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Sensitivity and Coordination by Marcos


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Sensitivity and Coordination by Marcos

  2. 2. STIMULUS AND RESPONSE Stimuli A stimulus is anything you see, hear, touch, smell or taste. Stimuli can be internal or external:  Internal stimuli come from inside our bodies. External stimuli come from outside the body.The body has different receptors to recive different types of stimuli.  Internal receptors recive the internal stimuli our bodies produces  External receptors recive external stimuli. They are in the sensory organs: the eyes, the nose, the tongue, the ears and the skin. Responses o A response is the body´s answer to a stimulus. o There are two types of responses: - Muscular responses. - Glandular responses.
  3. 3. THE SENSES Sight:The eye is the organ of sight, It is made up of the eyeball and protected by the eyebrows, eyelids and eyelashes. 1º.- First light goes through the cornea. 2º.- Then ligh passes through the pupil, the opening of the iris. 3º.- After that light passes through the lens which focuses the image on the retina. 4º.- Finally the information in the retina travels to the brain through the optic nerve. SmellThe nose is the organ of smell. The receptors of smell are in the pituitary gland, inside the nostrils. Pituitary Nostrils
  4. 4.  HearingThe ear is the organ of hearing. 1º.- The outer ear receives sounds. 2º.- The middle ear changes sounds into vibrations. 3º.- The inner ear changes vibrations into nerve impulses that go to the brain TouchThe skin is the organ of touch. It is made up of three layers. Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis  Taste The tongue is the organ of taste. The receptors of taste are in the taste buds. Taste buds There are taste buds all around the tongue.
  5. 5. WHAT IS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM? The nervous systemThe nervous system is made up of nerve centres and nerves.- The central nervous system has two parts:- * The brain is inside the skull. Il is made up of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.- * The spinal cord is made up of many neurons. It is protected by vertabrae.- - The peripheral nervous sistem is made up of:- * Sensory nerves.- * Motor nerves. NeuronsBoth the central and peripheral nervous systems are made up of specialised cells called neurons.They are made up of a: -cell body. -dentrites. -axons.
  6. 6. VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS Voluntary movements:The brain produces a response in the case of voluntary movements. Involuntary movements:The spinal cord produces a response in the case of involuntary movements.
  7. 7. THE SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEM The skeleton Joints The joints are located where two or more bones meet. There are three types of joints: • Moveable joints. • Semi-moveable joints. • Fixed joints. skull bones lower limb bones
  8. 8. The musculature Head muscles Trunk muscles Limb muscles TendonsTendons are made up of flexible and fibrous tissues.