Developing non-fishing livelihoods for small scale coastal fisher communities Lessons and experiences from the work in Sri...
Background <ul><li>Findings of this presentation are from the work; action researches done by Practical Action- South Asia...
Core problem
Development Planners are struggling…
However, attempts are made to conduct more training for communities to start alternative livelihoods Blame mobilizers
Specialization is a characteristic of the developed world Everyone's job is no one's job
Empirical evidences show  that many of such initiatives “alternative livelihood development” in coastal fisher communities...
Why ?
A few factors  <ul><li>Lack of understanding about well-established patterns of livelihood enhancement and diversification...
Causes
<ul><li>Not looking at the market map/chain - of sub-sector (boarder market map and opportunities) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhan...
Social aspects;  <ul><li>Lack of understanding of the well-being objectives of fishers/incentives behind getting into othe...
Bottom-up or community led mechanisms were not observed (Self governance systems)
What happens ? In the end !
Aquaculture  13 Investment power Fishers  Businessmen
Market forces (small scale producers ) 17
Aquaculture and conflicts <ul><li>Murder for export. People have been killed in violence linked to  he shrimp industry in ...
<ul><li>What is livelihood  diversification and enhancement  ? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Two components of the diversification process: </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical diversification : Initiatives that seek ...
Our learnings !
What sort of options ? <ul><li>Dry fish processors </li></ul><ul><li>Processing plant owners </li></ul><ul><li>Processing ...
Usual options – Compare  General needs assessment show;- <ul><li>Beauty culture  </li></ul><ul><li>Sawing-garment manufact...
Why this works ? <ul><li>Within their social & economic environment  </li></ul><ul><li>Building on their traditional knowl...
Advantages  <ul><li>This looks at the whole fishery as an “industry” (sub-sector)  </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood improve wi...
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Developing non-fishing livelihoods for small scale coastal fisher communities

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This is a presentation that I made during the International work of - Action on Poverty Sri Lanka organized by SEEDS

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Developing non-fishing livelihoods for small scale coastal fisher communities

  1. 1. Developing non-fishing livelihoods for small scale coastal fisher communities Lessons and experiences from the work in Sri Lanka and India <ul><li>Erwin Rathnaweera & Chopadithya Edirisinghe </li></ul><ul><li>01.11.2011 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Findings of this presentation are from the work; action researches done by Practical Action- South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>2005-2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal sites, southern, eastern, northern ,western - Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Studies in states in Orissa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu- India </li></ul>
  3. 3. Core problem
  4. 4. Development Planners are struggling…
  5. 5. However, attempts are made to conduct more training for communities to start alternative livelihoods Blame mobilizers
  6. 6. Specialization is a characteristic of the developed world Everyone's job is no one's job
  7. 7. Empirical evidences show that many of such initiatives “alternative livelihood development” in coastal fisher communities have not been successful.
  8. 8. Why ?
  9. 9. A few factors <ul><li>Lack of understanding about well-established patterns of livelihood enhancement and diversification mechanisms in fishing communities. </li></ul><ul><li>How do fishers make livelihood choices? What factors and processes encourage or constraint such choices? These questions have not been taken for granted. </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly, knowledge and expertise of fishers in these areas have been simply overlooked. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of enhancement and diversification has been presented as a brand new concept “invented” by the development experts. </li></ul><ul><li>Most alternative income generation programs have been driven by the interests and speculations of donors and implementers; fishers have been set aside to be mere “recipients”. </li></ul><ul><li>Fisher participation has been confined to choose an item or two from a pre-determined list of items presented by the development community. </li></ul><ul><li>In the end, such externally driven initiatives have helped neither fishers nor the implementing agencies, leading to further confusion among fisher communities </li></ul>
  10. 10. Causes
  11. 11. <ul><li>Not looking at the market map/chain - of sub-sector (boarder market map and opportunities) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement and diversification - misinterpreted </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion - “Introducing non - fishing livelihoods” ; gives a sense of idea “ moving out of fishery” </li></ul><ul><li>Ends up with newly introduced list of livelihoods </li></ul>11
  12. 12. Social aspects; <ul><li>Lack of understanding of the well-being objectives of fishers/incentives behind getting into other livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers and ecosystem relationship - Anthropological aspects – motivational behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Their way of life, customs/beliefs traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Caste system </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts - power structures </li></ul>15
  13. 13. Bottom-up or community led mechanisms were not observed (Self governance systems)
  14. 14. What happens ? In the end !
  15. 15. Aquaculture 13 Investment power Fishers Businessmen
  16. 16. Market forces (small scale producers ) 17
  17. 17. Aquaculture and conflicts <ul><li>Murder for export. People have been killed in violence linked to he shrimp industry in at least eleven countries: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Ecuador, Brazil, India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines (Smash & Grab, 2003, EJF) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>What is livelihood diversification and enhancement ? </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Two components of the diversification process: </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical diversification : Initiatives that seek to improve the quality of existing livelihoods through optimizing their performance at different levels in the market chains; called ‘ Livelihood Enhancement Strategies ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal diversification : Initiatives that seek alternative/ supplementary sources of income outside the current activity seasonally or round the year within or outside fisheries; called ‘ Livelihood Diversification Strategies ’ </li></ul><ul><li>The two are NOT mutually exclusive and can and do co-exist at the individual/household level. </li></ul>12
  20. 20. Our learnings !
  21. 21.
  22. 22. What sort of options ? <ul><li>Dry fish processors </li></ul><ul><li>Processing plant owners </li></ul><ul><li>Processing plant workers </li></ul><ul><li>Peeling workers </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle traders/moped traders </li></ul><ul><li>Dry fish traders </li></ul><ul><li>Auctioneers </li></ul><ul><li>Fish graders </li></ul><ul><li>Net menders </li></ul><ul><li>Electricians </li></ul><ul><li>Engine mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Battery repairers </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden boat makers –carpenters </li></ul><ul><li>Fiberglass boat makers </li></ul><ul><li>Welders/Tinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Barefoot accountants </li></ul><ul><li>Ice plant owners </li></ul><ul><li>Ice plant workers </li></ul><ul><li>Ice sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Ice box sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Basket weavers and sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Salt sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Ice crushers </li></ul><ul><li>Rickshaw pullers </li></ul><ul><li>Fish packers/collectors </li></ul><ul><li>Water suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Grocery shops </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurant owners </li></ul><ul><li>GPS repairers/trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Navigational skill trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing gear sellers </li></ul>
  23. 23. Usual options – Compare General needs assessment show;- <ul><li>Beauty culture </li></ul><ul><li>Sawing-garment manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Handy-crafts making </li></ul><ul><li>Goat rearing </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Food processing (Bites, sweets, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Value added spices </li></ul><ul><li>Yoghurt producers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Why this works ? <ul><li>Within their social & economic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Building on their traditional knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Known power structures </li></ul><ul><li>Social security </li></ul><ul><li>Within their fisheries governance systems (community based, cooperative etc.) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Advantages <ul><li>This looks at the whole fishery as an “industry” (sub-sector) </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood improve with – sub-sector growth </li></ul><ul><li>Growth provides more opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the growth of sub-sector as an industry </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen village/divisional level development/leadership </li></ul><ul><li>A mechanism to curb on over- exploitation of fishing resources </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate fisheries management/governance systems </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thanks

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