Hydrogen Fuel Cells


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This is a presentation given during our studies at the Moore School of Business of the University of South Carolina on hydrogen fuel cell technologies.

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Hydrogen Fuel Cells

  1. 1. Hydrogen Fuel Cell<br />Bach, B.<br />Abraham, S.<br />Arnold-Fisher, E.<br />Dupree, W. J.<br />12/7/2007<br />
  2. 2. AGENDA<br />Background<br />Industry Drivers<br />Application Types & Potential<br />Transportation<br />Portable<br />Stationary<br />Product Application Timeline<br />Current Developments in Columbia<br />Questions<br />
  3. 3. What is a Fuel Cell? <br /><ul><li>Hydrogen In
  4. 4. Electricity Out
  5. 5. Byproducts – Water, Heat</li></li></ul><li>How do Fuel Cells work? <br />
  6. 6. Sources of Hydrogen<br />www.minihydrogen.dk<br />
  7. 7. Hydrogen Production Today<br />US Department of Energy <br />
  8. 8. OXYGEN<br />(AIR)<br />Fuel <br />Reformer<br />Converts<br />to <br />Hydrogen<br />FUELCELL<br />INVERTER<br />AC POWEROUTPUT<br />DC POWEROUTPUT<br />HYDROGEN RICH GAS<br />FUEL INPUT<br />WATER<br />HEATRECOVERY<br />Heat used for Fuel Reforming<br />Additional Heat <br />Components of a Fuel Cell System<br />National Institute of Standards & Technology<br />
  9. 9. Examples of Fuel Cell Applications<br />
  10. 10. Benefits of Fuel Cells <br /><ul><li>Low or No dangerous emissions
  11. 11. Higher efficiencies
  12. 12. Constant and consistent power
  13. 13. No Moving Parts
  14. 14. Portable fuel cell systems much lighter than batteries
  15. 15. Smaller than regular batteries </li></li></ul><li>Limitations of Fuel Cells <br /><ul><li>Transportation and storage of fuels (Hydrogen gas)
  16. 16. Lack of Infrastructure
  17. 17. Energy needed to produce Hydrogen from Water
  18. 18. Large amounts of hydrogen needed to meet energy needs
  19. 19. Consumer mistrust
  20. 20. High Cost
  21. 21. Currently do not have hydrogen production capacity
  22. 22. Intolerability to freezing temperatures</li></li></ul><li>Who is involved?<br />Based on 2006 data<br />
  23. 23. World Fuel Cell Activity<br />PWC Survey 2006<br />
  24. 24. Industry Leaders<br />PWC Survey 2006<br />
  25. 25. Industry Gross Revenue<br />PWC Survey 2007<br />
  26. 26. Industry Gross Revenue<br />U.S. Census Bureau 2002 & PWC 2007<br />
  27. 27. Industry Success Factors<br />RESEARCH <br />& <br />DEVELOPMENT<br />INFRASTRUCTURE<br />&<br />STORAGE<br />HYDROGEN<br />PRODUCTION<br />
  28. 28. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION<br />US/South Korea Nuclear Hydrogen Program Example<br />Nuclear Hydrogen Joint Development Center in Daejeon & San Diego<br />Heat electrolysis at 800ºC (today 150ºC)<br />Heat<br />H2<br />Water<br />
  29. 29. INFRA-STRUCTURE &<br />STORAGE<br />Research <br />Leaders<br />Japan<br />Germany<br />USA<br />H2 Economy Case Study: Iceland<br />HYTHANE Fuel (20% H2, 80% Gas)<br />Aral<br />Hydro<br />Linde<br />
  30. 30. Types of Application<br />R & D<br />Global private sector research<br />Fuel Cell Industry Research – SC Export Consortium<br />
  31. 31. Transportation<br />400 fuel cell powered vehicle prototypes worldwide<br /> (BMW, Daihatsu, DaimlerChrysler, Fiat, Ford, GM, Honda, Hyundai, MAN/Neoplan, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan/Renault, PSA, Suzuki, Toyota, VW/Audi)<br />US H2 daily production capacity fuels 20 million cars<br />(243 million passenger vehicles registered in US)<br />SolarToday.org/H2Mobility.org<br />
  32. 32. Cost Analysis<br />Cost of producing Hydrogen: $1.5 to $3.5 per kg<br />Without compression, storage or delivery costs<br />Highly dependent on natural gas, electricity prices and economies of scale<br />Estimated cost at pump: $20 per kg<br />1kg of Hydrogen = Energy content of 1gal gasoline (at 2x efficiency)<br /><ul><li>Effective cost at pump: $10 per kg
  33. 33. Price of average hydrogen powered car (internal combustion): Sticker + $50,000
  34. 34. 50,000 miles cost of H2 car above regular car: $61,667</li></ul> (Assumption: 30 miles/gal at $3/gal gasoline)<br />SolarToday.org/MSN.com<br />
  35. 35. Where to fill up your hydrogen car?<br />299 H2 stations worldwide<br />117,000 petroleum stations in US<br />
  36. 36. Future Outlook<br />Average Annual Expected Sales of PEMFC/SPFC for Light-Duty Vehicles<br />@ $10,000 per fuel cell = 730,000 vehicles<br />Fuel Cell Industry Research – SC Export Consortium<br />
  37. 37. Portable: Military Applications<br />Current Products:<br /><ul><li>Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)</li></ul>Current Status:<br /><ul><li>26 models in current use</li></ul>Future Market:<br /><ul><li> DoD investing 1.9 billion in (UAS) next 5 years </li></ul>Benefits:<br /><ul><li> Low noise, Low heat
  38. 38. Run time double compared to alternatives</li></ul>Source: Millenium Cell (2007)<br />
  39. 39. Portable: Military Applications<br />Current Products:<br /><ul><li>Soldier Power </li></ul>(72-hour, 30-50 watt power source)<br />Current Status:<br /><ul><li>ProPack C-50</li></ul>Future Market:<br /><ul><li> Estimated 200 million dollar annual market. </li></ul>Benefits:<br /><ul><li> Lighter in weight
  40. 40. Less expensive compared to alternatives.</li></ul>Source: Millenium Cell (2007)<br />
  41. 41. Portable: Emergency Response<br />Current Products:<br /><ul><li>Extended Runtime Adapter</li></ul>Current Status:<br /><ul><li>XRT (Jadoo Power)
  42. 42. In commercialization. </li></ul>Future Market:<br /><ul><li> Hurricane Katrina pushed demands </li></ul> for more reliable energy sources for first responders.<br />Benefits:<br /><ul><li> Lightweight, extended runtime.</li></ul>Source: Jadoo Power (2007)<br />
  43. 43. Portable: Consumer<br />Future Products:<br /><ul><li> Laptops, cell phones, mobile devices.</li></ul>Current Status:<br /><ul><li> In developmental, R&D Stages
  44. 44. Numerous prototypes.</li></ul>Future Market:<br /><ul><li> Dependent upon fuel cell technology growth</li></ul> compared to battery technology.<br />Benefits:<br /><ul><li> Lightweight, extended runtime.</li></ul>Source: Jadoo Power (2007)<br />
  45. 45. Stationary Market<br />Current Products:<br /><ul><li> Back-up generators (industrial, small-business)
  46. 46. Distributed Power</li></ul>Current Status:<br /><ul><li> 98 million dollar market (2006)</li></ul>Future Market:<br /><ul><li>Expected to reach 16.9 billion by 2012.</li></ul>Benefits:<br /><ul><li> Reliability, low-maintenance, longer operating life.</li></ul>Source: Ballard Power (2007), Winter Green Research (2006)<br />
  47. 47. Product Application Timeline<br />Stationary <br />Portable <br />Transportation<br />2007<br />2010 - 2015<br />2007<br />2010 - 2015<br />2007<br />2010 - 2015<br />2020 - 2030<br />
  48. 48. H2 Fuel Cells in Columbia, SC<br />Current Projects<br />Innovista<br />Fuel Cell South<br />Palmetto Fuel Cell Technologies<br />USC Fuel Cell Research Group<br />USC Fuel Cell Bus Project (liquid hydrogen refueling station 2008-2009)<br />
  49. 49. QUESTIONS?<br />&quot;Water will be the coal of the future,&quot; Jules Verne (1874)<br />Pennsylvania State University<br />