Code-Switching in a Tucson Office Space Cruz Medina University of Arizona
Spanglish=Salient Code-Switching in Tucson <ul><li>Example of Spanglish </li></ul>What are the most salient features of CS among college educated bilingual Spanish and English speakers in an office where English is the linguistic market, and what kinds of socially significant factors influence decisions to switch?
The Southwest: mucho Spanglish <ul><li>Tucson represents an interesting speech community made up of many college educated bilingual speakers </li></ul>
Who, What & Where <ul><li>Observed the CS in a 'natural' office conversations; by natural, I noted CS while sitting in my work space </li></ul><ul><li>On other occasions, I interviewed the women in my office one-on-one about the CS that they observe when working with bilingual students in Tucson schools </li></ul><ul><li>Fischer's 1971 article on linguistic boundaries and ideological identification also provided a theoretical framework </li></ul>
El Grupo Y Data <ul><li>6 CS: 2 females 30s, 2 females 30s & 2 males early 20s </li></ul><ul><li>Female CS in early 20s: recent college graduate, tended to CS when using tags in-between complete utterances in English, e.g.: " mande ", "...,si o no?" & "...,sabes?" </li></ul><ul><li>2 female CS in early 30s: would code-switch into Spanish and maintain complete utterances; more aware of audience </li></ul><ul><li> Group of male & female CS did not occur when discussing business </li></ul><ul><li>Male in early 20s from Tucson: used more phrases sprinkled in to conversation: "Vaya", "vete" (less comfortable) </li></ul><ul><li>Male in early 20s from Sonora, Mexico: CS and maintained when joking around and speaking about personal matters </li></ul>
Results—Women More Conscious of Linguistic choices <ul><li>one of the female CS speakers asked me if I spoke Spanish at one point (none of the males, or younger females asked) </li></ul><ul><li>even when code-switching, the women in 30s completed utterances in Spanish, adhering more closely to standard linguistic rules </li></ul><ul><li>the use of tag question, found to be a more feminine linguistic practice occurred the most frequently with younger female </li></ul><ul><li> women expressed concern about etiquette in situations of CS with people they did not know; concerned about the significance of their switches, not wanting to offend </li></ul>
This is for la raza : Linguistic practices as cultural Allegiance <ul><li>Female CS noted that they found speaking Spanish often made students feel more comfortable and familiar with her when speaking Spanish, reinforcing that: </li></ul><ul><li>"individuals choose to employ it[language] as a symbol of their allegiance to a broader set of political ideals than that embodied in the family or kin group” (Ferguson 1971; 123)" </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, they reported following students when they switched in what Gardner-Chloros calls the "accommodation of linguistic environment" (Gardner-Chloros 1997; 371) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
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CONCLUSIONS :CULTURAL ALLEGIANCE, IMITATION, LINGUISTIC CAPITAL, SIMILARITIES W/EARLIER CASES