Loss of access rights leads to collapse of traditional fisheries governance and rise of conflicts: A case from Malala and ...
Outline         1.Objectives of the paper         2.Background to study         3.A brief on Lagoon Fisheries in Sri Lanka...
Objectives             This attempts to discuss the consequences and             impacts of introducing a State-led manage...
Background to the study           This analysis is part of a fisheries project conducted by           Practical Action (fo...
Lagoon Fisheries in Sri Lanka         1.Sri Lanka is an island of lagoons !         2.The most marginalized Fisheries sub-...
Lagoon Fisheries in Sri Lanka         1.Sri Lanka is an island of lagoons !         2.The most marginalized Fisheries sub-...
Malala and Ebillakela lagoon fishery        1.Two lagoons connected to each        other, having one lagoon mouth ;-      ...
AnalysisWednesday, April 13, 2011
Community level fisheries self         governance system           1.There were 13 fisher families in ancient times - loca...
Development of the system          1.This fisheries institution (FI) + Farmer organization          managed excess water i...
Taking action agains migrant                                                                                        Taking...
Wildlife department enters           1.Lagoon ecosystem (adjoining forest) gazetted as a           birds sanctuary in1969 ...
WD manages fisheries                                   Fisheries management plan                            WD            ...
ResultsWednesday, April 13, 2011
WhileWednesday, April 13, 2011
Un-coordinated        development work        1.Sate set-up a irrigation system for farmer colony (30km off)        2.Exce...
Cause for lack of fish ?Wednesday, April 13, 2011
Over-fishing as the cause                                                    17Wednesday, April 13, 2011
Fishing licensing system         1.WD introduced a licensing system to curb over-fishing         2.To which fishers oppose...
Lessons         1.Understanding way of life and social aspects of fishers         2.Their traditional self governances sys...
Acknowledgments         Traditional lagoon fishers and farmers in Malala         Co-author, Jayantha Guneseraka         Pr...
Thank youWednesday, April 13, 2011
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Collapse of traditional lagoon fishery in Malala and Ebilleka lagoons Sri Lanka

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Collapse of traditional lagoon fishery in Malala and Ebilleka lagoons Sri Lanka

  1. 1. Loss of access rights leads to collapse of traditional fisheries governance and rise of conflicts: A case from Malala and Ebillakela lagoons in Sri Lanka Erwin Rathnaweera & Jayantha GunasekaraWednesday, April 13, 2011
  2. 2. Outline 1.Objectives of the paper 2.Background to study 3.A brief on Lagoon Fisheries in Sri Lanka 4.Malala and Ebillakela lagoon fishery 5.Analysis 6.LessonsWednesday, April 13, 2011
  3. 3. Objectives This attempts to discuss the consequences and impacts of introducing a State-led management mechanism for Malala-Ebillakela lagoon fishery under the Wild Life Act of Sri LankaWednesday, April 13, 2011
  4. 4. Background to the study This analysis is part of a fisheries project conducted by Practical Action (formerly known as ITDG), on building capacities small scale lagoon fishers to take the lead in collaborative lagoon ecosystem governance with other stakeholders. Practical Action has been working with 8 lagoons in Sri Lanka and Malala and Ebillakela is one of them.Wednesday, April 13, 2011
  5. 5. Lagoon Fisheries in Sri Lanka 1.Sri Lanka is an island of lagoons ! 2.The most marginalized Fisheries sub-sector 3.About 70,000 lagoon fisher families; very small scale dependent on 180 lagoons and estuaries 4.No proper assessment on lagoon fishersLagoon and Estuaries considered as garbage dumping grounds 5.Development programs aim at Coastal and Deep sea fishery 6.Provides the most commercially important fish species (wild fished);prawns and crabs for export incomesWednesday, April 13, 2011
  6. 6. Lagoon Fisheries in Sri Lanka 1.Sri Lanka is an island of lagoons ! 2.The most marginalized Fisheries sub-sector 3.About 70,000 lagoon fisher families; very small scale dependent on 180 lagoons and estuaries 4.No proper assessment on lagoon fishersLagoon and Estuaries considered as garbage dumping grounds 5.Development programs aim at Coastal and Deep sea fishery 6.Provides the most commercially important fish species (wild fished);prawns and crabs for export incomesWednesday, April 13, 2011
  7. 7. Malala and Ebillakela lagoon fishery 1.Two lagoons connected to each other, having one lagoon mouth ;- Total water surface is 1080 ha 2.Located in Southern province of Sri Lanka 3.450 lagoon fisher dependent on the lagoon ecosystem 4.Paddy farmers, Dairy farmers, firewood collectors living around the lagoonWednesday, April 13, 2011
  8. 8. AnalysisWednesday, April 13, 2011
  9. 9. Community level fisheries self governance system 1.There were 13 fisher families in ancient times - location specific, trap fishery 2.With the increase of fishing population - formed community institution to regulate fishing ; Avoid conflicts, equal distribution of fishing resources, control encroachers etc. 3.Fishing gear (fishing traps, nets) and location specific, time and season bound (some fish species, crabs, prawns) 4.In British period, “The village Communities Ordinance (VCO) No.24 of 1889”. further empowered this systemWednesday, April 13, 2011
  10. 10. Development of the system 1.This fisheries institution (FI) + Farmer organization managed excess water in the the lagoon during raining season 2.FI began development work (rural roads, community centers, etc) with the government 3.FI registered as fisheries cooperative and started micro credit system for fisher families and buying and selling fish 4.FI represented divisional/district and National fisheries and development forumsWednesday, April 13, 2011
  11. 11. Taking action agains migrant Taking part in National level fishers, encroachers, illegal planning fishing District/Divisional level water management +Planning development activities Regulating fishing + Fisheries Cooperative work + Village Development 10Wednesday, April 13, 2011
  12. 12. Wildlife department enters 1.Lagoon ecosystem (adjoining forest) gazetted as a birds sanctuary in1969 2.National Wild life park in 1992 3.Wildlife department(WD) mandated to regulate NRM (including fisheries) 1992 4.WD introduced new fisheries management regulations, - no fishing at night, new identity cards, 6 fish landing centers, one fishing gear etc.Wednesday, April 13, 2011
  13. 13. WD manages fisheries Fisheries management plan WD 12Wednesday, April 13, 2011
  14. 14. ResultsWednesday, April 13, 2011
  15. 15. WhileWednesday, April 13, 2011
  16. 16. Un-coordinated development work 1.Sate set-up a irrigation system for farmer colony (30km off) 2.Excess water of the irrigation system was diverted to lagoon 3.As WD in-charged, no fisher of farmer consulted 4.Lagoons became fresh water bodies, no brackish water 5.No prawns, crabs 6.Paddy farms (200 a) around the lagoon flooded 7.Conflict on opening the lagoon mouth between fishers and farmers 8.Excess water drainage canal - did not workWednesday, April 13, 2011
  17. 17. Cause for lack of fish ?Wednesday, April 13, 2011
  18. 18. Over-fishing as the cause 17Wednesday, April 13, 2011
  19. 19. Fishing licensing system 1.WD introduced a licensing system to curb over-fishing 2.To which fishers opposed 3.Sever conflicts (Fights) between fishers and WD 4.Fishers leave the fishery , get into mafia groups, illicit liquor production, hunting wild animal 5.Increase of theft 6.Farmers continue to fight with fishersWednesday, April 13, 2011
  20. 20. Lessons 1.Understanding way of life and social aspects of fishers 2.Their traditional self governances systems 3.Building upon them, - British period 4.Include such systems into Development planningWednesday, April 13, 2011
  21. 21. Acknowledgments Traditional lagoon fishers and farmers in Malala Co-author, Jayantha Guneseraka Practical Action staff Editing, Joe Burns, K.V.S.Vithanage N.JayasekaraWednesday, April 13, 2011
  22. 22. Thank youWednesday, April 13, 2011

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