What is it? Digital Object Identifier, alphanumeric string that uniquely identifies an item and where it lives online DOIs can be used to identify things online, basically anything that you can link to (html pages, images, audio, raw data, programs, etc.) Once a DOI has been assigned to an item, the DOI URL (if properly maintained) can remain a consistent locator for the item.
Why are DOIs important? They solve the problem of ‘link rot’ i.e. broken links. (image) Broken links are a big problem with online content – titles move from publisher to publisher, publishers upgrade their sites regularly, which usually involves changing URLs.
A CrossRef DOI reliably identifies content. If you follow a DOI to an article you’re assure that the page you view is the publisher maintained version of an article. This is very important, because research articles are corrected, retracted, enhanced regularly.
1. A DOI link consists of two parts: the DOI resolver URL, and the DOI itself. 2. When combined, the DOI is ‘made actionable’, that is, made into a link. 3. When you click on the link, you’re taken to the current URL of the item.The URL for the DOI in this example has been updated 5 times since it was initially deposited in June 2004. 4. We updated our DOI display guidelines in early August – we now ask that DOIs be represented as a link with the http://dx.doi.org prefix
There are a number of DOI RAs, all overseen by the International DOI Foundation. CrossRef is the largest RA – we registered over 90% of the DOIs – at last count the percentage was 96%. We register DOIs for scholarly and professional materials, other RAs assign DOIs to different materials, or use the DOI differently.
The majority of CrossRef content is journals but as we grow we’re seeing increases in deposits of other content types, particularly books. The main content types we accept are journals, books, conference proceedings, reports, standards, dissertations, and supplementary materials, but we do have some flexibility so if you want to assign DOIs to a content type not listed here, please ask.
Our range is broad chronologically as well – we of course have a significant amount of current content but deposits range back as far as 1665.
Publisher members: What does it mean to be a ‘CrossRef Member’ – member obligations outbound reference linking : Members are required to create outbound DOI links within their references, meaning members must add DOI links (when available) to the reference list for journal articles deposited with CrossRef . deposit all current journal articles: no other content types are required, back files aren’t required, but we encourage themresolve any DOI conflicts: a ‘conflict’ happens when two DOIs share the same metadata, meaning more than one DOI has been assigned to a single item. This can happen for a number of reasons - we provide tools to identify and resolve conflicts.update metadata and URLs: a DOI is only as good as its most recent URL. If your URL changes, the DOI must be updated.Do not publicize CrossRef DOIs until links are liveMake plans for long term archiving: this is new, you need to decide what you’re going to do if you go out of business – there are a number of archiving organizations that are very willing to host journals that have ceased publications (Portico, CLOCKSS, KLB)
We call the process of sending in metadata to the CR system ‘depositing’. We sometimes use the terms ‘deposit’ and ‘register’ interchangeably but they’re slightly different - when a publisher ‘deposits’ a DOI, the metadata is added to the CrossRef database, making the DOI retrievable. The DOI is also registered with the Handle resolver, meaning the DOI and URL only – no citation metadata is recorded by the Handle resolver. Immediately after the submission is processed, the system sends you a submission log. This is very important - data is often messy, and we try to keep the messy stuff out of our database, so there are many reasons your submission might fail.
. Once the DOI has been registered, it is resolvable and queryable, meaning it can be used for linking and can be retrieved from our system by end users, CrossRef Metadata Services subscribers, library link resolvers, and of course other members.
Submission methods vary from very robust complicated systems to one guy cutting and pasting stuff from Word into our web deposit form (which converts the data to XML). Most deposits are made via machine interfaces. Data is sent to us via HTTP POST – we do have a simple java-based tool that can be used for uploads, it’s available in our help documentation. Many publishers prefer to create their own tools. We do not currently accept FTP deposits.
We do have a public interface to our system which can be used to upload deposit and query files. This is where you’d go if you needed to resubmit an XML file generated by the web deposit form.
To use, cut-and-paste a list of citations into the form and…
Your list will be returned to you with any DOI matches.
We also have a ‘guest query’ form which provides a number of single-DOI searches. It’s not a tool you’d want to use for bulk querying, but it’s an excellent resource for testing out queries. It’s a good practice to query for your own DOIs, just to make sure they are discoverable. The GQ has a ‘bibliographic metadata search’, which allows you to enter fielded metadata into the form There’s also an author/title search, which can be useful if you don’t have full article metadata Next, there’s a formatted reference parser, you can enter a single reference here – for multiple references you’ll need to use the STQ There is a DOI-to-metadata query, you enter a DOI and get back the metadata You’re also able to submit an XML query – this is quite handy for troubleshooting and testing, we’ve got several options for controlling query execution so it’s pretty easy to just cut and paste a query into the box and edit it on the fly.
After you’ve retrieved your reference DOIs, you need to include them in the reference lists on your website.
Here is another example of outbound linking - this publisher is including the full DOI url in their references, making it very easy to cut and paste etc. This is recommended in our new DOI guidelines…
If you have titles that have gone through name changes, you’ll need to pay attention to our title management policies.Titles in the CrossRef system are created from publisher metadata with the first deposit of a journal. Title and ISSN combinations are not verified with an external agency. A check digit validation is performed on every ISSN submitted in a deposit. Once a title or ISSN is introduced into the CrossRef system, a new publication with the same title or ISSN cannot be created without CrossRef intervention. The publisher determines the exact title and ISSN included in the deposit. At least one ISSN is required for each journal deposited with CrossRef, but publishers are encouraged to deposit all ISSN available for a title. If you are depositing a series that predates ISSNs, they can be assigned retroactively – there’s no charge for assigning ISSNs.The title / ISSN combination in your deposit must match the title / ISSN combination in our system. We do allow for minor variances, like Journal of… vs. The Journal of… or mixing and and &Publishers requesting significant changes to a title are instructed to request a new ISSN from the appropriate agency. This isn’t a CrossRef policy, it’s an ISSN Centre policy and is actively supported by the Library of Congress (for those of you in the US)5. Journals should be deposited with the correct title – sometimes journals appear online under the most current title. We really need to make sure that the title in our database is the original title, since that title will be used in citations, which turn into CrossRef queries. We can add multiple versions of a title to a title record to help with querying, but it’s important that DOIs be attached to the correct title.
First is the resolution report. It is sent out monthly to the business contact we have on file. This report is comprised of statistics we extract from DOI resolution logs and contains data about how many times your DOIs have been clicked and your overall resolution failure rate (successes vs. failures) There’s a lot of interesting data here – it has a.) how many resolutions you have per month – and lists the previous 12 months as well, so you can compareb.) it also includes info on resolution attempts (that is, how many times someone tries to resolve one of your DOIs. c.) also has a list of your top ten DOIsd.) this is important – the report lists your overall resolution failure rate, as well as the overall failure percentage for all members. The resolution failure rate is the percentage of DOI resolution attempts that have failed. This rate often gives members a heads up about potential problems, whether it be someone creating bad links to your content, or you failing to deposit DOIs that have been published.e.) there is a .csv file attached to your report that lists all failed DOI resolution attempts. Some of these are garbage – users make errors, especially when they are cutting and pasting, but if you have a high failure rate you should look at these DOIs closely.
This report is emailed as needed to the technical contact. These alerts are compiled from complaints about unresolving DOIs submitted to us by end users. If an end user tries to resolve a DOI that has not been registered, they are delivered to a form that they can submit to us with comments and their email address. When the DOI has been registered, we send them an alert. Any comments are passed on to publishers.
We also have something called the Schematron report – Schematron is a validation language. These reports are used to identify messy metadata We need to be flexible and accommodate variances in data, so our deposit schema can’t keep all of the questionable data out without blocking good data as well, so we do a post-deposit review of metadata and pick out items that we think might be incorrect. These reports are emailed out weekly on Saturday, and we send out an average of 45 reports a week.
Introduction tofor publishers Patricia Feeney Product Support Manager
Agenda CrossRef overview Creating and working with CrossRef DOIs Maintaining your DOIs and metadata CrossRef services Resources
mission statement:CrossRefs goal is to be a trusted collaborative organizationwith broad community connections; authoritative andinnovative in support of a persistent, sustainableinfrastructure for scholarly communication.
Why do publishers join? To get persistent identifiers for their content To drive more traffic to their content To turn references into hyperlinks To pull in cited-by links (who cites this?) Participate in other collaborative services (CrossCheck, CrossMark)
A DOI uniquelyidentifies a piece of electronic content
http://dx.doi.org/ + DOI = persistent URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/H02-043http://dx.doi.org//10.1577/H02-043
International DOI Foundation (IDF):oversees the central DOI system, promoteDOI as a standard, and provides anorganizational infrastructure that ensurespersistence and interoperability.Corporation for National ResearchInitiatives (CNRI):they (among other things)are responsible for the Handle system, whichis the technology that causes DOIs toresolve.Registration Agencies (RAs): RegisterDOIs on behalf of other organizations.CrossRef is a RA.
DOI Registration agenciesEuropean Union Office of Copyright Agency Limited Publications (CAL)TIB mEDRA (TechnischeInformationsbi bliotek) Wanfang DataR.R. Bowker DataCiteNielsen Bookdata CrossRef
Member obligations: outbound reference linking deposit all current journal articles resolve any DOI conflicts update metadata and URLs do not publicize CrossRef DOIs until links are live make plans for long term archiving
Step-by-step 1. Join CrossRef! 2. Publish 3. Deposit 4. Query 5. Outbound linking 6. Maintain DOIs and Metadata
After you join… Prefix: Suffix: Unique within a prefix Assigned to members – a DOI can only be assigned to one item Format is 10.XXXX Consistent Identifies who intially Logical created the DOI Easily documented Prefix does not identify Readily implemented the current owner of the DOI
Creating a DOI Suffix Keep it simple: 10.5664/sleep.1000 10.3183/NPPRJ-1986-01-03-p004-013 10.3103/S0005105507050032 10.4260/BJFT20094508 10.1632/074069503X85526 Allowed characters: "a-z", "A-Z", "0-9" and "-._;()/”
Publish Response page must include: bibliographic information about the item means to access full text the DOI New DOI Display guidelines! http://www.crossref.org/02publishers/doi_display_guidelines.html CrossRef DOIs should always be displayed as permanent URLs in the online environment. YES: http://dx.doi.org/10.5555/imadoi NO: doi: 10.5555/imadoi
DOIs are required on the responsepage, recommended on other pages: Tables of contents Abstracts Full text HTML and PDF articles and other scholarly documents Citation downloads to reference management systems Metadata feeds to third parties “How to Cite This” instructions on content pages Social networking links Anywhere users are directed to a permanent, stable, or persistent link to the content
Machine interfaces HTTP The vast majority of transactions are made via a machine interface
Public interface Web deposit form http://www.crossref.org/we bDeposit/ 1. Enter data into form 2. Form generates XML and sends it to the system 3. DOI is deposited (or not, be sure to check your submission log)
Web Deposit Format: http://www.crossref.org/webDeposit/Accepts deposits for: journals and articles books and book chapters conference proceedings and conference papers reports.
CrossRef system public interface: http://doi.crossref.org
New guidelineshttp://www.crossref.org/02publishers/doi_display_guidelines.html Ghosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1097- 2765(03)00225-9 Ghosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260, http://doi.org/bm6 Ghosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1097- 2765(03)00225-9 Ghosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260 Ghosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260, CrossRef. Ghosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260, Article.
Maintaining DOIs and Metadata URL update H:firstname.lastname@example.org;fromPrefix=10.5555;toPrefix=10.5555 10.5555/doi1 http://www.yoururl.com/journal/art1 10.5555/doi2 http://www.yoururl.com/journal/art2 10.5555/doi2 http://www.yoururl.com/journal/art12
Maintaining Journal Titles Title and ISSN combinations are determined by the publisher. A valid ISSN is required for all journal titles The title / ISSN combination in your deposit must match the title / ISSNcombination in our system. If a title changes, a new ISSN is required Journals should be deposited under the original titleTitle list: http://www.crossref.org/titleList/
Maintaining DOIs and Metadata: Reports Recurring or static As-needed reports: reports: Conflict Resolution Report DOI Error Report Deposit Report Schematron Report Missing Metadata Report Coming soon: Status Report New system reports! Go-live report Title list
DOI Error report (emailed nightly as needed)
Schematron report (emailed weeklyas needed) Schematron reports notify depositors of non- fatal deposit issues 35-40 emails sent out weekly Alerts are generated for < 1% of deposits Tend to identify „messy‟ deposits Rules updated periodically
Services Cited-by linking Metadata feeds to third parties Plagiarism screeningPowered byiThenticate Version verification
http://labs.crossref.org/Plugins for Moveable Type and Wordpress Experimental search interfaces PDF tools DOI QR code generator
Where to find help: Help documentation: http://www.crossref.org/help CrossRef support: email email@example.com or visit http://support.crossref.org Webinars: http://www.crossref.org/01company/webinars.htmlStaying up to date: Announcements forum: http://support.crossref.org/forums/147622-announcements subscribe via RSS or email CrossRef Quarterly: CrossRef newsletter Annual Meetings and Workshops: more info