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# Introduction to Fingerprints

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• A fingerprint will not change during a person’s lifetime. As you grow, the pattern stays the same, but gets bigger.Fingerprints have ridge patterns that allow them to be classified.A fingerprint is unique due to minutiae (small patterns in the print).
• ### Introduction to Fingerprints

1. 1. Why Do We Have Fingerprints?Dermal Papillae: anundulating sub-layerthat causes frictionridges 1
2. 2. Why Do We Have Fingerprints? Friction Ridges allow us to hold on to things more easily. 2
3. 3. Fundamental Principles of Fingerprints They don’t change. Can be classified by their ridge patternsUnique because of minutiae 3
4. 4. 3 Types of Ridge Patternso Loops•Whorls•Arches 4
5. 5. Loopone or more ridge enters and exits from the same side. Loops must have one delta (triangular area).Types Radial: opens toward the thumb Ulnar: opens toward the “pinky” (little finger) 5
6. 6. Whorlat least one ridge makes a complete circuit. Types  Plain  Central Pocket  Double Loop  Accidental 6
7. 7. Archhas ridges that enter on one side, rises in the middle, and ends on the other sideTypes Plain Tented 7
8. 8. 3 Types of Ridge Patterns o Loops: most common pattern (65% of people have these) • Whorls: 30% • Arches: least common pattern (5%)Individual fingers can have different ridge patterns! 8
9. 9. Galton: observer of minutiae 9
10. 10. Minutia: small patterns in the print 10
11. 11. Examples of MinutiaBIFURCATION RIDGE ENDING 11
12. 12. More Minutia ExamplesISLAND SHORT RIDGEENCLOSURE 12