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Fire safety preparedness (3 12-13)


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Fire safety preparedness (3 12-13)

  1. 1. Fire SafetyPreparedness By: Jamie Dobson
  2. 2. Fires in the United States During 2011 Facts - NFPA• 1,389,500 fires were reported in the U.S. during 2011.• 3,005 fire deaths – One death occurred every two hours and 55 minutes• 17,500 fire injuries – One injury occurred every 30 minutes• $11.7 billion in property damage• A fire department responded to a fire every 23 seconds
  3. 3. Fires in the United States During 2011 Facts - NFPA• 484,500 structure fires occurred in the U.S. during 2011.• 2,640 fire deaths• 15,635 fire injuries• $9.7 billion in property damage• One structure fire was reported every 65 seconds
  4. 4. Fires in the United States During 2011 Facts - NFPA• 219,000 vehicle fires occurred in the U.S. during 2011.• 300 fire deaths• 1,190 fire injuries• $1.4 billion in property damage• One vehicle fire was reported every 144 seconds
  5. 5. Fires in the United States During 2011 Facts - NFPA• 686,000 outside and other fires occurred in the U.S. during 2011.• 65 fire deaths• 675 fire injuries• $616 million in property damage• One outside fire was reported every 46 seconds
  6. 6. Fire Department Responses by Type of Call, 2011 - NFPA• Total Incidents 30,098,000• Medical Aid Responses (Ambulance, EMS, Rescue) 19,803,000• All Other Responses (smoke scares, lock-outs, etc.) 4,171,500• False Alarms 2,383,000• Fire Incidents 1,389,500• Mutual Aid or Assistance Calls 1,252,000• Other Hazardous Responses (arcing wires, gas leak etc.) 720,000• Hazardous Material Responses (Spills, Leaks, etc.) 379,000
  7. 7. Fire Department Responses by Type of Call, 2011 - NFPA
  8. 8. Facts• More house fires occur in the winter months, than at any other time of the year.• Cooking is the leading cause of home fires in the United States.• Frying poses a higher risk of fire than other cooking methods.• Young children and older adults face a higher risk of death from cooking fires, than any other age groups. (U.S. Fire Administration)
  9. 9. Facts• Heating appliances are the second leading cause of house fires in the United States.• Fires confined to chimneys, flues, fuel boxes or boilers, account for 86% of residential building heating fires.• In less than 30 seconds, a small flame can get completely out of control and turn into a major fire.• Having a working smoke alarm reduces ones chance of dying in a fire by nearly one-half. (U.S. Fire Administration)
  10. 10. What We Can Do to Prevent House Fires• Ask your parents where the smoke detectors are in your house and know what to do if you hear them beep.• Make sure there are working smoke detectors, mounted to the ceilings, on all levels of the house.• Do not leave burning candles unattended.
  11. 11. What We Can Do to Prevent House Fires• Never walk away from food cooking on the stove.• A gas range or oven should not be used as a heater, as this can produce toxic fumes.
  12. 12. What We Can Do to Prevent House Fires• Do not use electric space heaters in bathrooms, kitchens or other rooms, where they could have contact with water.• Keep all electric heaters and fuel burning heaters away from furniture and drapes.• Keep trash away from all heat sources.• Dont sit too close to a fireplace. The embers from the fire can catch on your clothes.
  13. 13. What We Can Do to Prevent House Fires• Do not wear loose pajamas or clothing around electric or gas space heaters. Loose clothing can catch on the heater and burn.• Learn how to stop, drop, and roll. This is important to know. If your clothes are on fire, it is best to stop, drop to the floor and roll around on the floor until the fire is put out instead of running.
  14. 14. Preventing House Fires• Dont play with matches or lighters. These can hurt you, and they can start a house or yard fire.• Make sure to turn off TVs, stereos, lamps and other equipment before leaving your room or home.• As a family, devise an escape plan, in case there is a house fire. Practice the plan.
  15. 15. Preventing House FiresKnow to call 9-1-1 if there is ever a fire in your home!
  16. 16. Definitions (from (From - a state, process, or instance ofcombustion in which fuel or other material isignited and combined with oxygen, giving offlight, heat, and flame.SMOKE - the visible vapor and gases given off bya burning or smoldering substance, especiallythe gray, brown, or blackish mixture of gasesand suspended carbon particles resulting fromthe combustion of wood, peat, coal, or otherorganic matter.
  17. 17. Definitions (from (From - the state of a body perceived as havingor generating a relatively high degree ofwarmth.FUEL -combustible matter used to maintain fire,as coal, wood, oil, or gas, in order to create heator power.
  18. 18. Chemistry of Fire Fire Tetrahedron• In order for fire to occur four things must be present, Oxygen, Fuel, Heat, and a Chemical Chain Reaction. This is represented by the Fire Tetrahedron.• When any of the four items are removed, the fire will go out.• Fire extinguishers function by removing one of the four components of the Fire Tetrahedron.
  19. 19. THE FOUR STAGES OF COMBUSTIONExplosions excepted, most fires have quite humble beginnings and grow through four stages: Incipient Stage - At this stage, decomposition is occurring at the surface of the fuel due to the influence of some form of heat. Products of combustion given off at this stage are invisible to the eye.Smoldering Stage - At this stage, up to 10% of the decomposing products released at the surface of the fuel are visible.
  20. 20. THE FOUR STAGES OF COMBUSTION• Flaming Stage - Vapors from the decomposing fuel have ignited and are at the stage where flames are self propagating.• Heat Stage - At this stage the burning has progressed to the point where the fire is still small but generating sufficient heat to warm the air immediately around the fire, sending warm products of combustion upwards by convection.
  21. 21. THE FOUR STAGES OF COMBUSTION• The time required for a fire to develop through the first two stages is usually quite long when compared to the last two. Depending on conditions, the time involved going through all stages may be anything from seconds to days.
  22. 22. THE CHEMISTRY OF FIRE EXTINCTIONThe principles of fire extinction consist of the elimination or removal of one or more of the four elements. These principles are: COOLING• The most commonly used fire fighting medium is water. Water absorbs heat from the fire and cools the fuel to a temperature where it no longer produces flammable vapors. SMOTHERING• By excluding the oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere, the fire will be extinguished.
  23. 23. THE CHEMISTRY OF FIRE EXTINCTIONSTARVATION• Starvation is achieved by removal of the fuel burning in the fire. Sometimes combustible material can be removed such as by shutting off gas valves or fuel flows. STOP CHAIN REACTION• Stop or interrupt the chain reaction between the fuel, heat and oxygen the fire will be extinguished.• Specific methods of extinguishing fires often involve a combination of more than one of the four principles
  24. 24. Some causes of FireElectricity Space HeatersHousekeeping ConstructionImproper Storage Cleaning SuppliesCombustible Liquids Flammable LiquidsEquipment CarelessnessUnattended Cooking• Prevention is the best way to fight a fire!
  25. 25. 4 classes of fire: Class A Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material, such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber, and some plastics. Class BFlammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners and propane. Class C Energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, switches, panel boxes and power tools. Class D Certain combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium, and sodium.
  26. 26. 4 classes of fire:ELECTRICITY• Electricity presents a special hazard in a fire situation. Electricity does not burn, it produces heat which may result in one of the classes of fire. If the electricity is removed (e.g. by switching off the power), the heat source is removed and the remaining fire should be dealt with according to its class.• If the source of electricity cannot be eliminated, a non-conductive extinguishing agent should be used.
  27. 27. Each of these three elements must be present at the same time to have a fire. A fire will burn until one or more of the elements is removed. Fuel Any combustible material – solid, liquid or gas Oxygen HeatThe air we breathe is The energy necessaryabout 21% oxygen – to increase the fire needs only temperature of fuel to 16% oxygen where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur
  28. 28. Extinguishment Theory• Removing Heat• Removing Fuel• Reducing Oxygen WILL• Inhibit Chemical Chain Reaction
  29. 29. Multi-Class RatingsMany extinguishers available today can be used on different typesof fires and will be labeled with more than one designator, e.g. A-B,B-C, or A-B-C.This label shows that this extinguishercan be used on ordinary combustibles(A) or flammable liquids (B). The New Style of Labelingred slash through the last symboltells you that the extinguisher cannotbe used on electrical fires (C).Be advised that most fire Old Style of Labelingextinguishers will function forless than 40 seconds.
  30. 30. The P.A.S.S. Method Aim the hose or nozzle.Pull the pin. Squeeze the lever.Sweep the agent.
  31. 31. You are not expectedto be firefighters! Do not takeunnecessary risks!
  32. 32. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 1. Install Smoke Detectors SMOKE DETECTORS should be installed on each level of your home and outside of each sleeping area. Test smoke detectors monthly and change the batteries twice a year. Never take the batteries out of your smoke detectors.
  33. 33. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 2. Plan Your Escape From Fire Make an escape plan with your family. Have two ways out of each room.  If you live in an apartment, do not use the elevator. Have a meeting place. Once you are outside, do not go back in for any reason. Practice your plan.
  34. 34. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 3. Keep an Eye on Smokers CARELESS SMOKING is the leading cause of fire deaths . Make sure that all smokers use ashtrays. If someone drops a cigarette, check the area to ensure that there are no embers left behind.
  35. 35. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 4.Cook Carefully NEVER LEAVE COOKING unattended. Keep cooking areas clear of combustibles and wear clothes with short or tight-fitting sleeves when you cook. Turn pot handles inward on the stove, where you can’t bump them and children can’t grab them. If grease catches fire in a pan, slide a lid over the pan to smother the flames and turn off the heat source. Keep lid on until pan is completely cooled.
  36. 36. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 5.Give Space Heaters Space KEEP PORTABLE AND SPACE heaters at least three feet away from anything that can burn. Keep children and pets away from heaters and never leave heaters on when you leave home or go to bed.
  37. 37. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 6. Matches and Lighters - Tools, Not Toys IN A CHILD’S HAND matches and lighters can be deadly. Matches and lighters are tools, not toys, and should be used only by adults or with adult supervision. Teach small children to tell a grownup if they find matches or lighters; older children should bring matches and lighters to an adult immediately.
  38. 38. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 7. Cool a Burn RUN COOL WATER over a burn for 10 to 15 minutes. If the burned skin blisters or is charred, see a doctor immediately.
  39. 39. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 8.Use Electricity Safely IF AN ELECTRIC APPLIANCE smokes or has an unusual smell, unplug it immediately, then have it serviced before using it again Replace any electrical cord that is cracked or frayed. Don’t overload extension cords or run them under rugs.
  40. 40. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 9. Crawl Low Under Smoke DURING A FIRE, smoke and poisonous gases rise with the heat. The air is cleaner near the floor. If you must escape through smoke, crawl on your hands and knees to the nearest exit, keeping your head 12 to 24 inches above the floor.
  41. 41. 10 Tips for Fire Safety 10. Stop, Drop, and Roll IF YOUR CLOTHES CATCH FIRE, don’t run. Stop where you are, drop to the ground, cover your face with your hands, and roll over and over to smother the flames.
  42. 42. If you have a fire… Leave, close the door, and call 9-1-1 from outside. Report ALL fires to the fire department, even if you think you put them out! Don’t ignore alarms!  Even if your building has frequent alarms, you need to leave when they go off. Once you’re out, STAY OUT!  Don’t go back inside for possessions or pets.  Notify the fire department if anyone is unaccounted for.You never know when it could be a real fire.
  43. 43. Escape Routes  When the smoke alarm sounds, you may only have seconds or minutes to escape safely.  Have a meeting place for everyone to gather outside.  Plan two ways out, in case one way is filled with smoke or fire. Know your escape  Once you are outside, do not routes and practice go back in for any reason. them.
  44. 44. Summary There are many ways to reduce your risk of fire: Stay focused when you’re cooking. Use candles responsibly, or not at all. Don’t overload electrical sockets or misuse extension cords. If someone is smoking in or near your home, check to make sure that all smoking materials are properly disposed of. Have a fire safety plan and practice it! Have working smoke and CO alarms. Be responsible.