Living things create other living things in the
process of reproduction . Human beings
reproduce through sexual reproduction.
PRIMARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
The reproductive system are the primary
sexual characteristics . We alredy have them
when we are born and there are different for
male and female.
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
The external characteristics which differentiate men from
women are called secondary sexual characteristics.
During puberty, between the ages of eleven and fifteen, the
reproductive system matures. Some physical changes are
the same for both sexes, like growing taller or hair growing
in the armpit.
Other charges and specific to each sex:
Girls develop breasts and their hips get wider.
Boys get deeper voices.
Reproductive cells carry out the function of reproduction.
Sperm are the male reproductive cells. They are small.
They have a head and a long tail called a fragellum. They
are produced in large numbers from the time of puberty.
Ova are the female reproductive cells. They do not move.
From puberty, an ovum matures every month.
THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The female rproductive system is made up of these organs :
The ovaries produce the ova.
The uterus is where the baby develops.
The fallopian tubes connect the ovarios to the uterus.
The vagina connects the uterus to the outside of the body.
The vulva is the external part of the female reproductive cells.
THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The male reproductive system is made up of these organs :
The testicles are outside the body. They produce sperm. They are
covered by a bag of skin called the scrotum.
The vas deferens take sperm from the testicles to the urethra.
The urethra takes the sperm outside the body.
The seminal vesicles and prostate produce seminal fluid and send
it to the urethra.
The penis is outside the male reproductive system.
Fertilisation occurs when an ovum and a sperm join inside the
Fallopian tubes and they create a single cell called a zygote.
The zygote goes down the Fallopian tubes, it is implanted
in the wall of the uterus and it becomes an embryo.
Pregnancy lasts about 9 months and ends in a birth.
During the early stages, different structures are created to protect
The placenta takes nutrients and oxygen from the mother`s
blood to the embryo.
The umbilical cord connects the embryo to the placenta.
The amniotic sac protects the embryo.
The baby develops step by step :
After 3 months: the embryo has all its organs. It becomes a
After 5 months: the baby`s body develops and it starts moving
and the mother feels it.
After 9 months: the baby is ready to be born and it weighs around
The process of giving birth is called labour. Labour takes place
in three phases:
Dilation: rhythmic contractions make the opening of the
vagina and vulva big enough for the baby to come out.
Expulsion: the baby is born and the doctor cuts the umbilical
Afterbirth: the placenta comes out of the mother`s body.