DOIs stands for…, serves as a persistent, actionable identifiiers of online content. It can serve as both an identifier and a link. This can a wider range of content types, including journal articles, books, conf proc, other schol content.etc. Registering content and assigning DOIs is Crossref’s core service.
DOIs can help solve the problem of broken links by providing stable links and persistent identifiers to content.
Crossref does not sell DOIs but rather is a DOI registration agency. RA’s provide services such as allocating DOI name prefixes, registering DOI names and providing the necessary infrastructure to a maintain metadata Different RA’s provide DOIs for various organizational types . Some work with specific content types, like EIDRs for the Entertainment Industry, or language specific like… Crossref members may register content and assign DOIs but membership with Crossref also enables participation in additional services like Similarity Check, CrossMark etc. Funding data
What is a DOI. It is an actionable link which means it is resolvable in a browser. A DOI is composed of 3 sections. The red part is the resolver address. The blue is the prefix, we give to publisher members when they join. The suffix is the unique part of the DOI assigned by the publisher and it must be unique within a prefix. DOIs can beTransparent, can tell what it is vs, opaque random numbers and letters. Pros and con.
OJS supports correct DOI display.
Cannot create and forget your DOIs. Why are Crossref DOIs important? yOur attention to them is what makes it persistent
They solve the problem broken links but only when they are maintained. Broken links are a big problem with online content – titles move from publisher to publisher, or to new platforms, publishers upgrade their sites regularly, which usually involves changing URLs.
https://thenounproject.com/term/link/18141/ Eric Vullings CC-0: https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
An example. How are DOI used?
Why a DOI and not a URL? DOIs are better. And When DOIs are maintained this process works well. Lets say all of these journals reference one article using its URL, rather than a DOI.
But what happens when the content moves. That content is no longer at the URL that is referenced by those journals.
But lets say that instead of using a URL, the journals reference that article using a DOI. The DOI will direct the readers to the URL registered with Crossref. If the journal article should change URLs, the publisher only needs to update the URL in one place, with Crossref, and the readers will continue to access the content in its new location. The publisher doesn’t have to tell all other publishers that the content moved.
How do you create a DOI .Your DOI suffix can be any alphanumeric string. the approved character set for DOI suffixes is: "a-z", "A-Z", "0-9" and Limited punctuation is allowed, "-._;()/". The suffix does not need to include specific or descriptive information in the DOI; as mentioned before it can be transparent or opaque. some publishers use ISSN, or an existing internal numbering scheme. Be concise, be unique. And Consistent.
The Web deposit form. Allows a member to manually deposit the metadata of a piece of content without having to know XML. You simply enter Crossref DOI and other metadata, field by field, into the form. XML will be generated for you and sent to the Crossref system. This is only suitable for low volume deposits for obvious reasons – someone needs to enter all of the metadata into the form. It’s a good option if you publish infrequently or only publish a small number of articles at a time. It’s great for updates – if you need to update a single Crossref DOI and don’t want to redo an entire deposit. The web deposit form supports journals and articles, books and book chapters,conference proceedings and conference papers, and reports. New metadata manager
Enter your metadata field by field into the form, and XML will be generated for you and sent to the system. You first enter basic title-level metadata – for journals: *that’s title, *ISSN, *volume, issue, date *and any title or issue-level Crossref DOIs you want to create. Title level Crossref DOIs are not required for journals but we recommend them.
2. Next, enter item-level metadata, so for example, for a journal: *you’d enter article title, *authors, *page numbers* and publication date. Please enter all the available metadata if you can, including all authors – it’s easy to just enter one, but entering all increases the chance that members, users, and subscribers will be able to find your Crossref DOIs.
3. Last step: submit. There’s a tick box for ‘send XML’ which is selected by default – we recommend that you leave this selected.
After you hit the ‘submit’ button, an XML file is sent to the system for deposit. Submitting the form doesn’t mean your Crossref DOIs have been deposited, it just means they’ve been submitted. When the deposit has been processed, you’ll get an emailed submission log – success or not We also send you a second email containing the XML from your deposit – it can come in handy if you discover errors in your deposit and need to update your metadata –you can edit the XML instead of re-entering everything into the form.
Note; You can also upload single NLM files to this interface.Cut and paste - don’t type! New Metadata Manager tool in development!
More simple way than using the web deposit form.
Register articles and put them in the deposit cart.
deposit system Sends back submission log, success or not, and the errors if it was not successful.
OJS also has a plug-in that has been built in collaboration with Crossref to help members register DOIs with us. This is the page in OJS that contains the plug in settings. It’s really important that you put in the name and email of someone at your organisation who is responsible for looking after Crossref deposits, as information on whether the DOIs were deposited successfully (or not) will be sent to this person so they can follow up on that if needed. The User Name and Password field are from Crossref. If you don’t know yours and want to set up your OJS system to deposit to Crossref then let us know and we can send you that information.
Make sure the plug in isn’t asking you for any additional information while you set it up.
Managing your DOIs – another important page to look at is this screen, especially the column showing the status of your DOIs. There is a key at the bottom of the page that you can check against so that you know if your DOIs have been deposited, if the deposit has failed (so you can investigate) – firstname.lastname@example.org can help if your deposits are failing – it may be due to title mismatches etc. that can be easily solved so please don’t ignore the issue! Again, failure and success reports will be sent to the email address from the screen before.
The basic metadata that the OJS plug in gives Crossref is pretty good and includes things like license information, abstracts & full-text links for Similarity Check (from version 2.4.7 I think). However, if you do want to download the XML you’re depositing with Crossref to add some additional information to it, you can click this button to download the XML file which can then be deposited (after edits) at doi.crossref.org. Nb. OJS will do more work on the plug in to include more information (like funding data) over time.
There are a number of situations that can arise after you have registered DOIs. Re-deposit metadata. Stress DOI maintenance; all of these are situations where DOI and metadata maintenance is key
You can email us the the DOI and the new URL in a tab-separate list, about 24 hours to process.
Another example is moving content from one hosting provider to another, or one publisher to another
Some orgs and indivduals, like researchers, come to Crossref looking for metadata.
Libraries, search and content discovery services
Assigning DOIs does not change the access model.
We differentiate between querying, which is designed to return one and only one right answer, and searching, which is more like a search engine and will return multiple hits for any query.
use for partial information, like a google search
Explain that whilst the copyeditor could look at each reference and search online, there is a better way to find the DOIs, provided by Crossref. The first step is to go to the online site, and click on the Simple Text Query link. NB: you must check this online before doing this presentation, in case Crossref has changed the links !!
This screenshot shows the three key points: enter the registered email: check the box asking for PubMed IDs (for biomedical journals), and finally, paste in the references for which you would like the Crossref DOIs returned. Then, finally, click on the submit box and wait
If the reference is incorrect then it is likely that the DOI will not be found – so this system has two benefits – not only adding DOIs to references, but also checking the references that the author has provided – they may have made a mistake ! However, not all articles or publications have DOIs.
A stored query at Crossref will alert you when a metadata record that matches your query is deposited by another publisher.
Guidelines give options for displaying DOIs in a variety of formats
Note that these tools will only find Crossref DOIs – Not required for legacy content; only new content added after joining Crossref
https is the secure protocol . Publisher don’t need to change existing DOIs.
Crossref DOIs help to uniquely identify and
therefore link content
Crossref is one of several DOI Registration Agencies
• The DOI directory: makes the DOI actionable on the web
• Prefix: assigned by Crossref
• Suffix: assigned by the publisher
Total DOI = routes through the DOI resolver to point to the
Important to maintain your registered content
• Important to know how to work with the content you
register with Crossref
• So that readers can always find, and use the content
User clicks on a DOI in
the reference list in
URL where that
content is located
User accesses cited article in
(you don’t have to
tell all the other
The DOI redirects:
Publishers also register
other bibliographic material
to uniquely identify their
content - this metadata is as
important as the DOI itself
Depositing Crossref DOIs and metadata
• Deposit process
• Decide on suffixes and URLs
• Create XML using the Crossref deposit schema
• Or use the Web Deposit form
• Verify your XML
• Upload your XML (via a web interface or programatically)
• This adds the DOIs and metadata to the Crossref system
Web Deposit Form
• For smaller publishers unable to create XML
• Enter data into form
• Form generates XML and sends it to the system
• DOI is deposited
• (Be sure to check your submission log!)
What happens when …
• You discover an error after deposit
• How do you correct the metadata?
• You update your website
• How do you maintain DOI links?
• You partner with another publisher
• Who is responsible for updating the DOIs?
• You host your content on multiple sites
• Where should the DOI point?
What if something changes?
• Change/correction to the metadata
• E.g. author’s name entered incorrectly
• Change to the URL
• E.g. your publication moves to another website
• Do NOT re-assign another Crossref DOI
• There is no charge to update DOIs
How to update your metadata
If there is an error or an update to your metadata:
• Re-submit the metadata
• if updating any of the bibliographic metadata, have to resubmit all the
bibliographic metadata as a whole
• supplemental metadata can be submitted separate from the bibliographic
metadata but would be updated as a whole
• For URL-only changes you can send a .csv file to our support team
Transferring or moving content
• Do not change assigned DOIs
• Only update the metadata (URL)
• The new publisher is responsible for
• Updating the metadata of existing DOIs
• Depositing new article/content DOIs
• Receiving reports and notifications from Crossref
• The new publisher must be a Crossref member
• Search and indexing services
• On Crossref site
• On partner sites (e.g. ORCID)
• Enhanced Crossref metadata services
• Organizations that want to supplement metadata from other sources
• Organizations providing citation metrics
• Document delivery providers
• Discovery services
• Search engines
• Content aggregators
Sharing metadata - benefits
• Greater discovery of your content
• Inclusion in discovery services
• Only your metadata is shared – not your full text!
How you, authors, and providers can find DOIs
• Human search:
• Crossref metadata search (http://search.crossref.org/)
• SimpleText Query (http://www.crossref.org/simpleTextQuery)
• Machine search:
• Crossref REST API (http://api.crossref.org)
How to query: human searches
• Crossref Metadata Search (Google-like interface)
• Useful if you only have partial information
• Simple Text Query (formatted, untagged references)
• Good for full reference lists
• Used to find DOIs
• Tell your authors about these tools!
Crossref Simple Text Query
Slides reproduced courtesy of INASP
Paste references in here
Hit ‘submit’ to finish
Crossref Simple Text Query
Note … missing DOIs
• If no DOI is given in the results:
• Check that the reference is accurate and complete
• Not all article/publications have Crossref DOIs
• The publisher may not assign DOIs
• A particular DOI may not have been registered with Crossref yet
• Not all DOIs are Crossref DOIs; a search with Crossref tools may not find those register
with other registration agencies
• You can create a stored query for this result
How to query: the advanced way
• You can query using the XML query API
• Use the Crossref REST API
• Members must add
DOI links to their
• Required only for
encouraged for all
Crossref DOIs appear in references on the web page
Copy and paste into your text file
How to add Crossref DOI links to references
• Ask the authors in author guidelines
• Add at copyediting stage
• Use a search engine for individual articles (slow)
• Query Crossref with XML (efficient, requires skill)
• Use Crossref lookup tools (simple)
• Use third-party tools
• Inera xStyles
• Aries Editorial Manager
• Hire a Crossref service provider
Crossref DOI display guidelines
• Crossref has updated its DOI Display Guidelines. This is a big
deal. We last made a change in 2011 so it’s not something that
happens often or that we take lightly.
• Old format was http://dx.doi.org/
• In short, the changes are to drop “dx” from DOI links and to use
“https:” rather than “http:”.
• An example of the new best practice in displaying a Crossref DOI
link is: https://doi.org/10.1629/22161
• OJS supports this correct format
New DOI display guidelines
• Always make the DOI a full link –
https://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1995.0238 – even when
it’s on the abstract or full text page of the content that
the DOI identifies – and use “https://doi.org/”.