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Sciencie 6th 1.2,3 by Pilar Junquera


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Sciencie 6th 1.2,3 by Pilar Junquera

  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li> UNIT 1 - OUR HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>UNIT 2 - SENSITIVITY AND COORDINATION </li></ul><ul><li>UNIT 3 – THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>UNIT 1 OUR HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>HEALTH AND DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>HEALTH : is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing. When we are healthy, it means we feel well, we are happy and energetic . </li></ul><ul><li>ILLNESS : is the opposite of health. Illnesses and diseases change the functions of our bodies . </li></ul><ul><li>When we are ill, we feel tired and our bodies are not working correctly. </li></ul>HEALTHY ILL
  4. 4. HEALTHY HABITS <ul><li>A balanced diet and a meal routine </li></ul><ul><li>Good hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Enough rest </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing clean air </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exercice </li></ul>
  5. 5. TYPES OF DISEASES <ul><li>Illnesses and diseases are clasified into two groups according to what causes them. </li></ul><ul><li>. INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Viruses, microbes and harmful bacteria cause them.These types of diseases can be contagious and non – contagious. </li></ul><ul><li>. NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES. These have different causes, like : injuries, an imbalanced diet, taking in toxic substances, etc. </li></ul>NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  6. 6. PATHOGENS <ul><li>Pathogens are harmful bacterias that cause diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most common diseases caused by pathogens are: </li></ul><ul><li>. BRONCHITIS . It affects the respirstory system. Its symptoms are constant coughing, a high fever and general discomfort. </li></ul><ul><li>. SALMONELLOSIS . It affects the digestive system. Its symptoms are diarrhoea,vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. </li></ul><ul><li>. BACTERIAL MENINGITIS . It affects the nervous system.Its symptoms are a high fever, stiff neck and severe headaches. </li></ul>BACTERIAL MENINGITIS SALMONELLOSIS BRONCHITIS
  7. 7. VIRUSES <ul><li>A viruse is not a living thing , but it needs living cells to carry out its life processes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is so small that we can only see it with an electronic microscope. Viruses cause many diseases like the flu, herpes, some types of hepatitis and AIDS. </li></ul>ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPE VIRUS
  8. 8. PREVENTING INFECTIONS <ul><li>. Disinfect wounds </li></ul><ul><li>. Wash your hands before eating </li></ul><ul><li>. Avoid sharing, drinking and eating utensils </li></ul><ul><li>. Avoid walking barefoot in swimming pools </li></ul>
  9. 9. VACCINES <ul><li>A vaccine is when the doctor introduces a pathogenic microorganism in your organism that causes a disease into a healthy body. This microorganism can be dead or inactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Some vaccines need injections, like for tetanus, and others you can drink, like the one for polio, it is an oral vaccine. </li></ul>INJECTIONS ORAL
  10. 10. TREATMEN OF INFECTIONS <ul><li>INFECTIONS CAUSED BY BACTERIA . Are treated with antibiotics that destroy them . </li></ul><ul><li>INFECTIONS CAUSED BY FUNGI . Are treated with antifungal medicines that remove them . </li></ul><ul><li>INFECTIONS CAUSED BY VIRUSES . Cannot be teatred with antibiotics . We can only treat them with medications that help reduce symptoms . Doctors can prevent them with vaccines. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>UNIT 2 SENSITIVITY AND COORDINATION </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULI AND RESPONSES </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULUS . Is anything that affects any of the body`s activities. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of stimuli, internal or external. </li></ul><ul><li>The body has different receptors to recive different types of stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of receptors, internal or external. </li></ul><ul><li>RESPONSE . Is the body`s answer to a stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two basic types of responses, muscular responses and glandular responses. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE SENSES: SIGHT <ul><li>The eye is the body`s organ for the sense of sight. </li></ul><ul><li>THE EYE WORK. </li></ul><ul><li>When light reaches the eyeball, it goes through the cornea. Then it goes through the pupil. The ligh then passes through the lens which focuses the image on the retina. The information gathered by the retina travels to the brain through the optic nerve. </li></ul>
  13. 13. HEARING <ul><li>The ear is the body`s organ for the sense of hearing. The ear has three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>. THE OUTER EAR . It is made up of the ear and outer auditory canal. It gathers sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>. THE MIDDLE EAR. It is made up of the eardrump and a chain of small bones . They change sounds into vibrations . </li></ul><ul><li>. THE INNER EAR . It is made up of the cochlea and the auditory nerve. It changes vibrations into nerve impulses that going to the brain. </li></ul>
  14. 14. TOUCH <ul><li>The body´s organ for the sense of touch is the skin . The skin is made up of three layers: </li></ul><ul><li>. EPIDERMIS. It is the outer layer . Its purpose is to protect. </li></ul><ul><li>. DERMIS . It is under the epidermis. It has the receptors of cold, heat and pressure </li></ul><ul><li>. HYPODERMIS. It is under the dermis . It has fat that protects us from damage or the cold . </li></ul>
  15. 15. SMELL AND TASTE <ul><li>The organ for the sense of smell is the nose . Receptors are in the pituitary . </li></ul>The body´s organ for the sense of taste is the tongue . Receptors for different flavours are in the taste buds.
  16. 16. THE CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It has two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>The brain : It is inside the skull. It has three main parts : the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem . </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord . It is a thick cord made up of many neurons that goes through the inside of the spine. It is protected by vertebrae. </li></ul>THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM . It is made up of nerves: Sensory nerves : They transmit information from the sensory organs and internal organs to the central nervous system . Motor nerves : They transmit responses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands of our bodies
  17. 17. NEURONS <ul><li>Neurons are cells that belong to the nervous system. </li></ul>
  18. 18. UNIT 3 THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM <ul><li>The skeleton is made up of all bones in the body. Bones have different shapes . We can find flat bones, like your skull, long bones, like your limbs and short bones like your vertebrae. </li></ul>THE SKELETON
  20. 20. THE MUSCULATURE <ul><li>The musculature is the set of muscles in the body. Locomotor muscles are attached to the bones of the skeleton. When they contract or relax, they make the bones move. </li></ul>
  21. 21. THE END