Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

High-value differentiation of durian: Are we missing an opportunity?


Published on

The edible fruits of 8 species of the Southeast Asian genus Durio known commonly as durian vary considerably in terms of size, shape, pulp/fruit ratio, and flavour. However, only the fruits of Durio zibethinus are presently marketed to a significant extent across Southeast Asia, while the other Durio species are mostly of restricted use and distribution, and poorly known.

Considered in Asia the "King of the Fruits", because of its distinctive texture and flavour, durian is deeply appreciated by most Asian consumers (increasingly also in export markets), while non-Asians generally find its aroma repelling. Because of its diversity and attraction to consumers, there is potential for durian to be developed into a range of highly differentiated varieties and products. There is circumstantial evidence of the importance of local peculiarities such as soil and climate variation to influence durian quality, further adding possibilities of quality differentiation through the concept of “terroir” that has been very successfully implemented in a variety of agricultural products such as wine and cheese. Durian has all the potential to become an emblematic product of Southeast Asian countries. Stories abound of affluent consumers in China paying enormous prices for durian, which indicates emerging connoisseurship of this fruit. However, currently there is very little understanding how genotype, environment and crop management interact to result in durian quality. Also, a vocabulary to describe the subtleties of durian flavour needs to be developed and communicated to consumers in order to develop greater appreciation for durian diversity and value. There are many parallels from the wine industry that could be employed such as the branding of local product qualities, and the use of geographical indications to protect growers from disloyal competition.

This paper describes potential pathways for durian development from its current commodity status towards a high-value product, by taking advantage of the genetic diversity and emerging market opportunities. We also highlight research needs, with emphasis on the need for poor producers and keepers of durian diversity to derive greater benefits from growing this crop.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

High-value differentiation of durian: Are we missing an opportunity?

  1. 1. High-value differentiation of durian: Are we missing an opportunity? Khoo Teng Kew5th International Symposium on Tropical and Subtropical Fruits Guangzhou, China 18-20 June 2012 1
  2. 2. Outline• Crops for the Future – Who we are?• Diversity of Genus: Durio• Durian Consumption Trends• Geographical Indications – A value-creation tool 2
  3. 3. Crops for the Future (CFF)• Global partnership organization to foster enhanced collaboration amongst R&D stakeholders of underutilized crops• Established in 2009 through the merger of ICUC1 and GFU2• Operating out of Malaysia• Co-hosted by Bioversity International and the University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus• Core funding from DFID/UK1 International Center for Underutilized Crops2 Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Crops 3
  4. 4. Durio Morphology Inflorescence Durian fruit 4
  5. 5. Export Value Chain• Unique selling point: Aroma and taste• Value: USD 0.50 - 10.00 per kg• Most planted fruit tree in Malaysia *• Export value: USD 5.6 million (2010) *• Farmers: 45,502 (2010) *• Production: 300,470 t (2010) *• Net profit: approximately USD 1 per kg * Statistics in Malaysia Source: Department of Agriculture, Malaysia 5
  6. 6. Acreage, Production & Value of Durian in Malaysia 400000 500 Production (t) 450 350000Left-axis - Acreage & Production 400 Right-axis - Value of Durian 300000 350 250000 300 200000 Value (mil. USD) 250 200 150000 Acreage (Ha) 150 100000 100 50000 50 0 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Acreage (Ha) 110615 105388 99408 96762 88719 104655 Production (t) 378657 292681 312157 277767 278076 300470 Value (mil. USD) 267 306 381 432 429 464 Source: Department of Agriculture, Malaysia 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Geographical Distributionof Durian Cultivation 9
  10. 10. Durio Diversity Durio dulcis Durio zibethinus Durio kutejensis 10 Durio graveolens
  11. 11. Durio Diversity Durio lowianus Durio testudinarum 11 Durio oxleyanus
  12. 12. Durio dulcis 12 Source: Salma (2011)
  13. 13. Durio graveolens 13 Source: Salma (2011)
  14. 14. Durio kutejensis 14 Source: Salma (2011)
  15. 15. Durio lowianus 15 Source: Salma (2011)
  16. 16. Durio oxleyanus 16 Source: Salma (2011)
  17. 17. Durio testudinarum 17 Source: Salma (2011)
  18. 18. Durio zibethinus 18 Source: Salma (2011)
  19. 19. Commodity MindsetThe various cultivars ofDurio zibethinus 19
  20. 20. Geographical Indications (GI)• An indication which identifies any good as originating in a locality (country or territory)• A given quality, reputation or other characteristic of a good attributable to their geographical origin 20
  21. 21. Components of QualityManagement Diversity • Inter-specific & intra- specific Geographical Indications Post-harvest Management Environmental• Harvest date & methods • Climate• Maturity • Soil• Pest & disease incidence• Handling & storage conditions 21
  22. 22. Problems with Durian• So much diversity, but not used• Commodity approach - Mass production of an undifferentiated product• Unsubstantiated “quality” claims• Insufficient quality differentiation• Lack of durian flavour vocabulary 22
  23. 23. Durian Preference Durian Consumption in Thailand Consume Do Not Consume 28% 72% Source: Tiyaratanakura (1991) • 51% of those who do not consume said they dislike the strong aroma • Monthong variety preferred due to its milder aroma for the 72% 23
  24. 24. Durian Preference Durian Preference in Malaysia Village Durian Released Varieties No Preference 40% 49% 11% Source: Rozhan (2006)• Majority whom have no preference ages below 20 years old 24
  25. 25. Durian Products Dodol Lempuk Srikaya Tempoyak 25
  26. 26. Durian Products Minimally processed durian (MARDI) 26
  27. 27. Missing an Opportunity?• An emblematic product of Southeast Asian countries• Emerging connoisseurship of this fruit• However, currently there is very little understanding how genotype, environment and crop management interact to result in durian quality• Emulate the wine industry such as the branding of local product qualities, and the use of geographical indications to add value as well as protecting growers from disloyal competition 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. Opportunities and Needs• How can indigenous producers benefit from value chain development of specialty durian?• Assist communities with technical product dossiers required to substantiate GI submissions to the state• Assist communities with setting up of organizational and administrative structures to maintain and defend GI• Assess the appropriateness of national GI legislation and, if necessary, propose legislative changes to accommodate poor farmer needs 29
  30. 30. Collaboration• CFF is in the process of developing a project by looking into the opportunity of using GI as a value-creation tool for durian in the Southeast Asian region Khoo Teng Kew Thank You! 30
  31. 31. Literature• Nanthachai, S. Durian – Fruit development, postharvest physiology, handling and marketing in ASEAN. Published by: ASEAN Food Handling Bureau• Salma, I. 2011.Durio of Malaysia. Published by: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)• Rozhan, A.D. 2006. The consumers’ preference for durian in Malaysia. Economic and Technology Management Review. 1(1): 37-49• Tiyaratanakura, P. 1991. Thai consumers desire in consuming durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.). Undergraduate Special Problem. Department of Horticulture, Kasetart University Bangkok• MARDI (2012) [Online]. [Accessed 11 June 2012]. Available from World Wide Web:• Department of Agriculture (2012) [Online]. [Accessed 11 June 2012]. Available from World Wide Web:• MSN (2012) [Online]. [Accessed 11 June 2012]. Available from World Wide Web: documentid=4218898 31
  32. 32. The Need for Collective Action• We are a dispersed community, fragmented by our crop and institutional mandates, yet have common goals• We are perceived as peripheral to the agricultural agenda• We don’t speak with a global voice such as the CGIAR• We are not heard by funders, policy makers and in global debates about food, sustainable agriculture, climate change• We need more national champions and senior mentors for young NUS scientists• We need synergies for generating evidence to support our global agenda 32
  33. 33. Our Goals1. Facilitate access to knowledge on NUS, through web portal, monographs, synthesis papers, and databases, especially in the areas of production, sustained market access, nutritional security2. Provide information services to NUS stakeholders (grant and training opportunities, library resources)3. Engage in policy to promote the use of NUS (market access barriers, IAR, GFAR)4. Increase awareness on the potential and contributions of NUS for livelihoods (conferences, review papers, press articles) 33
  34. 34. CFF’s working definition of“neglected and underutilized species” (NUS) • Farmed or gathered on a small scale • Unrealized potential for contributing to food security and nutrition • Often linked to the cultural and culinary heritage of their place of origin, and maintained by poor, often indigenous farmers • Distribution, biology, cultivation and uses are poorly known and documented • Receive little attention from research, policy makers, donors and technology providers • Informal seed systems • Several hundred species! 34