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  1. 1. A proposal on :ENHANCEMENT OF ECONOMIC STATUS OF MAIZE FARMERUNDER CROP ROTATION OF LENTIL AND MAIZE WITHCROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENTResearcher:Shree Krishna AdhikariTribhuvan UniversityInstitute of Agriculture and Animal ScienceRampur CampusRampur, ChitwanProject duration:October, 2013 to June, 2014Budget:Rs. 129,950.00Research site:4 VDCs in ChitwanNepal
  2. 2. Proposal outline:• Introduction• Justification of the study• Problem tree analysis• Objective• Hypothesis• Research methodology• Expected outcomes• Logical framework• Time line• Budget• Reference
  3. 3. Introduction:• Maize is the second important crop of Nepal after rice in terms of areagrown and production (Sah and Zamora, 2007). According to MOAC(2011) maize is cultivated in 906 thousand ha. of land and production is2067000 mt. that is almost 24 % of the total cereal production.• Maize contribution towards national GDP is 3.6% and to AGDP it is 9.3%(Thakur et al., 2006).• In Nepal, the productivity of maize is almost stagnant but the demand of itis expected to be 4 to 6% per year over next 20 years (Poudel et al., 2001).That is why the productivity of the maize should be increased.• Manures and fertilizers have the major role in the high productivity ofmaize. Chemical fertilizer application is not the sustainable solution forincreasing productivity.
  4. 4. Introduction contd….• Due to deterioration of soils and high cost of chemicalfertilizer, there is the need of escape differently.• Growing the concern about the declining the organic matter insoil as well as nutrient imbalance and increasing the cost ofchemical fertilizer have led to the interest of legume as thesolution of these problems (www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca).
  5. 5. Justification of the study• In Nepal there is no any self –conducted agro-fertilizer company that willsatisfy the need of fertilizer.• Source of fertilizer should be depending upon the neighbor country India.• There is the lack of timely accessible to the fertilizer too.• Almost of the people in Nepal are very poor and don’t have access to thefertilizer and they have to depend upon the existing soil fertility solely.• The people who are involved in the agriculture are of toothless generationand they do have lack of knowledge of modern farming techniques anddose of fertilizer application.• Nitrogen fixing plants like legume can enhance the soil fertility with low ofcost.• Crop residue management will enhance the soil fertility and structure.
  6. 6. Problem Tree Analysis:
  7. 7. Objective:Major objective:• To enhance the livelihood of the farmers by increasing the productivity ofthe maize under the crop rotation of maize and lentil with crop residuemanagement.Specific objective:- To minimize the use of chemical fertilizer in maize farming- To improve the soil fertility and organic matter content- To reduce the cost of production
  8. 8. Hypothesis:• H0: There will be no difference in the cost of production of maize undercrop rotation of maize and lentil with crop residue management.• H1: There will be cost effective in the production of maize under croprotation of maize and lentil with crop residue management.
  9. 9. Literature Review:* Organic matter is an important part of the soil (crop residue such maizestalks, bean residue, grasses etc.) that includes living microorganisms, controlboth the chemical composition and the physical structure of the soil(www.organicfarmermagazine.org) .* If chemical fertilizers are used year after year, the nutrients balance in thesoil is interfered with, leading to a situation where more of one nutrient thatblocks the others from being taken up by plants (Subedi et al., 1995).* It is the more cost effective to buy the rhizobium inoculated seed of lentil touse than use of chemical fertilizer (www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca, 2012).* Lentil fixes about 60–110 kg nitrogen per ha per year (Griffiths, 2009) .
  10. 10. Research methodology:Selection of the study area• The study will be conducted in 4 VDCs (Mangalpur, Shardanagar, Bhimnagar andShivanagar)in Chitwan district.• 2 VDCs (Mangalpur and Shardanagar) will be of beneficiary group where crop rotation oflentil and maize with crop residue management practices are being adopted and 2 VDCs(Bhimnagar and Shivanagar) will be non-beneficiary group where this practices are not beingadopted.Selection of sample and sampling procedure• A representative sample of 60 respondents from two VDCs among the crop rotation of lentiland maize with crop residue management using farmers and 60 from non-beneficiary VDCswill be selected purposively.Preliminary Survey:• It will be done in the first week of October to find the agricultural condition and nature of therespondents.Final survey• A survey will be done in December and April among the sampled respondent.
  11. 11. Research methodology contd…Data analysis• Descriptive statistics like frequency and percent analysis will be used to analyse cropping intensity,crop yield and farmers income.• The regression analysis will also be used to assess the contribution of crop rotation of maize andlentil with crop residue management to the production and to farm income as well.• Y= a0 +a1 X1 +a2X2+a3X3+a4X4+a5X5Where,Y= production (qt)X1= landholding (ha)X2= cropping intensity (%)X3=amount of soil nutrient contributed by lentil and crop residuemanagement(kg/ha)X4= amount of chemical fertilizer (kg/ha)X5= economically active family members (no.)a0= interceptaj= regression coefficients(i=1,2,3,4,5)X1X2X3X4X5-= explanatory variables
  12. 12. Research methodology contd…
  13. 13. Expected outcomes:• By 2015, 10 % more farmer will follow the new farming technique of themaize production• By 2015, the cost of production in the maize will be decrease by 20%• Soil fertility will be improved.• Cost effective in production will be assessed and it will be more costeffective when maize is cultivated under crop rotation of lentil and maizewith crop residue management.
  14. 14. Logical framework:Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI) Means of Verification (MOV) AssumptionsGoalTo enhance the livelihood of the maizefarmerBy 2017, 25% of the maize farmersincreases in income by 15%Annual reports of MOAC andNPCClimatological conditionremain favorablePurposeTo decrease the cost of fertilizer inproduction of maize by crop rotation ofmaize and lentil and crop residuemanagementBy 2015, the cost of production in the maizewill be decrease by 20%Annual reports of DADO. DDC,MOAC, NARCFarmers adopt the technologyOutputSuitable technique establishes for maizeproduction in low cost.Improvement of the soil organic mattercontent.Increase of the interest of farmer in maizefarming in new technique.By 2014, this technique will establish for themaize production in low cost.By 2014, improvement of organic mattercontent in soil will be achievedBy 2015, 10 % more farmer will follow thenew farming technique of the maizeproductionSurvey of the respective areaLab analysis of the soil reportBudget released in time.Timely available of the inputsIrrigation facility is wellmaintainedElectricity is available all thetimeActivities1. Site selection2. Soil testing before lentil cultivation3. Cultivation of the lentil4. Data collection about lentil5. Soil testing before maize cultivation6. Residue management7. Cultivation of maize8. Data collection about maize9. Data analysis10. Report writing11. Presentation and publicationInput budget:Total NRs.: 55,200 only
  15. 15. Timeline :SN Activities MonthOct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May Jun1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 21. Literature review2. Site selection3. Preparation ofquestionnaire4. Preliminary survey5. Soil testing6. Lentil cultivation7. Data collection aboutlentil8. Crop residuemanagement9. Soil testing10. Maize cultivation11. Data collection aboutmaize12. Data analysis and reportwriting
  16. 16. Budget:S.N. Particulars Amount (NRs.)1 Preliminary field survey 10000.002 Stationery Materials 4000.003 Interview schedule preparation and pre-testing 12000.004 Travel expenses 10000.005 Expenses during data collection 25000.006 Validation and data entry 9000.007 Literature collection, communication 6000.008 Analysis of data 12000.009 Farmer convenience for the participation 25000.00Subtotal 113000.00Contingency (5%) 5650.00Over head (10%) 11300.00Grand total 129950.00