Water metabolism in ISEE 2008-Nairobi

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This is the first presentation of the session organized by UAB and Water Footprint Network on Societal Metabolism and Water.

The session is the first seminar organized to link the topics of Societal Metabolism and Water Flows/Footprinting.

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  • 90,000 Km 2  17% Pop 95  9,000,000 Mediterranean Climate Negative Hydric Balance Irrigation Land 47%  68% Old Irrigation Technology
  • Some author have made any kind of realtion between the fulfilment of the human needs and the creation of conflicts. If we look at the concept of Scarcity it comes because the desires as highre than the resources: Two questions: How is the cycle? Is water becoming scarce?
  • The Study of the breakage of the cycles should be addressed in a comprehensive way
  • If we look at the proportion of resources we need to produce 1 ton in systems woth different wsys of production, we see that ehey differ. Water is not an isolated factor:
  • 90,000 Km 2  17% Pop 95  9,000,000 Mediterranean Climate Negative Hydric Balance Irrigation Land 47%  68% Old Irrigation Technology
  • 90,000 Km 2  17% Pop 95  9,000,000 Mediterranean Climate Negative Hydric Balance Irrigation Land 47%  68% Old Irrigation Technology
  • 90,000 Km 2  17% Pop 95  9,000,000 Mediterranean Climate Negative Hydric Balance Irrigation Land 47%  68% Old Irrigation Technology
  • AW: Appropriation of Water WMR: Water Metabolic Rate THA: Total Human Activity
  • 90,000 Km 2  17% Pop 95  9,000,000 Mediterranean Climate Negative Hydric Balance Irrigation Land 47%  68% Old Irrigation Technology
  • 90,000 Km 2  17% Pop 95  9,000,000 Mediterranean Climate Negative Hydric Balance Irrigation Land 47%  68% Old Irrigation Technology
  • 90,000 Km 2  17% Pop 95  9,000,000 Mediterranean Climate Negative Hydric Balance Irrigation Land 47%  68% Old Irrigation Technology
  • Water metabolism in ISEE 2008-Nairobi

    1. 1. Session 5.4: Social Metabolism and Water 9th Aug: Definition and scope 1) Water Metabolism. C. Madrid 2) National Water Scarcity and international trade in Kenya. M. Mekonnen 3) External Water Footprint of The Netherlands. P. Van Oel 10th Aug: Links 1) A.Y. Hoekstra 2) Water and Land demand of Bionenergy in China. H. Yang 3) Valoration Contingente de l’eau potable en Afrique. Y.Y. Soglo
    2. 2. The Water Metabolism of the Economy. Global forces with local consequences Cristina Madrid Department of Applied Economics
    3. 3. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies WHY HOW WHAT
    4. 4. NEEDS CHANGE CYCLES Scarcity (Rauschmayer, Sen ) Needs  Cycles  Conflicts (Homer-Dixon, Martínez Alier) Water Water Metabolism Methodologies Physical Scarcity Social Scarcity (Aguilera-Klink, Meerganz) Cycles are variable in time 10 – 10000 years (Gleick) Adjust needs to cycle time  Understanding of needs  Strategies Water has many properties: -Quality: Purity, Work ability -Quantity Strategies Cycles Concepts Water and… Water systems 163 89,934 455 896 787 2003-2007 (FAO) 144 318 Jordan 79,731 98,667 Canada 288 434 Tunisia 602 1112 Kenya 607 936 Egypt Prediction 2025 (Gardner) Water Availability 1995 m 3 /cap/year
    5. 5. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies SCIENCE & POLICY DEAL WITH CAUSES “ The abstract overwhelms the concrete” (Saad Filho) “ Discursive processes in Politics overwhelm observed Science” (Allan) Science Policy Natural System Scarcity, Aridity, power, control of water, conflicts? WM Check the causes of the social scarcity Virtual Water Cycles Concrete and Abstract Water and… Water systems
    6. 6. <ul><li>Interesting: </li></ul><ul><li>Energy needed for production of water (Meerganz) </li></ul><ul><li>Water needed for the production of energy (Gerbens) </li></ul>Water Water Metabolism Methodologies To study: Water-energy-land evolution? Rebound effects WATER, ENERGY,LAND Why and How? Water Exosomatic energy Land (fertilizer) Endosomatic energy Production 1 ton Preindus Extens Greenh Cycles Concrete and Abstract Water and… Water systems
    7. 7. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies SEc SYSTEMS ARE INCLUDED Water System Socio-economic System A. Unitary B. Inclusive C.Globular Production Consumption Regional Scale Global Scale Production Consumption Cycles Concrete and abstract Water and… Water systems
    8. 8. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies DIFFERENT FLOWS Procedence: Internal External Endogenous Exogenous Composition: Phisical Monetary Information Water Metabolism: Assess of the metabolism of a Socioeconomic system: Flows Causes Scope Keywords
    9. 9. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies FLOWS IN ORDER Reference !!! Geographical Temporal Flows Causes Scope Keywords Economic System Territorial Water System Virtual Water Imports Reuse Spills Water vapour Virtual Water Exports Self Extraction Agriculture Industry Domestic Re-Exported Virtual Water ECONOMIC SYSTEM WATER SYSTEM VWE: 166 Hm3 AWU: 546 Hm 3 NET FLOW: 593 Hm 3 SYSTEM A 44% Europa 25% Norteam 16 % Africa SYSTEM B 99 % EUropa INFLOW: 2.223 Mill € 58% Almería 17% Huelva OUTFLOW: 63 Mill € 30 % Sevilla 28% Córdoba VWI: 213 Hm3 NET FLOW: 2160 mill €
    10. 10. What are the causes of the social Scarcity of Water? Water Water Metabolism Methodologies Institutions defined as norms, conventions and rules Values as the particular perception Water (resource) INSTITUTIONAL SETTINGS LEVEL A LEVEL B Definition of institutions Problems of Fit Interplay Flows Causes Scope Keywords I w I V V
    11. 11. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies NATURAL OR SOCIAL? Natural definition: River Basin Social definition: politic delimitation Water Metabolism of fruit and vegetable production in Andalusia, Spain. Ebro River basin (Spain) characterization . Mattisse project. Flows Causes Scope Keywords
    12. 12. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies VIRTUAL WATER AND WATER FOOTPRINT Virtual Water : The amount of water spent to produce a good or service Water Footprint : Amount of water used from the point of view of the consumption Physical Flows Causes Scope Keywords EFFICIENT GLOBAL WATER USE REGIONAL EFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION LOCAL EFFICIENT WATER USE Virtual Water Trade Land Use management Technology, price policies, education
    13. 13. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies STANDARD VS INCLUSIVE Procedence: Internal External Endogenous Exogenous Physical Input-Output Pros: Data availability Standarization (NAMEA) Cons: Lack of G-T Reference Definition of the pillars of the model MuSIaSEM:Multi-scale Inter-Linkages of Eco-social systems Works: Velázquez, Dietzembacher, Guan, Hubacek Pros: Inclusion of factors Multiscale Cons: Lack of G-T Reference Not developed for Water Works Energy: Giampietro, Mayumi, Ramos Internal External Indicators Institutions
    14. 14. TWT Total Water Throughput NAW TAW Non Appropriated Water Total Appropriated Water THA Non Colonized Land WMR AS WMD NCL Ecosystem types Natural Land covers WMD i AW PW HA PW WMR PW AW HH HA HH WMR HH Household types <ul><li>End Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Washing </li></ul><ul><li>House </li></ul>WMR i AW AG HA AG WMR AG AW OEA HA OEA WMR OEA AW AG HA AG WMR AG AW AG HA AG WMR AG food-exports CAT-food liters/p.c./day AW TI HA TI WMR TI liters/p.c./day BENCHMARKS liters/p.c./day jobs/m 3 jobs/m 3 tourism liters/p.c./day 18% 72% 600 hm 3 2,600 hm 3 300 hm 3 2,300 hm 3 10% 6.2 million 260 lpd in HH 1,000 lpd in AG 130 lpd in OEA 1,400 lpd ? ? liters/p.c./day GOLF 6 hm 3 2.5 lpd ECOLOGICAL SIDE households paid work sector agriculture other economic activities households (it is 3,400 lpd in UK) net $/m 3 ? net $/m 3 ?
    15. 15. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies FIX METHODOLOGY Procedence: Internal External Endogenous Exogenous Pros: Allow GT Reference (GIS) Metodology designed for water. Scale-inclusive Cons: Data Availability Sector Inclusion Works: Hoekstra, Chapagain, Hung, Mekonnen, Van Oel, Velázquez, Madrid, Renault, Yang, Gerbens, etc. Agriculture, Industry, Business Biofuels Tourism Crop Water Requirement Yield Specific Water Demand Surface (T) Production Trade Virtual Water Domestic Water Use Exported Virtual Water Internal WF External WF (Imported VW) Water Footprint Internal External Indicators Institutions
    16. 16. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies INDICATORS DEVELOPED Internal External Indicators Institutions Artichoke Strawberry, tomato Jaén Almería MONETARY PRODUCT WATER MWP (€/m3) Peach Orange, tomato Jaén Almería DOMESTIC USE AWU (Hm3) Almond, Cherry Carrot Jaén, Granada Almería , Cádiz INTENSITY OF LAND USE PY (ton/ Ha) Almond Lettuce No determinado Almería PHYSICAL PRODUCTIVITY WY (ton/m3) Lettuce Artichoke Cádiz Almería INTENSITY OF WATER USE CWR (m3/Ha) CROP LOWER CROP HIGHER PROV LOWER PROV HIGHER MEANING PRODUCTION
    17. 17. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies INDICATORS DEVELOPED Internal External Indicators Institutions Haba, Artichoke Lettuce Centroamérica Europe IMPORT MONETARY YIELD IMY (€/m3) Almond Strawberry Jaén Huelva EXPORT MONETARY YIELD EMY (€/m3) Lemon Orange, tomato Jaén Almería y Córdoba WATER DEPENDENCY WFP (Hm3) Lemon, peach Orange, tomato Jaén Almería y Granada INTERNAL DEPENDENCY IWFP (Hm3) Lettuce, Lemon Habas, Almond Jaén Sevilla EXTERNAL DEPENDENCY VWI (Hm3) CROP LOWER CROP HIGHER PROV LOWER PROV HIGHER MEANING TRADE
    18. 18. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies FIT AND INTERPLAY FORMAL INSTITUTIONS INFORMAL INSTITUTIONS DIFERENT SCALES Internal External Indicators Institutions Water Agriculture Rural Development OK X X
    19. 19. Different Kinds of water Blue Green (Martinez-Aldaya) Gray ( Water Water Metabolism Methodologies How is the Water Metabolism Evolving?) TOP DOWN VS BOTTOM UP Global Water Problem: Climate Change Multinationals Global Economy (Scarcity) Facts Water Water Water
    20. 20. Water Water Metabolism Methodologies Remarks SPRAWL RESEARCH Global Water Problems: Climate Change Multinationals Global Economy (Scarcity) Water accounting: Production perspective Standard Understanding: WM Assessment Geopolitics of Water: Food safety Power relations Definition of terms: Appropriation of concepts
    21. 21. Asante – Merci – Thank you [email_address] The Water Metabolism of the Economy. Global forces with local consequences

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