Introduction ACRE


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by Sako Musterd (October, 2009), Urban Geography University of Amsterdam

ACRE = Accommodating Creative Knowledge: Competitiveness of European Metropolitan Regions within the Enlarged Union

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Introduction ACRE

  1. 1. Accommodating creative knowledge Sako Musterd Urban Geography University of Amsterdam
  2. 2. ACRE project objective <ul><li>learn more about the conditions that are important to the development of creative and knowledge intensive industries in various European urban regions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Creative industries <ul><li>Advertising, architecture, arts and antiques, crafts, design, designer fashion, video, film, music, photography, visual and performing arts, publishing, computer games, software and electronic publishing, radio and TV </li></ul>
  4. 4. Knowledge intensive industries <ul><li>Law (legal sector, accounting, bookkeeping, auditing, etc), financial sector, R&D, ICT, higher education </li></ul>
  5. 5. ACRE project focus <ul><li>What are the development paths of creative knowledge regions and how are these informed by the wider economic and societal contexts? </li></ul><ul><li>How important are hard (classic), soft and other conditions for the creative and knowledge intensive industries in European urban regions? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the settlement considerations of managers, highly skilled employees and transnational migrants in the creative knowledge sector when they decide to settle in an urban area? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Integrated Methodology <ul><li>‘ Comparative’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Similar’ sectors </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Similar’ target groups </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Similar’ questionnaires (common design) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Similar’ item lists </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic approach (more robust results) </li></ul><ul><li>Including different theoretical perspectives (path dependence, clustering, classic conditions, soft conditions, networks) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Development paths: wider economic and social contexts; main factors <ul><li>Position due to the development of the European city system </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of the industrial revolution on the urban region </li></ul><ul><li>The question whether the urban region has a key political or economic decision-making function </li></ul><ul><li>The question whether urban regions are pushed forward by policies aimed at stimulating regional economies </li></ul>
  8. 8. ‘ hard’ or ‘classic’ conditions … <ul><li>agglomeration economies (clustering) </li></ul><ul><li>connections (road, air, water, rail, telecommunications) </li></ul><ul><li>capital </li></ul><ul><li>labour (jobs available) </li></ul><ul><li>wider institutional setting (including taxes regimes, special policies, etc.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. … or ‘soft conditions’ … <ul><li>Attractiveness (urban atmosphere; housing availability and affordability) </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Welcoming </li></ul><ul><li>Historical assets </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul>
  10. 10. … or personal ‘network’ conditions … <ul><li>Born in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Family lives here </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in the city </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity to friends </li></ul>
  11. 11. Some empirical results based on ACRE large-scale surveys among high-skilled employees, managers, and transnational migrants
  12. 12. Perc. highly skilled employees that ranked networks, hard, or soft conditions indicators as most important 2373 100 8 34 58 Total 201 100 1 42 57 Dublin 183 100 4 32 64 Milan 191 100 10 42 47 Toulouse 200 100   10 91 Sofia 132 100 4 17 80 Riga 155 100 3 23 74 Poznan 178 100 10 60 30 Munich 159 100 8 50 43 Leipzig 191 100 10 39 51 Helsinki 197 100 5 24 71 Budapest 165 100 5 38 57 Birmingham 200 100 11 27 62 Barcelona 221 100 26 35 38 Amsterdam N Total percentage Soft conditions Hard conditions Networks  
  13. 13. Concepts <ul><li>Personal networks </li></ul><ul><li>born in region </li></ul><ul><li>family lives here </li></ul><ul><li>studied in City </li></ul><ul><li>proximity to friends </li></ul><ul><li>Hard conditions </li></ul><ul><li>moved because of my job </li></ul><ul><li>moved because of partner's job </li></ul><ul><li>good employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>higher wages </li></ul><ul><li>size of city </li></ul><ul><li>good transport links </li></ul><ul><li>presence of good universities </li></ul><ul><li>Soft conditions </li></ul><ul><li>weather/climate </li></ul><ul><li>proximity to natural environment </li></ul><ul><li>housing affordability </li></ul><ul><li>housing availability </li></ul><ul><li>housing quality </li></ul><ul><li>safe for children </li></ul><ul><li>open to different people </li></ul><ul><li>open minded and tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>gay/lesbian friendly </li></ul><ul><li>language </li></ul><ul><li>overall friendliness </li></ul><ul><li>diversity of leisure & entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><li>diversity of built environment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Relative share of respondents that ranked indicators as among the four most important from a list of 26 indicators, assembled in specific dimensions, per urban region
  15. 15. Some conclusions <ul><li>Difference between cities (a city is mainly context) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural conditions, embeddedness and pathways are key to understanding current opportunities (but not just these) </li></ul><ul><li>Multilayered cities have advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Networks and employment opportunities are especially important </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways, hard conditions, soft conditions and networks must be considered simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Policies matter </li></ul>
  16. 17. POLICIES
  17. 18. POLICIES <ul><li>What Policies and Policy Vehicles? </li></ul><ul><li>What Spatial Level? </li></ul><ul><li>What Organisational Arrangements? </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Challenges for cities </li></ul>
  18. 19. What Policies and Policy Vehicles? <ul><li>Visible policies : Economic Development Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Investing in Skills: Employment services, Training, </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting Investors/firms: Sites and premises, Business incentives </li></ul><ul><li>City marketing, Visitor attractions, Creative quarters, Prestige projects </li></ul>
  19. 20. What Policies and Policy Vehicles? <ul><li>Less Visible policies : </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>City planning, housing affordability, neighbourhoods, quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Local service delivery: environmental, leisure and other services </li></ul><ul><li>National and local taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration controls, citizenship rights and the welfare state </li></ul><ul><li>Representation and influence, bureaucracy and regulation, ‘the ways things work’ </li></ul>
  20. 21. What Policies and Policy Vehicles? <ul><li>Less Visible policies : ‘the ways things work’ </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging the availability of services for businesses – financial, legal </li></ul><ul><li>Support for partners - Trade associations, personal networks </li></ul><ul><li>How easy is it to start and set up a business? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does advice and support come from? </li></ul><ul><li>A role for policy: providing or enabling </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions around integration of policies, holistic approaches, bureaucracy should not kill creativity </li></ul>
  21. 22. What Policy Vehicles? <ul><li>Strategies : What are they based on? </li></ul><ul><li>Objective assessment for each city of needs, objectives, resources, implementation, and evaluation (not a simple transferable formula, but context dependent) </li></ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Policies, Creative or Knowledge, Firms or People, Traditional hard factors or soft factors, Network facilitation, Attraction and Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Activities </li></ul><ul><li>how targeted, financed, what conditions </li></ul>
  22. 23. POLICIES: Spatial Scale <ul><li>National, Regional, Sub-regional, Local Neighbourhood </li></ul><ul><li>Each has a role in relation to different policies but is the responsibility, capacity and competence at the right level? </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions: </li></ul><ul><li>the lack of a regional level? </li></ul><ul><li>The failure to align policies? </li></ul>
  23. 24. POLICIES: What Organisational Arrangements <ul><li>Between levels of government </li></ul><ul><li>Between private sector actors </li></ul><ul><li>Across each of these sectoral divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Across professional, sectoral and administrative boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Who leads? Listening, Learning and Responding rather than charismatic leadership? </li></ul>
  24. 25. Conclusions and Questions <ul><li>In the context of each city: </li></ul><ul><li>Are the assets and dynamics understood (size, structure, pathways, politics, organisations etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Is the policy framework favourable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different spatial scales and alignment between them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there effective cross boundary working? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy integration – holistic approaches? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the emphasis on the appropriate economic sectors? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the focus right (firms and hard factors……..housing affordability… networks, attraction and retention)? </li></ul>
  25. 26. Conclusions and Questions <ul><li>Does the leadership and policy process work? </li></ul><ul><li>Should there be more or less policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Is a different policy style required? </li></ul><ul><li>What is missing? </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed? </li></ul>