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Training Slides for Research Tutorial Program, Dr. Crystal Felima

Training Slides for Puerto Rico

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Training Slides for Research Tutorial Program, Dr. Crystal Felima

  1. 1. Research Tutorial Abroad Program in Puerto Rico Agenda : Disaster Research Part A: Disaster Narrative Research in the Caribbean •Dr. Felima’s Research in Haiti + Disaster Studies •Disaster Narratives + Local Knowledge •Counternarratives + Protest + Agency •Puerto Rico in Context: Hurricane Marie + Research Questions •Activity: Creating Keywords and Broad Objectives for Research Program
  2. 2. Flooding in the Northern Haiti: Exploring the Manifestation of Inequalities and Agency through Disaster Narrative Research PhotobyCrystalA.Felima,2015
  3. 3. Objectives and Methods A cumulative 27 months of fieldwork in Northern Haiti § participant observation, semi-structured and structured interviews, visual ethnography (i.e. photography and videos), and archival research Three objectives: § to identify common themes, categories, and associations regarding risk and inequalities § to document the collective discourses and experiences § to locate spaces in Cap-Haitien in which political discourses and citizenship are encouraged, expressed, and engaged
  4. 4. Type of Study: Ethnographic, Theoretical, and Conceptual Methodology: Fieldwork, Participant Observation, Interviews, Textual Analysis Approach (Holism, Interdisciplinary, Transdisciplinary): Social Sciences/Interdisciplinary Anthropology, Sociology, Geography Major Themes: Vulnerability, Disaster Risk, Disaster Management, Governance and Power, and Population/Development Studies
  5. 5. Disaster Vulnerability is partially the product of social inequalities and place inequalities Cutter et al (2003), “Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards””
  6. 6. Cannon(1994)“VulnerabilityAnalysisand theExplanationof'Natural'Disasters
  7. 7. Hazel 1954 Flora 1963 Allen 1980 Gordon 1994 Jeanne 2004 Hanna 2008 Matthew 2016 Bahamas 1 Canada 100 Costa Rica 6 Cuba 1,750 3 2 Dominican Rep. 400 5 19 4 Grenada 6 Guadeloupe 1 Haiti 1,000 5,000 300 1,122 3,006 500 1000* Jamaica 11 8 2 Puerto Rico 7 St. Lucia 18 Tobago/Trinida d 24 United States 95 1 2 8 5 46 Created and Updated by Crystal A. Felima - Data from USAID, NHC, Darthmouth Flooding Observatory Chart: Haiti’s Casualties after Major Hurricanes
  8. 8. Environmental Degradation and Deforestation [Source: Photos by Crystal Andrea Felima (2010)] Research studies reveal an 89 percent correlation between the extent of deforestation and incidence of victims in cases of environmental hazards such as tropical storms, flooding, and mudslides.
  9. 9. [Source: Photos by Crystal Andrea Felima (2010).] Population Growth and Density
  10. 10. The international community has donated heavily to the development of Haiti. Programs to feed, educate, and employ Haitians are funded by various international organizations. Since 1973, the United States has been Haiti’s largest donor. Source: Pictures by Crystal Andrea Felima (2010). Heavy Dependence on International Assistance and Aid
  11. 11. Primary Research Site: Cap-Haitien, Haiti
  12. 12. Photo by Crystal A. Felima, 2015 Primary Research Question: What do disaster experiences, narrated by those who live in peripheral communities in Haiti, reveal about disaster risk, structural inequalities, and hope for the future of Haiti?
  13. 13. Disaster Narratives Oral Histories + Life Histories + Trauma Stories
  14. 14. “Well, the water doesn’t really rise in the morning; it rises at night. Like the other time, when I was home – around 11 pm, the water just came when I was deep in my sleep. I looked, I thought I was dreaming, but it was reality. I got out of my bed into the water. There were people also sleeping, so I went to their house to knock on their doors for them to get out. And there were a few people who died.” —Marc*, a 19-year old student // Interview, November 27, 2015` Photo by Crystal A. Felima, 2015. Disaster Narratives of Flood Experiences Disaster narratives engender cultural meaning, feature localized interpretations of suffering, and highlight a symbolic relationship to Haitian survival. Inclusion and usage of Other voices and Other researchers
  15. 15. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2016) My research extends the concept of vulnerability by considering the enduring policies of neoliberalism, power relations, & structural inequalities that have shaped flood experiences in Haiti. Vulnerability may serve as a social pathology and contribute to a cultural discourse that essentializes and generalizes large regions of the world.
  16. 16. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) Communities Along the Odikap River “The water comes, and it cannot flow out to sea because of the bridge. First, it rains in the countryside. Then, the river’s streams intensify because the water continues to flow from the mountains. Here, it is the bridge prevents the water to swiftly flow out to sea. And then there’s improper construction. We are people who live in an at-risk area. We have lived near this part of the river for a long time – this area is composed of standing water, and we don’t have electricity. People who live in front of the river know that the mountains do not hold water, so the flooding comes with trash and waste matter.” -Federick*, 39-year-old carpenter
  17. 17. Haut-de-Cap (Odikap) River Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015)
  18. 18. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) “If a person live heres[in the river community] say that s/he is not sick, it is because God protected her/him.” -Michelet, a 30-year-old DJ, computer scientist, and painter
  19. 19. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) “If I had the power to speak with the government, I would tell them that they don’t usually manage things well. If there was a State presence here, it would be good. There are just a few people who live downtown, but in the site yo, there are more people who live here than they do downtown. So, in this sense, we do not have a State; a government that is present. The government that we have now is all about helping their family and making money. They choose not to help the people.” -Zulmie*, 31-year-old merchant
  20. 20. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) “Haiti serves as a depotwa (dump) for foreigners to empty their trash. Everything they do not need, they send it here. Moreover, unfortunately, it is that same trash that we live among.” -Peterson*, 19 year old student
  21. 21. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) “This is where we must live; we don't have another place for us to go. Meaning, when these little houses are built, you’ll just you see a small wooden house here and a little wooden house there. This is where we can buy land. We cannot go to other places. With the bit of what we have, we’re obligated to take it and fill it up.” *Pierre, a 42-year-old brick mason
  22. 22. Video by Crystal A. Felima (2014) “‘After flooding, the government usually sends food. Sometimes people who are victims of flood do not find the aid. Instead, it is more chimè [gangsters, troublemakers, etc.] who find the aid. They go to fight. For victims to find aid, the government should go to each house that is affected and mark it. After the water recedes, they can bring something for that person. However, when the water recedes, the government goes out to the streets and separates the aid. And if this is the case, you won’t find aid if you’re impacted. It is only the troublemakers who find the aid." -Fergunston*, 25-year-old carpenter
  23. 23. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) “We usually go to the public school, the church, or to an area that is not flooded. I have not stayed in the church overnight, but I have slept at the school one time. There are also times when I go stay with my family. There is no one in the community to tell us about any potential dangers when it rains. Since we can’t save any money, we can’t prepare for emergencies. We just can’t prepare for that. The flood can come, and we wouldn’t know. It doesn’t have to rain here for it to flood, so we don’t prepare anything for that.” —Bouna*, 40-year old homemaker
  24. 24. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2016)
  25. 25. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2016) “If floodingisfor3days,yousufferforthreedays.” -Manoucheka*, 41 year old merchant
  26. 26. Agency, Resistance, & Protest counter narratives
  27. 27. Narratives of Agency & Self-Determination Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) “I live in a two-story house, and there are 8 rooms. I have a lot of people who stay with me when it floods. I close everything downstairs, and I make everyone come upstairs – this includes my neighbors too. I make them go upstairs. Some people who stay with me have a little food. In the morning, we put the food in a big pot to cook, and everyone eats what we make.” -Natasha, 32-years-old seller
  28. 28. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2014) “The reason we created the [grassroots] organization is we see that we are victims. We do not have any authorities that bring us assistance. We have to assemble ourselves so that we can do that.” *Francois, 40 year old electrician
  29. 29. Former Presidential Candidate Jean Charles Moïse is under the umbrella, waving to his supporters. The posters say “Aba Lavi Chè” and “Mateli + Clinton = Vole Lajan CIRH [Interim Haiti Reconstruction Commission].” Crystal A. Felima, 2014. The poster says “Aba Pamela White” (Down with the US Ambassador to Haiti, Pamela White). Crystal A. Felima, 2014.
  30. 30. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) Political Graffiti at the Faculty of Ethnology in Port-au-Prince, Haiti
  31. 31. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015) “Economics in Vodou: Haitian Women, Entrepreneurship, and Agency.” Chapter in Vodou in Haitian Memory (2016)
  32. 32. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2013)
  33. 33. Photo of Graffiti in Cap-Haitien which reads Carnival is for the “mulattos” or rich people. Prison is for men in the ghetto. Photo by Crystal A. Felima, 2013.
  34. 34. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015)
  35. 35. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2015)
  36. 36. Photo by Crystal A. Felima (2013) “Haitians are not afraid of misery; they find a way to live how they normally live. Haitians know that they cannot depend on the government. If the government helps you, they will. If they do not, you must depend on yourself. You create a way for you to live, because that is what you know.” -Jean Marie*, 51 year old carpenter
  37. 37. Bridging Haiti and Puerto Rico Hurricane Marie + Flooding in Haiti Research Questions
  38. 38. The central research question that guides this summer program is, What do disaster experiences, narrated by those in Puerto Rico, reveal about disaster risk, citizenship, and nationhood?
  39. 39. •Hurricane Maria, the strongest hurricane to hit Puerto Rico in nearly a century, made landfall on September 20th 2017. •More than 44% of the population of Puerto Rico lives in poverty, compared to the national US average of approximately 12%. •On August 28, 2018, Puerto Rico’s Governor revised the official death count from 64 to 2,975. •Maria knocked out power to all 3.4 million residents and left thousands without a home. •(September 2018), about 45,000 homes have “blue roofs,” tarps installed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
  40. 40. The death toll in Hurricane Marie • “As a result of Maria, researchers estimate 22 percent more people died during the six months after the storm than would have had the hurricane not struck.” Most impacted: poor and elderly. Puerto Rico has received about $1.5 billion in U.S. aid for storm recovery • The storm incurred around $91 billion in damages to the island. The island has received only about $1.5 billion in federal aid, out of a larger pot of aid funding previously approved by Congress. Puerto Rico is still waiting to receive most of the approximately $40 billion in relief funds which have been allocated to the territory. Puerto Rico did not receive more recovery aid for Hurricane Maria than mainland states did for Hurricane Katrina • Hurricane Katrina, which in 2005 affected more than a million people across three states, cost the federal government more than $120 billion in recovery efforts. About $76 billion of that aid went to Louisiana projects. In comparison, Puerto Rico has only
  41. 41. Part A: Disaster Narrative Research in the Caribbean Activity: Creating Keywords and Broad Objectives for Research Program
  42. 42. Activity: Creating Keywords and Broad Objectives for Research Program [student responses] • Keywords: hopelessness, political fatalism, evolving economic/development, transnationalism, power dynamics (zero sum game?), sustainability (e.g. infrastructure), local insights + local context, postionality (e.g. wealth, gender, geography), identity (impacts on culture/identity), empowerment/resiliency + power • Objectives: compile, analyze island economy (pre-2007, 2007- 2017, post-2017 (brain drain, unemployment, fleeing of US businesses, school closings); identify overlooked problems (e.g. arts and humanities); gain local perspectives to understand empowerment, identity; analyze federal gov. response to local; levels of vulnerability
  43. 43. Research Tutorial Abroad Program in Puerto Rico • Anthropology • Social Science Research, Fieldnotes, and Qualitative Tools • Sampling - Random/Snowballing, Gender, Age, Class • Interviewing + Performance, Narration, and Theater + Active Listening • Recording, Listening, Transcribing, and Translating • Making Connections + Participant Observation • Ethical Considerations + IRB Training Review • Research Challenges + Trauma Stories + Witnessing • Activity: Practice : Creating Open Ended Questions for Icebreaker Anthropological Methods and Qualitative Research
  44. 44. Anthropology and Culture Greek anthropos (human being) and logia (science) Everything people have (material possessions), think (ideas, values, and attitudes) and do (behavior patterns) Culture is core concept in the discipline of anthropology.
  45. 45. Dimensions of Anthropology • Academic/Theoretical (Ivory Tower): focus is on research, accumulation of knowledge, formulation of theories, removed from the practical • Applied/Action (Advocacy): putting knowledge to work, representing people & groups who might not be heard otherwise, promoting culturally sensitive programs & policies
  46. 46. What do anthropologists look for? • Patterns: repetition of a social or cultural phenomenon - a belief, a practice, a custom, ideology, or an institution over space and time. • Symbols: something that stands for something. It is a shared understanding about the meaning of certain words, ideas, attributes, or objects • Human Universals: Characteristics that are found in all human societies.
  47. 47. Perspectives, Approaches, and Methodology •Holistic Approach •Emic (insider) and Etic (outsider) Perspective •Cultural Relativism •Ethnography and Participant Observation
  48. 48. Holistic Perspective in Anthropology Holism = “the study of the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, science, language, and culture” How do anthropologists think holistically? • Study human societies as systematic sums – integrated whole parts • Think both with a macro (broadly) and micro (specifically) lens • Not generalizing all peoples, cultures, and societies – we are not reductionists (we do not reduce). • Develop cross-cultural comparative studies (ex. Haiti & PR)
  49. 49. Insider (Emic) and Outsider (Etic) Perspectives • Emic is the understanding of the culture from the point of view of the person who is being studied (insider) • Etic is the perspective of a culture by an anthropologist (outsider)
  50. 50. Cultural Relativism and Neutrality • Cultural relativism is the view that all beliefs, customs, and ethics are relative to the individual within his or her own culture. • Anthropologists aim to avoid ethnocentrism. • Neutrality [may be difficult to achieve] and Non-Prejudicial Language
  51. 51. Anthropology and its Four Fields •Physical/Biological Anthropology •Archaeology •Linguistic Anthropology •Cultural Anthropology
  52. 52. Provide “objective” [not always possible] insight into other cultures • (of a person or their judgment) not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts. Help preserve valuable knowledge, cultural practices and languages around the world Foster cross-cultural empathy, understanding and collaboration Emphasize similarities among human cultures and help bridge their differences and misunderstandings Some Aims of Cultural Anthropology:
  53. 53. Social Science Research, Fieldnotes, and Qualitative Tools
  54. 54. Qualitative Research Qualitative research is an effort to understand situations in their uniqueness as part of a particular context and the interactions there (Patton, 1985). • usually involves fieldwork • uses an inductive research strategy. This type of research builds abstractions, concepts, hypothesis, or theories rather than tests existing theory. • Typically qualitative findings are in the form of themes, categories, concepts or tentative hypotheses or theories. • The product of a qualitative study is richly descriptive. • Qualitative researchers are interested in understanding the meaning people have constructed. • Meaning is mediated through the investigator’s own perceptions and interpretations.
  55. 55. Fieldwork The practice in which an anthropologist is immersed in the daily life of a culture to collect data Data Collection Techniques •Participant-Observation •Interviewing •Census Taking •Mapping •Document Analysis •Collecting Genealogies •Photography
  56. 56. Applied Field Methods • Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) • Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) • Rapid Ethnographic Assessment (REA) • Surveys • Focus Groups
  57. 57. Live Field notes and Visual Ethnography
  58. 58. Sampling, Random/Snowballing, Gender, Age, Class
  59. 59. Research Sampling + Race, Class, and Age Purposeful sampling focuses on specific features of a population to best answer research questions. Patton (2002) argues, “The logic and power of purposeful sampling lies in selecting information-rich cases for study in depth. Information-rich cases are those from which one can learn a great deal about issues of central importance to the purpose of the inquiry, thus the term purposeful sampling” (emphasis in original) (230). The criteria for recruiting and selecting research participants is informants must have experienced the impacts of Hurricane Marie OR works for an agency or organization is working on recovery efforts in Puerto Rico.
  60. 60. Interviewing + Performance, Narration, and Theater + Active Listening
  61. 61. Ethnographic Interviewing Informed consent Participant or informant: a person who provides information about his or her culture to the ethnographic fieldwork • Not research subject Interviews • Unstructured • Structured • Semi-structured
  62. 62. Recording, Listening, Transcribing, and Translating
  63. 63. Ways to Collect Interviews
  64. 64. Making Connections + Participant Observation
  65. 65. Participant Observation The purpose is to allow the researcher to gain insights and develop relationships that require an active, trusting rapport with participants + cultural immersion
  66. 66. What to Observe During Participant Observation
  67. 67. Strengths of Participant Observation •Builds rapport •Allows for insight into contexts, relationships, behavior •Can provide information previously unknown •Can help an anthropologist distinguish between what people say they do and what people actually do
  68. 68. Weaknesses of Participant Observation • Smaller research sample • Data can be hard to code or categorize • Time-consuming • Recording • Obtrusive effect : the presence of the researcher causes people to behave differently than they would if the researcher was not present (p. 110)
  69. 69. Ethical Considerations + IRB Training Review
  70. 70. Ethics and Anthropology: “Do No Harm” Areas of responsibility for anthropologists: • The people under study • The local communities • The host governments and their own government • Other members of the scholarly community • Organizations that sponsor research • Their own student Ethical Scenarios: Video
  71. 71. Ethics Revisited •The research participants’ identities should be protected so that the information you collect does not embarrass or harm them. •Treat subjects with respect and seek their cooperation in the research. •Make it clear to the participants in the study what the terms of the agreement (consent form) are and abide by that. •Tell the truth when you write up your final report.
  72. 72. Research Challenges + Trauma Stories + Witnessing
  73. 73. Common Issues in Fieldwork • Gaining acceptance in the community. • Selecting the most appropriate data-gathering techniques. • Understanding how to operate within the local political structure. • Taking precautions against investigator bias.
  74. 74. Symptoms of [Culture] Shock Homesickness Compulsive eating or drinking Chauvinistic excesses Boredom Irritability Stereotyping and hostility toward host nationals Withdrawal Exaggerated cleanliness Loss of ability to work effectively Excessive sleep Marital stress and family tension Unexplainable weeping
  75. 75. Navigating Trauma Stories + Witnessing
  76. 76. Activity: Practice : Creating Open Ended Questions for Icebreaker
  77. 77. Research Tutorial Abroad Program in Puerto Rico • What is Digital Humanities? What is Public Engagement in Digital Humanities? • Digital Storytelling and Visual Ethnography (Photography, Voice Recordings, Videos) • Digital Publishing (i.e. Websites for public engagement) • StoryMapJS (Mapping Narratives / Local Perspectives + Researcher Thoughts / Positionality) • Acknowledgement and Credit // Photos and Videos // Data Repository • Voyant - Textual Analysis** • Activity: Google Maps (Locating potential research sites) • Activity: Timeline (Puerto Rican History in Context) Critical Digital Humanities

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