Nationalism In India Group 6 of 2 - Canisius Risager, John B. Veruasa, Rainier Gilbert A. Gamit, Cris Angelo A. Albelar, Irysh Dianne A. November 26, 2012
IntroductionO As the European powers competed for markets and colonies, they eventually clashed due to their imperialistic interests. Thus, on June 28, 1914, the First World War in history broke out.O Although Asian nations were not directly involved in the war, it was an important usually event to remember, because it helped hasten the other way for change. Totally devastated, the Europeans powers were challenged by the Asians. Nationalists movements rose against the domineering Europeans.
What is Nationalism?O Is a form of patriotism based upon the identification of a group of individuals with a nation.O Devotion to the interests or culture of ones nation.O The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals.
Growth of Indian Nationalism O The growth of Indian nationalism started in the nineteenth century. Political unification of India, fall of Indias old social and economic system, the beginning of modern trade and industry and the rise of new social classes laid the basis of nationalism. O Source: http://www.preservearticles.com/20110419 5626/short-on-essay-the-rise-of- nationalism-in-india.html
O Indian nationalism had been growing in the mid 1800’s.O They began to apply these political ideas to their own country, and started to resent the two centuries of British rule.O Two groups were formed to liberate India from foreign rule. The Indian National Congress or Congress Party, in 1885, and the Muslim League in 1906.O They shared the heritage of British rule and an understanding of democratic ideals. These two groups both labored hard toward the goal of national independence.
O Until World War , the vast majority of Indians had little interest in nationalism . The situation changed as over a million Indians enlisted in the British army. In return for their service, the British government promised reforms that would eventually lead to self-government.
World War I Heightens Indian Nationalism O The First World War created a new economic and political situation. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced. Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
O Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food. This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.O Source: http://www.excellup.com/classten/ssten/ nationalismasia.aspx
O Later in the war, Indian demands led to the declaration in parliament favoring the increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions.
O In 1918, Indian troops returned home from war, expecting the fulfillment of Britain’s promise of self-governance or swaraj. Instead they found themselves once again treated as second- class citizens. This caused the radical nationalists to carry out acts of violence to show their hatred to the British rule. In retaliation, the British enacted the Rowlatt Act in 1919.
O To Western educated Indians, denial of a trial by jury violated their individual rights. Violent protests against the act flared in Punjab, the Indian province with the greatest number of World War I veterans.
O In March 1919, the British passed the Rowlatt Acts to try to control protests in India. The acts attempted to restrict the political liberties and rights of Indians, including the right to trial by jury. But demonstrations against the government increased in response to the acts. On April 13, 1919, thousands of Indians assembled in an enclosed area in Amritsar. Troops entered the meeting place and blocked the entrance.
O The British commander then ordered the soldiers to open fire on the unarmed crowd. The shots killed about 400 people and wounded about 1,200. This event, called the Amritsar Massacre, proved to be a turning point. From then on, Indians demanded complete independence from British rule. The British promised more reforms, but at the same time, they tried to crush the independence movement.O Source: http://www.linkup.au.com/india/rise_of_indian_nati onalism.htm
O To protest the Rowlatt Act, thousands of Hindus and Muslims assembled in Amritsar, the capital city of Punjab in 1919. They intended to fast, pray, and to listen to political speeches. A small group of nationalists was also on the scene. The demonstration alarmed the British.
O The demonstration were unaware that the British governor had banned public meetings. However General Reginald Dyer, the British commander at Amritsar, believed that they were openly defying the ban. And he ordered his troops to fire on the crowd without warning. The shooting last 10 minutes and it was wounded about 1200.
O There was an explosion of anger because of the slaughter across in India that was in overnight. There are millions of people in India changed from loyal subjects into revolutionaries and nationalists. These are the Indians are demanding INDEPENDENCE.
Mohandas Gandhi and theIndependence MovementO On Jan. 30, 1948, while on his way to a prayer meeting in New Delhi, he was assassinated. A Hindu fanatic who hated Gandhi for his tolerance toward Muslims and disagreed with Gandhis policy of nonviolence shot him to death. Although British India had become partitioned, an agreement also had to be reached with the princely states. Most local rulers agreed to merge their states into India. In return, the Indian government offered them annual payments.
O A few princely states joined Pakistan. One state that initially merged into neither India nor Pakistan was Kashmir. Its ruler was Hindu, but the majority of its people were Muslims. Pakistani Muslims launched an invasion to take Kashmir by force, and Pakistan laid claim to the state. Kashmirs ruler responded by seeking Indias protection and by making Kashmir part of India. The war between India and Pakistan lasted until 1949, when the United Nations (UN) arranged a cease-fire and set up a truce line.
O By 1920, Mohandas K. Gandhi had become a leader in the Indian independence movement and in the Indian National Congress, which had become the most important Indian political organization. Gandhi persuaded the Congress to adopt his program of nonviolent disobedience, also known as nonviolent nonco-operation.
O Gandhis program asked Indians to boycott British goods, to refuse to pay taxes, and to stop using British schools, courts, and governmentservices. As a result, some Indians gave up well-paying jobs that required them to cooperate with the British. Gandhi changed the Indian National Congress from a small party of educated men to a mass party with millions of followers.O Source: http://www.linkup.au.com/india/rise_of_indian_ nationalism.htm
O Mohandas Gandhi brought nationalism through the common people in India. Mohandas Gandhi was born since October 2, 1869 in Panbandar. And he was studied law in England and he was practiced in South Africa.O He was also a journalists and he had an experience through western party and it has a product of both Indians and the Western Education.
O Through Hindu by birth, Gandhi actually didn’t belong to any religious group. There are some plans to take Gandhi used by the following principles borrowed from all other religions of the world. O Be of service to others; O Religious toleration is one of the best way to live in peacefully; O Simple living; never seeking materials rewards; and O Fight injustice without resorting to violence.
O Disturbing by the sense of their injustice of the British, Gandhi returned India home. He will now became the most influential spiritual and political leader in India’s fight for the INDEPENDENCE.
Gandhi’s Principle of NonviolenceO The Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi, however, declared that dominion status was unacceptable and its aim was complete independence. In this letter to the Viceroy Lord Irwin, Gandhi explains why he regards British rule in India as a curse and outlines his plans to initiate civil disobedience by breaking the salt laws.
O A month after this letter was written, on 6 April 1930, Gandhi marched to Dandi in western India to demonstrate how to make salt from sea-water in protest against the governments salt monopoly. This was followed by mass strikes, the boycott of British goods, and violence.O Source: http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelpregion/asia/in dia/indianindependence/indiannat/source3/ind ex.html
O The massacre at Amritsar setting the stage for his good leader Mohandas Gandhi to emerge as the leader of the Independence movement. The most Indian poet who is a nice writing poet Rabindranath Tagore described him as the “The Great Soul in a beggars garb”, said the poet. Gandhi attracted millions of followers. Then now Mohandas Gandhi is said to be the Mahatma, meaning “ Great Soul “.
O When the British failed to punish their officers responsible for the killings at the Amritsar Massacre, Gandhi urged the Indian National Congress to follow a policy of noncooperation with the British government.
Gandhis Principle of Civil DisobedienceO In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles. Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919.
O They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics. But younger leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose pressed for more radical mass agitation and for full independence.
O In such a situation of internal debate and dissension two factors again shaped Indian politics towards the late 1920s. The first was the effect of the worldwide economic depression. Agricultural prices began to fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1930. As the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay their revenue. By 1930, the countryside was in turmoil.O Source: http://www.excellup.com/classten/ssten/nationalis masia.aspx
O Gandhi developed the principle of Satyagraha or “ truth – force “ in English. Satyagraha is called passive resistance or civil disobedience, the deliberate and public refusal to obey an unjust law. Gandhi wrote “ Complete civil disobedience is a rebellion without the element of violence…one perfect civil resister is enough to win the battle of right and wrong”
O In 1920, under Gandhi’s influence, the Congress Party made of civil disobedience and nonviolence as the means to achieve independence.O Gandhi launched campaigns of disobedience to weaken the British government’s authority and economic power. He called on Indians to stage a series of hartals or boycotts of British law courts, schools, services, stores and manufactured goods.
O Gandhi stage a succesful boycott of British cloth, a source of wealth for the British. Gandhi himself devoted two hours each day to spinning his own yarn on a simple hand wheel. He wore only homespun clothes and encourage Indians to follow his example. Gandhi also worked to end the unjust practices against the Pariah or untouchables – the lowest group which means “ People of God “ must be treated as equals.
O There were other groups who led demonstrations, strikes, and violent protests. It resulted in riots, bloodshed, and arrested. Throughout 1920, the British struggled to keep trains running, factories going, and overcrowded jails from bursting.
Salt MarchO This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. This was altogether different from the Non- cooperation Movement. People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, as they had done in 1921-22, but also to break colonial laws.
O Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned, and in many places forest people violated forest laws – going into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.O Source: http://www.excellup.com/classten/ssten/nationalis masia.aspx
O Gandhi organized to defy the hatred Salt Act.O According to the Law, Indians can only buy Salt from no other source but the government. They also had to pay sales taxes on salt. To show this position, Gandhi and his followers walked through the seacost for making their own salt and let it evaporate. This peaceful protest was called the SALT MARCH.
O After a march where the British government processed the salt. Police officers attacked the demonstrators. Gandhi’s independence movement took about 60,000 people. And finally Gandhi was also ARRESTED.
Great Britain Grants India from Self-ruleO Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail, the Congress had been declared illegal, and a series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. With great apprehension, Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement. For over a year, the movement continued, but by 1934 it lost its momentum.
O A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, lawcourts and railway stations – all structures that symbolised British rule. A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 100,000 people were arrested.O Source: http://www.excellup.com/classten/ssten/nation alismasia.aspx
O Gandhi and his followers gradually reaped the rewards of their civil disobedience campaigns and gained greater political power for the Indian people. In 1935, the British parliament passed the Government of India Act. It provided local self- government and limited democratic elections.
O The Government of India Act fueled mounting tensions between the Muslim and Hindus. This set up was not accepted by the Indian nationalists. The Muslims, on the other hand, also decided to settle only for a separate Muslim state under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Eventually in 1939, the Second World War broke out in Europe.
Summary…. The Europeans have their own World War II in use of the outbreak for power. During the First World War II, believed that the British governor had banned public meetings. The Indians insisted on self-rule and the Muslims use for their separate state. The British Parliament, was supposed judge by the Act of 1935. Mohandas Gandhi, aroused by developing the truth for all nations. The Amritsar Massacre has the proof that these will depend on Independence.
Short QuizO ________ pioneered the art of Satyagraha, typified with a strict adherence to ahimsa (non-violence), and civil disobedience. a. Rajagopalachari b. Abul Kalam Azad c. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi d. Jawaharlal Nehru
O The BJP seeks to defend the culture and heritage of India and the majority of its people, the ________ population. a. Vaishnavism b. Rama c. Hindu d. Hinduism
O Main Articles: ________, Indian rebellion of 1857, Indian National Congress – Freedom Era. a. Revolutionary movement for Indianindependence b. Indian independence movement c. Indian National Army d. Abul Kalam Azad
O However, ________s leadership attracted a wide array of Muslims to the freedom struggle and the Congress Party. a. Abul Kalam Azad b. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi c. Rajagopalachari d. Jawaharlal Nehru
Essay Questions:O Nationalism is the love for ones country and the willingness to defend it. Wars, though harmful, faster a spirit of unitary among the people. The moment there is a threat to the nation from an enemy, the patriotic feelings of the people are aroused. What is its idea of it?
O Nationalism inspires the people for the noble deeds. What is its idea?
Answers:O 1. cO 2. dO 3. aO 4. bO 5. Answers may vary.O 6. Answers may vary.