A guide to recruitment and selection


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A guide to recruitment and selection

  1. 1. A guideto recruitment and selection Cristina Coman August, 2
  2. 2. Phone calls Once your phone screens are completed you are ready to interview your top candidates. Call each candidate to schedule a time for them to come into your office and have a face to face interview. It would be best to set aside a block of time to interview candidates so that you can easily compare them. If you will be having multiple people interview candidates, choose current employees and/or managers who are strong performers and are clear on the criteria you are looking for. Create an interview template with questions for each interviewer to ask and have and debrief with each interviewer after their interview is complete to get their feedback on the candidate. The first interviewer should start by providing a brief history of the company. All interviewers should ask open ended questions that can be clarified and should ask probing questions to clarify any concerns. Sometimes it is helpful to use situational questions in order to find out how the candidate would handle themselves in certain work circumstances. Cristina Coman August, 2
  3. 3. A few good questions to ask are: What interests you about this job? Tell me about a time when you demonstrated your trustworthiness or integrity in school or at work? Tell me about a time when you were working hard to complete a task and you were asked to leave that task before completing it and start a different job? Tell me about a time when you had to go above and beyond the call of duty to get a job done? Give me an example of a time when you had set a goal for yourself and tell me how you went about accomplishing it? Give me a specific occasion on which you followed a policy with which you did not agree? Give me an example of a time when you were able to successfully communicate with another person even when that individual may not have personally liked you (or vice versa)? Tell me about a time when you improved a task or job you were working on? In what kind of a work environment do you do your best work? It is important that all questions are applicable to the job and to the company. Be aware that any questions regarding the candidates; age, race, ethnicity, color, gender, sex, country of national origin or birth place, religion, disability, marital or family status or pregnancy are illegal and violate the candidates rights. Cristina Coman August, 2
  4. 4. Scheduling Interviews Know what you are going to say before you make the call. Be prepared for different responses and plan your answers. Write out some sample scripts and practice them with a friend. Schedule calls for a certain time of day. Set a daily and weekly goal for the number of calls to make. Take a break after several calls. You are doing something difficult! Be prepared to take notes. Have a pen and paper handy. Keep a copy of your resume by the phone when you make your calls. It will help you think of your skills and positive attributes. Be courteous and sensitive to the person on the other end. Introduce yourself and speak in a pleasant, understandable manner. If the person you are talking with sounds rushed, ask if there is a time you can call back that is more convenient. Then be sure to follow up on the call. Sound confident and professional. Use language that demonstrates your enthusiasm and abilities. Keep background noise to a minimum. Radios, televisions, barking dogs and crying children are distracting to the person you are speaking to and yourself. Practice before you make your calls. This may sound silly, but keep a mirror in front of you when you talk on the phone. You will pay more attention to your image, smile more and this will carry into your voice. Start your calling with the company/employer you are least interested in. Your telephone techniques will get better with practice, so polish your skills before you call your best employment prospects. Modify your technique if you are not getting the results you expect. Keep trying! Leave a professional, friendly message on your answering machine. Expect that employers will be calling you! Be prepared for "no’s" and don’t take them personally. You will meet them along the way in your job search — your objective is to turn a "no" into a "yes." Cristina Coman August, 2
  5. 5. Sample Telephone Screening Script Hi, my name is ….. I am returning your call about the ad I posted for a personal assistant. Before we decide when to schedule an interview, there are some questions I need to ask you. Write your questions here: 1. 2. 3. Tip: Check again with the applicant to see if the tasks you need done are tasks they will do. If the applicant says this is not the job they were looking for, thank them and hang up. If not, ask them to tell you about themselves. Cristina Coman August, 2
  6. 6. Telephone Etiquette Presenting a professional image, both in person and on the telephone, is very important in the Office Skills profession. Taking care of your customers over the telephone and making them feel well informed and appreciated is essential. Whether you are the front office receptionist or an executive secretary, the following phone tips should always be followed: 1. Speak clearly. A picture paints a thousand words but the caller on the other end of the phone can only hear you. They cannot see your face or body language. Therefore, taking the time to speak clearly, slowly and in a cheerful, professional voice is very important. 2. Use your normal tone of voice when answering a call. If you have a tendency to speak loud or shout, avoid doing so on the telephone. 3. Do not eat or drink while you are on telephone duty. Only eat or drink during your coffee break or lunch break. 4. Do not use slang words or Poor Language. Respond clearly with “yes” or “no” when speaking. Never use swear words. 5. Address the Caller Properly by his or her title. (i.e. Good morning Mr. X, Good afternoon Ms. Y). Never address an unfamiliar caller by his or her first name. 6. Listen to the Caller and what they have to say. The ability to listen is a problem in general but it is very important to listen to what the caller has to say. It is always a good habit to repeat the information back to the client when you are taking a message. Verify that you have heard and transcribed the message accurately. 7. Be patient and helpful. If a caller is irate or upset, listen to what they have to say and then refer them to the appropriate resource. Never snap back or act rude to the caller. 8. Always ask if you can put the caller on hold. If you are responsible for answering multiple calls at once, always ask the caller politely if you may put them on hold. Remember that the caller could have already waited several minutes before getting connected to you and may not take lightly to being put on hold. Never leave the person on hold for more than a few seconds or they may become upset and hang up. 9. Always focus on the call. Try not to get distracted by people around you. If someone tries to interrupt you while you are on a call, politely remind them that you are on a customer call and that you will be with them as soon as you are finished. Cristina Coman August, 2
  7. 7. Making Calls1. Always identify yourself properly. When calling a client or customer, whether in person or when leaving a message, always identify yourself properly by providing your name, company name and contact telephone number. For example, "Good afternoon Mr. X, this is Ms. Y from _________. My telephone number is 408- 555-1212." Always be aware of confidential information when leaving messages. Also, be aware of people around you while talking on the phone. Be discreet! Someone next to you might overhear confidential information that could negatively affect your business.2. Avoid leaving long winded messages. Remember, someone has to listen to your message, write it down and then act upon it. Your message may be just one of many messages that need to be handled. It is often a good habit to write down or type out your message in advance. Keep it brief and to the point. Cristina Coman August, 2
  8. 8. The Selection process is the most unscientific procedure in the world becauseyou are dealing with the most unpredictable thing - Human Nature.The number one rule every human resources person should keep in mind isSELECT – NEVER SETTLE.( CHARLES FURNISS- Vice-President of Human Resources for CALCOMP, adivision of LOCKHEED) Cristina Coman August, 2
  9. 9. Introduction to recruiter’s guide The recruitment and selection process remains one of the most critical aspects of management. It is through this procedure that we choose people to join our organization or our client` organization and in so doing influence not only the performance of but also its culture. Cristina Coman August, 2
  10. 10. Overview of the recruitment and selection process Recruitment Preparing the job specification This is the most critical step of the process since everything flows from here – the better you define what you are looking for, the easier each step of the hiring process will be. Preparing the ad based on the job description Sources of applicants Selection Preparing for the interview – job description and job analysis Resume reviews- against criteria established for the position Employment interview guide The evaluation process Hiring Reference checking Making the offer Employment file Orienting the new employee Cristina Coman August, 2
  11. 11. The hiring manager` s check list INITIATING – before recruitment process identifies staffing need within approved budget if it is a new position, complete a job description establish with HR recruiter the process, timing and expectations interviews candidates agrees with HR Manager and General Manager ( if the case) on the hiring decision PREPARATION- after taking the hiring decisionorders furniture, office equipment and suppliesorders PC hardware and softwareorders business cardsplans and organize job training ORIENTATIONintroduces the new employee to the department team and any other department he or she mayneed to know. Provides information on performance expectations, responsibilities, departmentprocesses, assigns someone in the department to be the new employee` s fellow for the firstmonths; at the end of the first day asks the new employee if he or she has questions, concerns orcomments. Cristina Coman August, 2
  12. 12. Opening the interview Be a gracious, friendly, natural host Demonstrate interest in the candidate` s physical comfort = chair, light, seating arrangements Put candidate at ease by making small talk Explain format/structure of process it will be a two way street; you want to find out about the candidate the candidate will want to find out about the job and company advise that you will be taking notes Cristina Coman August, 2
  13. 13. Conducting the interviewYour primary responsibility as interviewer is to collect information about a candidate` s:knowledge, motivations and behaviors•Ask comprehensive /open-ended questions to maintain a good talk•Start the questions in each are broadly and get more specific•Except where you are looking for a specific answer, avoid questions that begin with: did, would, should,are, and, will•Follow the pattern but also be reasonably flexible such that the interview does not become mechanical•Use verbal (summing up, paraphrasing, introducing new subject) and non –verbal cues (closing file,pushing back chair) to control talkative applicants Cristina Coman August, 2
  14. 14. Methods of interviewingOne-to-one interview - a typical employment interview; the applicant meets one-to-one withinterviewer. The environment this method provides may allow an effective exchange of information totake placeGroup interview – several applicants interact in the presence of one or more companyrepresentatives. This approach, while not mutually exclusive of other interview types, may provideuseful insights into the candidate` s interpersonal competence as they engage in a group discussionBoard interview – several of the company representatives interview a candidate in one or moresession. The potential hire` s peers, subordinates and supervisors interview the prospective employee.The payback is substantial and results in a higher degree of acceptance of a candidate and higherdegree of retention. It also gives the candidate a chance to learn more about the company form avariety of perspectives. the results of this type of interview is a stronger, more cohesive team thatshares the company` s culture and helps assure organizational` fit Cristina Coman August, 2
  15. 15. Developing a behavior-based interview includes thenext steps performed by the hiring managers:• analyze the job to determine the knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviors important for the job success• determine which behavioral questions to ask about the particular job to elicit the desired behaviors• develop a structured format tailored for each job• rating suitability of each candidate a scale from 1(the worst) to 5 (the best) – the same individuals who develop the interview questions can determine the appropriate responses for each level of the scale:5- excellent (responses that reflect probable success)4 good (consistently meets the job requirements, no deficiencies in critical areas)3 marginal (probable difficulty in performing the tasks)1 poor (probable failure)• Questions asked in behavior description interviewing are job related. Equally important, since both questions and answers are related to successful job performance, they are more accurate in predicting whether applicants will be successful in the job they are hired to perform. Cristina Coman August, 2
  16. 16. Types of interviews used depending of the jobrequirements:•structured interviews, behavioral based - the interviewer uses a specific set of questions, job related.The applicant is asked to relate actual situations from their past relevant to the job, describing how theyperformed in the specific situation•panel-interviews - the candidate faces more interviewers, which randomly ask questions•problem-solving interviews – the candidate is asked to solve a certain problem that might occur inhis/her activity Cristina Coman August, 2
  17. 17. Motivational fitOne of the biggest causes of job dissatisfaction and turnover is a lack of fit.That is, people might be able to do the job, but they do not enjoy it. The dimension Motivational Fit is theextent to which job activities and responsibilities, the organization` s mode of operation and values, and thecommunity in which the individual will live and work are consistent with the type of environment that providespersonal satisfaction, the degree to which the work itself is personally satisfying.In selection it` s important to assess a candidate` s Motivational Fit as it is his or her skills and abilities Cristina Coman August, 2
  18. 18. Closing the interviewAsk the candidate if they require any more information about the job or the companyAsk the candidate if there is anything more about them that they wish to tell youSummarize process, provide information as to next step and time frameDo not forget to sell the opportunities offered by the job opening and company values ! Cristina Coman August, 2
  19. 19. Data and STARsTypes of informationThere are three types of candidate information available to interviewers:Work/ educational history/certification /skillsThe candidate` s broad, general background – the facts on the resumeWhere a candidate went to schoolNumber of years of service with a companyNumber of job changesLicenses and certificationsAbility to use specific computers softwareFamiliarity with industry proceduresAbility to operate specialized equipment Cristina Coman August, 2
  20. 20. Specific experiences – specific things the candidate has done in his or her jobs or other relevant history.The time the candidate led a quality improvement temA major sale the candidate closedThe time the candidate resolved a complaint from an important customerInterests/desires – what the candidate is looking for in a job, organization and locationInformation about a candidate` s likes and dislikes is a good starting point for determining his or hermotivations to do a job. Cristina Coman August, 2
  21. 21. Critical job requirementsJobs can be divided into two sets of skills: technical and behavioralTechnical skills indicate what a candidate can do.Behavioral skills indicate what a candidate will do or how they perform while executing theirtechnical skills. No matter how technically qualified an applicant, the job cannot be completedsuccessfully unless the appropriate behaviors are applied too. Cristina Coman August, 2
  22. 22. Technical skills:The knowledge, skills or abilities necessary to complete specific tasks in the job.Examples: word processing, accounting methods, financial or mathematical skills, programmingBehavioral skills:The ability to apply necessary knowledge and skills to successfully accomplish the job.Examples: creativity, flexibility, initiative, drive, detail orientation, work ethic. Cristina Coman August, 2
  23. 23. Collecting STARsTo guide you through the process of collecting behavioral examples – use the technique called STAR.To be a good predictor of future behavior, an example of past behavior must contain:The Situation or Task the candidate facedThe Action the candidate tookThe Result of the candidate `s actionsSTAR is the acronym for the components required for a complete behavioral example and helpsinterviewers collect and evaluate job-specific data. Cristina Coman August, 2
  24. 24. Quick and easy reference tips: Review competencies and key behavior and determine appropriate weights Develop performance-based questions: •Effective performance based questions; are open-ended •Prompt the applicant to discuss specific experiences •Produce performance-based examples •Are straightforward and ask for specific descriptions of behavior •Use phrases such as: describe some situations…. Give me some examples of…..what were some occasions….” Cristina Coman August, 2
  25. 25. To get complete STARsSituationDescribe the situationWhy did you….What were the circumstances….TaskExactly what were your responsibilities at that particular time?ActionExactly what did you do?Describe specifically how you did thatWalk me through the steps you tookResultsWhat was the result?What was the impacts of your actions?What feedback did you receive? Cristina Coman August, 2
  26. 26. Follow up questions to obtain additional STARsHow about another example of…Compare this situation to one in which you…….Can you describe another time when you….Follow up questions to turn false STARs into true STARsCan you give me a specific example of when this recently happenedDescribe one particular time when….Walk me through the process step-by-step, explaining what your role wasExactly what part did you play? Cristina Coman August, 2
  27. 27. Data Evaluation TipsIdentify complete STARs throughout the interviewCategorize STARs under the appropriate dimensionsIdentify each STARs as effective (+) or ineffective (-)Weigh the significance of each STAR by considering this:SIMILARITY – how closely does the situation relate to the target jobIMPACT – how important was the situation/resultRECENCY – when did the behavior occurWhile evaluation STARs and considering the appropriate ratings, remember to consider:IMPORTANCERECENCYRELEVANCECONSISTENCY Cristina Coman August, 2
  28. 28. Common errors in the evaluation processFirst impression – in this instance the person is evaluated during the first four minutes of the interview. Thus, theevaluation is based upon first impression data (smile, eye, contact, handshake). This first impression is weightedtoo heavily and carries into the entire interview.Contrast effect – this is a problem of comparing two or more people. If an interviewer sees a very weak personfirst, the second candidate the interviewer sees, who is average, will be rated higher than average due to thecontracts between candidate one and candidate two.Compatibility – this is the tendency to rate people whom we find pleasing of manner and personality higher thanthey deserve. This who agree with us, or have pleasant verbal and nonverbal skills, get better ratings than justified.Blind spot effect – occasionally, an interviewer may not see certain types of deficits because they are just like theirown. For example, the interviewer who “thinks big” may not appreciate a “detail- oriented” person.Halo effect –if a person is very strong on one dimension, they may be viewed as being strong on all dimensions ofevaluation. Here the interviewer does not show variability between evaluation criteria in assessing the candidate.The dramatic incident effect – the interviewer places too much emphasis on one specific behavioral area. Onespecific problem, may in the eyes of the interviewer wipe out years of good work Cristina Coman August, 2
  29. 29. KEEP IN MIND THE BIG FIVEthe five personality dimensions are represented by:•Consciousness•Extraversion•Open to new experiences•Adaptability•Emotional stability Cristina Coman August, 2