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Case Study:First Commercial CLT Project     Opens Doors in US         The Long Hall             Presented by           Dar...
“The Wood Products Council” is a Registered Provider with TheAmerican Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems...
Copyright Materials    This presentation is protected by US and  International Copyright laws. Reproduction,distribution, ...
Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this program, participants will be able to:1. Identify some key the advantages of using c...
Project Location                   5
Glacier & Ski Country                        6
“Downtown” Whitefish                       7
In-fill replaces old Quonset hut                                   8
Better space• Well insulated but…• Lacked fire resistance• Inefficient use of  footprint   and…• Moisture  management  – I...
CLT?• Designer suggested CLT• Owner had an affinity for wood and sustainable  design not CMU• Walk him through the process...
What is CLT• A solid pre-fabricated, monolithic engineered wood  material used to construct the entire building envelope  ...
CLT Terminology                  12
CLT Manufacture• Overall panel format varies• 10’ x 40’ x 6” is representative size                                       ...
CLT Manufacture• Initial layer placement determines strength axis                                                     14
CLT Manufacture• Initial layer placement determines strength axis• Apply glue                                             ...
CLT Manufacture• Second layer establishes minor strength axis                                                 16
CLT Manufacture• Second layer establishes minor strength axis• Apply glue                                                 17
CLT Manufacture• Third layer balances first layer• Press or continue to add layers                                     18
CLT Multi-axial Loading•   CLT can carry load in any direction•   Dimensional stability in the plane of the panel•   Axial...
Multi-axis Loading• Vertical Gravity Load• Out of Plane Bending  – Distributes thru panel  – Dissipates quickly  – Panel/c...
Why CLT• Why CLT?  – Structural  – Acoustic  – Fire  – Environmental/Carbon  – Speed of build  – Thermal Mass  – Interior ...
Structural• Structural  – Dimensional stability  – High stiffness     • in-plane     • out-of-plane  – Biaxial loading    ...
Structural•   Conducted at E-Defense in                  • http://www.youtube.com/watch    Japan    – Building weight 270t...
Acoustic• Acoustic  – Solid panels effective against airborne sound  – Flanking paths limited    • Simple sealing around p...
Fire• Fire  – CLT performs well                    – Large wood    ‘under fire’                          members  – Well ...
Environment/Carbon• Environment/Carbon     – Completely renewable           • 148 cu m of wood for this building would gro...
Speed of Build• Speed of build  – Pre-cut panels  – Controlled construction environment  – CNC accuracy  – Site costs redu...
Speed of Build    Site Prep                 28
Speed of Build    Day 1                 29
Speed of Build    Day 1                 30
Speed of Build    Day 4                 31
Speed of Build    Day 5                 32
Speed of Build    Week 4                 33
Speed of Build    Week 13                 34
Thermal• Thermal  – Thermal mass    • Thermal buffering    • Inside thermal envelope       – Vs CMU exterior  – Provides a...
Interior Environment• Interior Environment  – Food grade glues  – Unsung benefit of CLT    • Structure self-regulates its ...
Interior Environment                       37
Cost?• Owner is interested… –Next question:   What does it cost?                         38
Conceptual Design•   Originally 5950 sf•   CMU Perimeter Walls to address fire rating•   Upper level clad with Barn Wood b...
Conceptual Costing                     40
Conceptual Parameters• Shipping dimensional constraints   – 39’ x 7’4”• Maximize interior space   – Minimize wall thicknes...
Code ConsiderationsGame is on IF… the Building Official will accept CLT…                  OR                              ...
Code Overview• 104.11 Alternative          • Chapter 7 Fire-  materials, design and         Resistance-Rated  methods of c...
Alternate Materials• 104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of  construction and equipment.   – The provisions o...
Alternate Materials•       New technology requires “buy-in” from the regulatory        community    –        “Buy-in” = ac...
Construction Classification• Section 602 Construction Classification  – Type V Construction     • Limited area     • Direc...
Fire Resistance• Objectives of Fire Resistance  – Safe evacuation of occupants     • Contain fire and smoke in compartment...
Fire Resistance•   Insulation Failure     – Temperature rise of 140 °C       average or 180 °C at any point on       unexp...
CLT vs Heavy Timber•   Heavy Timber Design for Fire Resistance    – Multi-sided charring    – Single axis loading – multip...
Thumbs Up for CLTThe Long and short of it… the Building Official will ‘buy in’…                                        50
Transition to CLT• Tight lot constraints   – Maximize preassembly   – Wall cladding     configuration   – Fastener install...
Sub Coordination•   Sub Coordination     – Plumbing/Mechanical                     – Concrete         • No floor/ceiling c...
Foundation Connection• Foundation to CLT Connection  – Anchor bolt offset from panel connection  – Flex connection        ...
Panel Connections                    54
Designing with CLT• Unique CLT design features  – Cantilevered floors  – Live walls  – Shear                              ...
130 + Shop Drawings                      56
Shipping• 4 containers• Logistically organize  each load• Consolidate highest  needs in 1st container  for RUSH• 1st conta...
Preassembly• Panels assembled and  loaded in reverse order• Custom strong-back for  stability and load distribution• A-fra...
Raising•   Sill plate in place•   Sheathing covering finished concrete•   Walls braced off floor mounted ledger boards•   ...
Raising• Glulams rest in pockets – top plate provides lateral• CLT beams rest on CLT walls – screw through walls• Curved b...
Raising• CNC’d panels  go together  tightly with nice  clean joints• Adjustments  are easy with  the right tools   – (Unli...
Sealing• Fire Caulk at all north & south ext  wall joints• Vapor permeable tapes on all joints• Polymer foam tapes (sound)...
Insulation• Solid blanket – minimal thermal shorts• Quick, non-combustible, moisture neutral• Easy to place in tight space...
Cladding• Metal Hat channel N/S• Wood battens E/W• Diagonal load bearing  screws                            64
Vapor Permeable Roof and Wall                                65
Blower Door Test•   Montana Dept of Env Quality conducted    an on-site educational training test     –   Visual inspectio...
Blower Door Test                   67
Blower Door Test• Air changes/hour at 50 Pascal (ACH 50)  – Lower floor: 1.65 ACH 50  – Upper floor: 1.41 ACH 50     • Max...
The Long HallThanks for hanging                     with me for                                   THE LONG  HALLConcept   ...
Questions?This concludes The AmericanInstitute of ArchitectsContinuing Education SystemsCourse                            ...
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First Commercial CLT Project in the USA

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Cross Lam Timber Solutions™ completed the first fully Cross-Laminated Timber building in the US in the fall of 2011 and the entire interior is exposed CLT. Below is a slide show of a recent CLT seminar we presented that explains the CLT construction process from concept to completion.

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First Commercial CLT Project in the USA

  1. 1. Case Study:First Commercial CLT Project Opens Doors in US The Long Hall Presented by Darryl Byle, PE
  2. 2. “The Wood Products Council” is a Registered Provider with TheAmerican Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems(AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will bereported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completionfor both AIA members and non-AIA members are available uponrequest.This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professionaleducation. As such, it does not include content that may be deemedor construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of anymaterial of construction or any method or manner of handling, using,distributing, or dealing in any material or product.Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services willbe addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. 2
  3. 3. Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction,distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © The Wood Products Council 2012 3 –3
  4. 4. Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this program, participants will be able to:1. Identify some key the advantages of using cross laminated timber (CLT).2. Describe building official concerns related to the first use of CLT in a commercial building in the US and how they were satisfied.3. Explain how CLT reduced the building’s carbon footprint.4. Describe how the use of CLT contributed to energy efficiency of the completed building. 4
  5. 5. Project Location 5
  6. 6. Glacier & Ski Country 6
  7. 7. “Downtown” Whitefish 7
  8. 8. In-fill replaces old Quonset hut 8
  9. 9. Better space• Well insulated but…• Lacked fire resistance• Inefficient use of footprint and…• Moisture management – Interior environment• Not too healthy – Old wet socks… 9
  10. 10. CLT?• Designer suggested CLT• Owner had an affinity for wood and sustainable design not CMU• Walk him through the process – What is CLT – Why CLT – Conceptual Design – Code Considerations – Transition to CLT – Construction – Testing 10
  11. 11. What is CLT• A solid pre-fabricated, monolithic engineered wood material used to construct the entire building envelope including floors, walls, and roofs. 11
  12. 12. CLT Terminology 12
  13. 13. CLT Manufacture• Overall panel format varies• 10’ x 40’ x 6” is representative size 13
  14. 14. CLT Manufacture• Initial layer placement determines strength axis 14
  15. 15. CLT Manufacture• Initial layer placement determines strength axis• Apply glue 15
  16. 16. CLT Manufacture• Second layer establishes minor strength axis 16
  17. 17. CLT Manufacture• Second layer establishes minor strength axis• Apply glue 17
  18. 18. CLT Manufacture• Third layer balances first layer• Press or continue to add layers 18
  19. 19. CLT Multi-axial Loading• CLT can carry load in any direction• Dimensional stability in the plane of the panel• Axial load parallel to grain• Rolling shear limits bending – Reduced effective Moment of Inertia 19
  20. 20. Multi-axis Loading• Vertical Gravity Load• Out of Plane Bending – Distributes thru panel – Dissipates quickly – Panel/corbel/beam assy acts as moment frame – Tongue and groove distributes load to base• Lateral Loading/Shear 20
  21. 21. Why CLT• Why CLT? – Structural – Acoustic – Fire – Environmental/Carbon – Speed of build – Thermal Mass – Interior Environment 21
  22. 22. Structural• Structural – Dimensional stability – High stiffness • in-plane • out-of-plane – Biaxial loading • Bidirectional cantilever – Increased splitting resistance – NEW ways to design – NEW solutions 22
  23. 23. Structural• Conducted at E-Defense in • http://www.youtube.com/watch Japan – Building weight 270t (120t + 150t) – Wall panel thickness • 140 mm floors 1 and 2 • The building showed very • 125 mm floors 3 and 4 good seismic behavior • 85 mm top 3 floors • All floor panels 142 mm under all severe – Wall panels length 2.5 m earthquake motions – Two 3-axial records used – Max top displacement of • Kashiwazaki Kariwa Quake 287 mm (X) and 175 mm – X (0.3g) Y (0.68g) Z (0.4g) (Y) • Kobe JMA Quake – X (0.6g) Y (0.82g) Z (0.34g) • Max storey drifts approx – Total of 14 tests 2.4% (X) and 1.6% (Y) • 10 tests were ≥ 0.3g – The damage after all tests was negligible 23
  24. 24. Acoustic• Acoustic – Solid panels effective against airborne sound – Flanking paths limited • Simple sealing around perimeter • Minimal penetrations – CLT alone = 39 STC • One element vs 3-5 – Rated assemblies = 69 STC/65 IIC 24
  25. 25. Fire• Fire – CLT performs well – Large wood ‘under fire’  members – Well known • Burn slowly characteristics • Form char layer – Isolates/insulates • NDS Part 16 remaining fiber Fire Design of Wood Members • Non-charred wood • IBC 721 – Retains strength Calculated Fire Resistance – Dimensional stability – No concealed – Single side spaces exposure 25
  26. 26. Environment/Carbon• Environment/Carbon – Completely renewable • 148 cu m of wood for this building would grow in NA in 26 seconds – Carbon Store • 104 metric tons – Avoid Greenhouse Gas generated from concrete and steel production • 59 metric tons – Total estimated Carbon benefit: • 143 metric tons CO2(Post-project statistics from WoodWorks Case Study: CLT Milestone in Montana) 26
  27. 27. Speed of Build• Speed of build – Pre-cut panels – Controlled construction environment – CNC accuracy – Site costs reduced • Fewer people • Less time – Structure available sooner = cash flow 27
  28. 28. Speed of Build Site Prep 28
  29. 29. Speed of Build Day 1 29
  30. 30. Speed of Build Day 1 30
  31. 31. Speed of Build Day 4 31
  32. 32. Speed of Build Day 5 32
  33. 33. Speed of Build Week 4 33
  34. 34. Speed of Build Week 13 34
  35. 35. Thermal• Thermal – Thermal mass • Thermal buffering • Inside thermal envelope – Vs CMU exterior – Provides additional insulation value – Allows nearly uniform thermal blanket – Tight envelope • All joints caulked & taped • Fire caulk on rated walls • CNC joints tight 35
  36. 36. Interior Environment• Interior Environment – Food grade glues – Unsung benefit of CLT • Structure self-regulates its moisture – Gortex type of function – No moisture trapped in cavities – Hygro-thermal balance • WUFI – Wärme Und Feuchte Instationär (Transient Heat and Moisture) – Building Envelope Thermal & Moisture Analysis 36
  37. 37. Interior Environment 37
  38. 38. Cost?• Owner is interested… –Next question: What does it cost? 38
  39. 39. Conceptual Design• Originally 5950 sf• CMU Perimeter Walls to address fire rating• Upper level clad with Barn Wood board/batten + accent panels• Do Jang martial arts studio upstairs• Retail/business downstairs 39
  40. 40. Conceptual Costing 40
  41. 41. Conceptual Parameters• Shipping dimensional constraints – 39’ x 7’4”• Maximize interior space – Minimize wall thickness – Minimize cross-walls downstairs• Maximize interior exposure of CLT – No sheet rock or fire protection• Wants interior exposed beams• Exterior appearance fixed by ARC approval• Must have Code Official approval – No wall penetrations – Non-combustible wall cladding/insulation• Liquidated damages will be assessed for delays/missed milestones 41
  42. 42. Code ConsiderationsGame is on IF… the Building Official will accept CLT… OR 42
  43. 43. Code Overview• 104.11 Alternative • Chapter 7 Fire- materials, design and Resistance-Rated methods of construction Construction and equipment. • Chapter 8 Interior• Chapter 3 Use and Finishes Occupancy Classification – Class C• Table 503 Allowable • Chapter 14 Exterior Walls Height and Building Areas • Chapter 15 Roof• Section 504.2 Automatic Assemblies and Rooftop Sprinkler System Structures Increase • Chapter 16 Structural• Section 602 Construction Design Classification • Section 2304.11 Protection Against Decay and Termites 43
  44. 44. Alternate Materials• 104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction and equipment. – The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance , durability and safety.• Translation… 44
  45. 45. Alternate Materials• New technology requires “buy-in” from the regulatory community – “Buy-in” = acceptable to the “Authority Having Jurisdiction” (AHJ).• Provide sufficient information to the AHJ for them to find CLT – …is a satisfactory solution – …complies with the intent of the building code – …is at least equivalent to code prescribed solutions in • Quality • Strength • Effectiveness • Fire-resistance • Durability • Safety 45
  46. 46. Construction Classification• Section 602 Construction Classification – Type V Construction • Limited area • Direct implementation – Type IV Construction • Ext Walls req’d to be noncombustible • Based on post & beam construction • Doesn’t account for panelized benefits – Monolithic structural stability – Single side fire access (more in Fire Resistance) 46
  47. 47. Fire Resistance• Objectives of Fire Resistance – Safe evacuation of occupants • Contain fire and smoke in compartment of origin – Prevent spread of fire from compartment • Fire fighters safety • Property protection – Structural integrity 47
  48. 48. Fire Resistance• Insulation Failure – Temperature rise of 140 °C average or 180 °C at any point on unexposed side. • Est temp of 98 mm at 1 hr = 30 °C (86 °F)• Integrity Failure – Passage of flame or gases hot enough to ignite cotton pads. • 2+ layers remain• Structural Failure – Inability to sustain the applied load at some point during the test. • 1 vert layer = > 5k bearing • Freespan load = < 1475 plf • Surrounding structure transfers load• Protection of metal connection DSB extrapolation devices Graph from Experimental Analysis of Cross-laminated Timber Panels in Fire, Andrea frangi, Mario Fontana, Erich Hugi, Rober Jubstlin, Fire Saftey Journal (2009) 48
  49. 49. CLT vs Heavy Timber• Heavy Timber Design for Fire Resistance – Multi-sided charring – Single axis loading – multiple discreet structural elements – Cannot redistribute load• CLT Design for Fire Resistance – Single-sided charring – Multi-axis loading – single monolithic structural element – Can redistribute load 49
  50. 50. Thumbs Up for CLTThe Long and short of it… the Building Official will ‘buy in’… 50
  51. 51. Transition to CLT• Tight lot constraints – Maximize preassembly – Wall cladding configuration – Fastener installation• Soils report – Light footprint a benefit • Wall 1/3 the weight = 9” less footing 51
  52. 52. Sub Coordination• Sub Coordination – Plumbing/Mechanical – Concrete • No floor/ceiling cavity • Flat +/- 1/8” – Aesthetic routing or chase • Square +/- ¼” – Wainscoting • Drill in Anchor bolts – rebar • Roof and plumbing drains placement can’t interfere • Rooftop Mini-split units • Sprinkler piping www.OTBDesignworks.com 52
  53. 53. Foundation Connection• Foundation to CLT Connection – Anchor bolt offset from panel connection – Flex connection 53
  54. 54. Panel Connections 54
  55. 55. Designing with CLT• Unique CLT design features – Cantilevered floors – Live walls – Shear 55
  56. 56. 130 + Shop Drawings 56
  57. 57. Shipping• 4 containers• Logistically organize each load• Consolidate highest needs in 1st container for RUSH• 1st container comes in 2nd – 2 weeks late  – Long story… – US Production should alleviate this… 57
  58. 58. Preassembly• Panels assembled and loaded in reverse order• Custom strong-back for stability and load distribution• A-frame on flatbed to site 58
  59. 59. Raising• Sill plate in place• Sheathing covering finished concrete• Walls braced off floor mounted ledger boards• Trailers in front and back - Crane moves• Classic timing for street repair… 59
  60. 60. Raising• Glulams rest in pockets – top plate provides lateral• CLT beams rest on CLT walls – screw through walls• Curved beams connect part way down wall – Concealed connector 60
  61. 61. Raising• CNC’d panels go together tightly with nice clean joints• Adjustments are easy with the right tools – (Unlike precast concrete ) 61
  62. 62. Sealing• Fire Caulk at all north & south ext wall joints• Vapor permeable tapes on all joints• Polymer foam tapes (sound) 62
  63. 63. Insulation• Solid blanket – minimal thermal shorts• Quick, non-combustible, moisture neutral• Easy to place in tight space 63
  64. 64. Cladding• Metal Hat channel N/S• Wood battens E/W• Diagonal load bearing screws 64
  65. 65. Vapor Permeable Roof and Wall 65
  66. 66. Blower Door Test• Montana Dept of Env Quality conducted an on-site educational training test – Visual inspection – Blower door analysis – Infrared camera scan • Relative coloration• Test Day Conditions: – External temp: 35 degrees F – Internal temp: 65 degrees F• CLT thermally consistent• Leakage at perimeter 66
  67. 67. Blower Door Test 67
  68. 68. Blower Door Test• Air changes/hour at 50 Pascal (ACH 50) – Lower floor: 1.65 ACH 50 – Upper floor: 1.41 ACH 50 • Max acceptable is 4 ACH 50 • < 10% tested buildings are tighter than 2 ACH 50• US Army Corp. of Engineers blower door test – Lower floor: .122 CFM/sq ft (at -75 PA) – Upper floor: .126 CFM/sq ft (at -75 PA) – Upper floor: .175 CFM/sq ft (at +75 PA) • Max allowed: .25 CFM/sq ft (ASTM E-779) 68
  69. 69. The Long HallThanks for hanging with me for THE LONG HALLConcept to 69
  70. 70. Questions?This concludes The AmericanInstitute of ArchitectsContinuing Education SystemsCourse DARRYL S BYLE, PE 350 N Meridian Rd #8026 Kalispell, MT 59901 darryl@crosslamsolutions.com www.crosslamsolutions.com 406-261-4654 70

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