANIZED INTERACTIVETECHNOLOGY 7
    8. MY EMOTIONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH TECHNOLOGY Hay everyone, this is Kiki. 8
    9. HOW WE INTERACT WITH TECHNOLOGY:BJ FOGG WITH SOCIAL FACILITATOR ADDED Social Actor Tool Media Social Facilitator 9
    10. HOW WE INTERACT WITH TECHNOLOGY: THE MEDIA EQUATION BY REEVES AND NASSMediated experiences = Real life experiencesHuman-computer psychology is likeHuman-human psychology 10
    11. PERSUASIVE WEBSITES AND SOCIAL MEDIA PROFILESARE LIKE PERSUASIVE PEOPLE• They’re reputable• They’re likeable with personality• They demonstrate expertise• They appear trustworthy• You understand them easily• They respect you and your time• They have personality 11
    12. ANCIENT & MODERN VIEWS ON PERSUASION Persuasive Neuro Rhetoric Design Weinschenk (2009) Aristotle (circa 400 BCE) New Brain - Rational thinking Logos Language, Speech, Reading, Mus Logic, Reason ic, Art, Thoughts, Plans Middle Brain - Emotional Pathos processing Emotion Emotion Old Brain - Decision making Ethos Survival, Safety, Automatic Credibility, Moral Character reactions 12
    13. CREDIBILITY IS ABOUT TRUST, LEAVING MODERNPERSPECTIVES SIMILAR TO ANCIENT WISDOM Beneficial Outcome Trustee Truster Harmful Outcome Without risks, there is no need for trust. Cugelman, B., Thelwall, M., & Dawes, P. (2009). The Dimensions of Web Site Credibility and Their Relation to Active Trust and Behavioural Impact. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 24, 455-472. 13 http://bit.ly/SiEOD8
    14. INTERACTIVITY = TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION One Many Impersonal Mass Media (One-Way) One-to -m any one-to one-to-one Interpersonal Mass Interpersonal (Two-Way) One-with - ma n y one-with-one one-with 14
    15. INGREDIENTS OF PERSUASIVE MEDICINE 15
    16. THE ART OF TOILET TIPPING • Greeting with a smile • Showing the tip bowl • Dressing professionally • Holding the door • Ringing the coins • Holding the door again • Handing you a towel • Brush lint off your back 16
    17. PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE OF TOILET TIPPING ABOVE THE SURFACE • What you see and experience BELOW THE SURFACE • Reminders, prompts, attention & memory • Credibility (visual appearance) • Trust (Liking) • Social norms/learning • Social sharing (reciprocity) What if they omitted social norms/learning? 17
    18. PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE OFTOILET TIPPING Experience Influence components (on the surface) (below the surface) Showing the tip bowl Reminders, prompts, attention & memory Greeting with a smile Trust (Liking) Dressing professionally Credibility (visual appearance) Holding the door twice Social sharing (reciprocity) Ringing the coins Reminders, prompts, attention & memory Handing you a towel, with a smile Social sharing (reciprocity) , Trust (Liking) Social context of tipping Social norms/learning 18
    19. EVIDENCE-BASED BEHAVIOURAL MEDICINE Dose Active ingredients If your technology were a medicine, would its ingredients act like vitamins or addictive drugs? 19
    20. PSYCHOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE OF HEALTH BEHAVIOUR CHANGE TECHNOLOGIES Interventions (%)Effect Size (d) CUGELMAN, B., THELWALL, M., & DAWES, P. (2011) Online interventions for social marketing health behavior change campaigns: A meta-analysis of psychological architectures and adherence factors. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13(1), e17. http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e17/ 20
    21. EVIDENCE INFORMED PROGRAMS Research-based perpetual beta Program execution Evidence- informed design 21
    22. DESIGNING & IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS Program Execution (-) Bad Execution (+) Good Execution (+) Promising program poorly Promising program well Evidence executed executed Informed Program Design (-) Not Unlikely program poorly Unlikely program well evidence executed executed informed •Research is only part of the equation •Execution is just as important 22
    23. RESEARCH, DESIGN, DELIVERY, & REFINEMENTBirth Growth Maturity Intervention lifeline 2. Monitoring 3. Program 4. Meta- 1. Scientific helps improve evaluation analysis can research shows programs on shows which identify the key you which the fly , by programs ingredients ingredients fine-tuning the are working across multiple should work active or not programs ingredients 23
    24. PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION MODELThe eight spheres of influence 24
    25. PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION MODEL Cugelman, B., Thelwall, M., & Dawes, P. (2009). Communication-Based Influence Components Model. Paper presented at the Persuasive 2009, Claremont.
    26. 1. SOURCE• The thing that an audience member interacts• A person, organization, group, brand, or technology• Anything that can have a reputation, can be a source 26
    27. CREDIBILITY AND TRUST CAN BE BORROWED. 27
    28. 28
    29. BORROWING CREDIBILITY
    30. Featured by X, Y, Z, ad infinitum.Low credibility websites can borrow credibility from higher credibility sources. 30
    31. WHICH PHOTO CAN INCREASE TEXT CREDIBILITY? No photoNGUYEN, H. & MASTHOFF, J. (2007) Is it me or what I say? Source image and persuasion. Persuasive 07. Springer.
    32. CREDIBILITY AND VISUALS Photo Goodwill Trust High credibility Higher Higher No photo Middle Middle Low credibility Lower Lower Readers perceptions of text credibility is influenced by photo credibility 32
    33. 2. SOURCE MESSAGE• The actual message that is expressed by the source• Presented as the persuasion equation: Click + + + Here = Audience Audience Message & Message Likelihood Motivation Capacity Persuasive Call to Action of Change Ingredients (8 spheres of influence) 33
    34. 3. MESSAGE EXPRESSION &INTERPRETATION•The way a message is expressed by the source, and then interpreted by the audience.•How you express something can be more important than what you express 34
    35. 35
    36. Place the CTA where most eyes land
    37. 4. MEDIA•The various media used to express something•Eg. written words, spoken dialogue, photos, video,interactive websites, email•Select the media channels most suited to your targetaudience 37
    38. 38
    39. 5. AUDIENCE• The person, group, organization, or society you are trying to engage and influence 39
    40. DECISION BALANCE (MOTIVATION) Value proposition (-) Demotivaror: Costs, disincentives, barriers, effort (+) Motivator: Goals, carrots, benefit, drivers Behaviour is more likely when motivators outweigh demotivators 40
    41. CAPACITY: ABILITY AND EFFICACY Ability: What you can or cant doSelf efficacy: What you believe you can or cant do Either way, your ability or self efficacy dictate what you will and wont do 41
    42. 6. FEEDBACK EXPRESSION &INTERPRETATION• How the audience expresses and transmits their feedback to the source, who interprets it 42
    43. MANUAL DATA CAPTURE• Web forms• Mobile forms 43
    44. 44
    45. AUTOMATIC DATA CAPTURE• Sensors: accelerometer, galvanic skin response• Digital technology: Behaviour goals, Open rates• Mobile: GPS, QR Codes 45
    46. RESEARCH-BASED FEEDBACK• Marketing research (formative research) • Focus groups • Desk reviews • Iterative pilot testing• Product / campaign development frameworks • Social marketing • Lean startup • Agile development 46
    47. 7. AUDIENCE FEEDBACK• The feedback that the audience provides to the source, that is used as the basis for persuasive messages.• In other words, any data collected about a user that is processed and acted upon• The principles within this sphere provide the foundation for relationship building and interactive design
    48. FEEDBACK INPUT AND OUTPUT ADAPTED FROM KREUTER ET AL. (2000)Feedbackmessage (output) Feedback Expression & Interpretation (input) 48
    49. PERSONAL ACTION PLANPROVIDE FEEDBACK ON PERFORMANCE 49
    50. PROVIDE FEEDBACK ON PERFORMANCE 50
    51. REMINDERS, PROMPTS, ATTENTION & MEMORYREINFORCEMENT - REWARD 51
    52. REINFORCEMENT - PUNISHMENT 52
    53. ENGAGING AT THE RIGHT TIME (KAIROS) 53
    54. 8. SOCIAL AND PHYSICALCONTEXT• The social, physical, or virtual environment in which a relationship occurs• This includes society, whether virtual or "real" 54
    55. SOCIAL NORMS / LEARNING - MODELLING 55
    56. SOCIAL NORMS / LEARNING AND DONATIONS Opaque: people Empty: people Primed: Starter cant see the dont see the social tips show people social norm norm in action what to do Donations Donations Donations www.socialmediacafe.ca www.socialmediacafe.ca www.socialmediacafe.ca $1.50 ? $50 + 56
    57. SURVEILLANCE:MAKING PRIVATE MOMENTS PUBLIC Research bias Crime prevention Socially desirable Deterrence answers Surfing the net Employability at work Never posting Cautious about anything that could Cameras | Internet usage the sites we visit tracking | Friends posting & harm our reputation tagging your photo on Facebook. 70% of employers have rejected Surveillance moves us from a applicants due to online information. private to a public social context. 57
    58. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS: HOW THINGS SPREAD Opinion Leaders ROGERS, E. (2003) Diffusion of innovations. (5 ed.). New York: Free Press. 58
    59. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS AND INFLUENCE Common influence metrics •Degree Centrality •Closeness •Betweenness •Coreness 59
    60. 60
    61. http://db.tt/kbT8BYY 61
    62. PERSUASIVE DESIGN CHECKLISTS 62
    63. HOW TO USE THE PERSUASIVE DESIGN CHECKLISTS1. Develop new technologies: 1. Focus on what works from the onset 2. Reverse engineer your competitors secret sauce 3. Save money by starting with knowledge of what works2. Improve existing technologies: 1. Audit existing technologies 2. Identify missing ingredients 3. Identify low priority elements 4. Generate ideas on how to improve 63
    64. CHECKLISTS Level Elements Status1. Engagement science •Over 200 evidence and theory based Under embargo influence principles and tactics until published •Linked to numerous scientific studies (with effect sizes in several cases) •Linked to the leading scientific behaviour change theories2. Developer tool •Over 50 key influence concepts, with Under embargo descriptions and examples until published •Survey tool for rapid assessments3. Cheat sheet •Over 40 key principle names Semi-public (paper only) 64
    65. LEARN MORE 65
    66. TRAINING & RESOURCES Sign up for our newsletter at: www.cugelman.com Learn about upcoming workshops/classes Receive discounts codes for training Download persuasive design auditing tools Get persuasive architecture templates 66
    67. Engagement science supportAlterSpark provides:• Persuasive design research• Evidence-based design support• Marketing research Learn more: •www.alterspark.com Contact Brian: •brian@alterspark.com •+1 (416) 921-2055 67
    68. Thanks Brian Cugelman, PhDRead the science behind this presentation: http://www.jmir.org/2011/1/e17/ 68

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