Molecular Machines


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Do molecular machines in living cells point to a Creator. Look at the evidence with your own eyes and decide.

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  • Molecular Machines

    1. 1. Bio-Molecular Machines Molecular Machines PowerPoint Presentation By Doug Hove [email_address]
    2. 4. <ul><li>FREE FLASH VIDEO PLAYER </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>FREE QUICKTIME PLAYER </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>FREE WINAMP PLAYER </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>FREE POWER POINT VIEWER 2007 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>TO WATCH THE VIDEOS YOU WILL NEED THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS INSTALLED ON YOUR COMPUTER
    3. 5. The Videos for the Slides Can all be download from the parent websites. The links for downloading the videos are included in the hidden slides following the slides sets containing the videos. The PowerPoint presentation must be downloaded to see the slide animations and animated .gif pictures Additionally PowerPoint Viewer 2007 is required to see the slide animations correctly.
    4. 6. Bio-Molecular Machines Molecular Machines PowerPoint Presentation By Doug Hove [email_address]
    5. 7. Keiichi NAMBA Project Director Dynamic NanoMachine Project, ICORP, Japan Science and Technology Corporation &quot;An enormous number of those macromolecules play each role just like purposefully designed machines and maintain the complex network activities “
    6. 8. “ We have always underestimated cells. … The entire cell can be viewed as a factory that contains an elaborate network of interlocking assembly lines , each of which is composed of a set of large protein machines . … Why do we call the large protein assemblies that underlie cell function protein machines ? Precisely because, like machines invented by humans to deal efficiently with the macroscopic world, these protein assemblies contain highly coordinated moving parts .” The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines: Preparing the Next Generation of Molecular Biologists,&quot; Cell, 92 (February 8, 1998): 291. Bruce Alberts, President, National Academy of Sciences
    7. 9. The late Nobel laureate Francis Crick, co-discoverer of DNA's structure and an outspoken critic of religion, &quot;Biologists must constantly keep in mind that what they see was not designed but rather evolved.&quot; Ø Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Can’t be design ! Animated Slide
    8. 10. The late Nobel laureate Francis Crick, co-discoverer of DNA's structure and an outspoken critic of religion, Crick himself ultimately arrived at the theory of “panspermia” — in which he speculated that life was delivered to the earth from other galaxies. Animated Slide
    9. 11. Is design is just an illusion? Richard Dawkins – A Preeminent Scientist – and the world most prominent atheist &quot;Biology is the study of complicated things that give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose.” Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, ), page 1 Enemies Of Reason BBC TV Could his Atheism influence his Science? Animated Slide
    10. 12. Richard Dawkins &quot;It is absolutely safe to say that if you meet somebody who claims not to believe in evolution, that person is ignorant , stupid or insane (or wicked , but I'd rather not consider that).&quot; Richard Dawkins, &quot;Put Your Money on Evolution&quot; New York Times, April 9, 1989, sec. 7, p34 “ The God of the Old Testament is arguably the most unpleasant character in all fiction: jealous and proud of it; a petty , unjust , unforgiving control-freak ; a vindictive , bloodthirsty ethnic cleanser ; a misogynistic , homophobic , racist , infanticide , genocidal , filicidal , pestilential , megalomaniacal , sadomasochistic , capriciously malevolent bully .” Richard Dawkins, “The God Delusion &quot; New York Times, p. 51
    11. 13. Do all biologists and scientists really believe that design is just an illusion ?
    12. 14. , A molecular biologist working on identifying genetic controls for diseases was interviewed by George Caylor of The Ledger , Lynchburg, Virginia. His article entitled, “ The Biologist,” appeared on February 17, 2000.
    13. 15. , G: “Do you believe that the information evolved ?” J: “George, nobody I know in my profession believes it evolved. It was engineered by ‘genius beyond genius,’ and such information could not have been written any other way. The paper and ink did not write the book! Knowing what we know, it is ridiculous to think otherwise.” G: “Have you ever stated that in a public lecture , or in any public writings ?”
    14. 16. , J: “No. I just say it evolved. To be a molecular biologist requires one to hold on to two insanities at all times. One, it would be insane to believe in evolution when you can see the truth for yourself. Two, it would be insane to say you don’t believe in evolution . All government work , research grants , papers , big college lectures – everything would stop. I’d be out of a job , or relegated to the outer fringes where I couldn’t earn a decent living.”
    15. 17. , G: “I hate to say it, but that sounds intellectually dishonest .” J: “ The work I do in genetic research is honorable . We will find the cures to many of mankind’s worst diseases. But in the meantime, we have to live with the ‘ elephant in the living room ’.” G: “ What elephant ?”
    16. 18. , J: “ Creation design . It’s like an elephant in the living room . It moves around, takes up an enormous amount of space , loudly trumpets , bumps into us, knocks things over, eats a ton of hay, and smells like an elephant. And yet we have to swear it isn’t there! ” Animated Slide
    17. 19. To argue against … the watchmaker analogy made famous by William Paley in his book Natural Theology . More than fifty years before Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species, Paley proposed that the complexity of living organisms was evidence of the existence of a divine Creator . Why did Dawkins write this book ?
    18. 20. “ Natural selection, the blind , unconscious , automatic process which Darwin discovered, ... is the explanation for the existence and apparently purposeful form of all life, has no purpose in mind . It has no mind and no mind's eye . It does not plan for the future. It has no vision , no foresight , no sight at all . If it can be said to play the role of watchmaker in nature, it is the blind watchmaker .” “ We shall look at a particular example and shall conclude that, when it comes to complexity and beauty of design, Paley hardly even began to state the case .”
    19. 21. NATURAL THEOLOGY BY WILLIAM PALEY, D.D. TWELFTH EDITION 1809 In crossing a heath , suppose I pitched my foot against a stone , and were asked how the stone came to be there; I might possibly answer, that, for any thing I knew to the contrary, it had lain there for ever : nor would it perhaps be very easy to show the absurdity of this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place;
    20. 22. NATURAL THEOLOGY BY WILLIAM PALEY We recognize design in the watch because: its ... parts are framed and put together for a purpose , … they are so formed and adjusted as to produce motion, and that motion so regulated as to point out the hour of the day; ... if the different parts had been differently shaped from what they are, [or] of a different size from what they are, or placed after any other manner , or in any other order , ... [or where made of a dissimilar material ] … either no motion at all would have been carried on ..., or none which would have answered the use that is now served by it.
    21. 23. NATURAL THEOLOGY BY WILLIAM PALEY We would still believed the watch was designed: if there were a few parts ... which we could not discover [the purpose of ]... [If] disorder , or decay of the parts [occurred or had occurred over time] [if] we had never seen a watch made; ... [if] we had never known an artist capable of making one; ... [if] there were parts which might be spared , without prejudice to the movement of the watch it possessed the unexpected property of producing , in the course of its movement, another watch like itself [by] a complex adjustment of lathes, files, and other tools …
    22. 24. Does Life as a purpose ? Bible: … Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth … Biology : … Survival of the fittest to produce offspring … Do the components appear to be designed ? Complex … Composed of many very specific parts that must fit together and work together in a precise way to perform a function. Specific … The materials and shapes are highly specific and do not form under natural conditions. Irreducible … Most components if removed would stop the watch completely. Natural selection cannot preserve a non-functioning watch waiting for the last part to evolve. Highly Ordered… If the parts were placed in a different order they would not function. Random forces act to undo this order and if undone random forces will not put it back together.
    23. 26. If I a can imagine a way it could happen by random processes alone , no matter how illogical , unlikely or counter- intuitive , it must therefore happen … if given enough time. No other explanation is needed. Animated Slide
    24. 27. How many watch parts would you need to throw in a box or in the ocean? How long would you have to shake it or swirl it, until it assembled a watch?
    25. 28. SIMPLE
    26. 29. Complex
    27. 30. Is it important who gets the glory ? Genesis 1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. Psalms 148:5 Let them praise the name of the LORD: for he commanded, and they were created. Isaiah 41:20 That they may see, and know, and consider, and understand together, that the hand of the LORD hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it. Isaiah 45:18 For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else. Revelation 4:11 Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.
    28. 31. Job 10:8 Thine hands have made me and fashioned me together round about; ... Job 33:4 The spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life. Psalms 33:6 By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth. Psalms 46:10 Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth. Psalms 94:9 He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? he that formed the eye, shall he not see? Psalms 95:5-6 The sea is his, and he made it: and his hands formed the dry land. O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker.
    29. 32. What if we looked at the facts and considered the evidence ourselves ?
    30. 33. Just for a moment, may we consider the possibility that living organisms appear designed because they actually were designed ? Animated Slide
    31. 34. DNA Replication DNA Translation DNA Structure
    32. 35. DNA and RNA Structure √ Jan 2009
    33. 36. DNA Replication Overview √ Jan 2009
    34. 37. DNA Transcription Overview √ Jan 2009
    35. 38. DNA Translation Overview √ Jan 2009
    36. 39. DNA Packaging √ Jan 2009
    37. 40. Histone Controlling Gene Expression √ Jan 2009
    38. 41. √ Jan 2009 Histone Molecular Animation
    39. 42. Helicase Unwinds DNA √ Jan 2009
    40. 43. Topoisomerase Solves a Knotty Problem √ Jan 2009
    41. 44. More Enzymes Required √ Jan 2009
    42. 45. Replication Fork Molecular Animation √ Jan 2009
    43. 46. More Enzymes to Identify and Repair Errors √ Jan 2009
    44. 47. DNA Repair Enzymes √ Jan 2009
    45. 48. RNA Transcription √ Jan 2009
    46. 49. Transcription Enzymes √ Jan 2009
    47. 50. RNA Transcription Molecular Animation √ Jan 2009
    48. 51. 3 Types of RNA Produced from DNA √ Jan 2009
    49. 52. Introns Edited from RNA and Exons Spliced together √ Jan 2009
    50. 53. 20 Different tRNA’s match Amino Acids to mRNA Codons
    51. 54. 20 types of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases match 20 different amino acids to tRNA’s with the correct anti-codon. tRNA’s Amino Acid Name Triplet Code or Codon 3-Letter Nickname Glycine GGT,GGC,GGA,GGG Gly Alanine GCT,GCC,GCA,GCG Ala Valine GTT,GTC,GTA,GTG Val Leucine TTG,TTA,CTT,CTC,CTA,CTG Leu Isoleucine ATT,ATC,ATA Ileu Serine TCT,TCC,TCA,TCG,AGT,AGC Ser Threonine ACT,ACC,ACA,ACG Thr Cysteine TGT,TGC Cys Methionine ATG Met Glutamic Acid GAA,GAG Glu Aspartic Acid GAT,GAC,AAT,AAC Asp Lysine AAA,AAG Lys Arginine CGT,CGC,CGA,CGG,AGA,AGG Arg Asparagine AAT,AAC Asn Glutamine GAA,GAG Gln Phenylalanine TTT,TTC Phe Tyrosine TAT, TAC Tyr Tryptophan TGG Trp Proline CCT,CCC,CCA,CCG Pro Terminator TAA,TAG,TGA End
    52. 55. Ribosomes √ Jan 2009
    53. 56. tRNAs loaded into Ribosome √ Jan 2009
    54. 57. Elongation Factor Tu Moves tRNA into Ribosome √ Jan 2009
    55. 58. RNA translated to Polypeptide Chain √ Jan 2009
    56. 59. Protein Folding √ Jan 2009
    57. 60. DNA Structure DNA Replication DNA Transcription DNA Translation 3D structure of chromosome Histones WEHI-TV DNA Helicase structure and function DNA uncoiling Topoisomerase DNA Replication Enzymes DNA Replication Fork DNA Repair Enzymes DNA Transcription Factors DNA Transcription Animation WEHI-TV 3 Types of RNA mRNA Splicing 70s Ribosome fMet-tRNA Complex Ribosomal Function 3D Elongation Factor EF-Tu GTP Spacefilling MOdel Translation Animation WEHI-TV Protein Structure
    58. 61. Bacteria the Simplest Cells
    59. 62. √ Jan 2009
    60. 63. How much DNA? Simple Cell Wall? √ Jan 2009
    61. 64. This is a 34:04 minute video Use 3:31 – 4:32 for this slide And 18:35 – 20:45 for the next slide Use 6:35 – 9:35 and 17:05 – 18:15 for the third slide. √ Jan 2009
    62. 65. 60° √ Jan 2009
    63. 66. √ Jan 2009
    64. 67. Bacteria with flagellum randomly change direction about every second by tumbling Sensors detect if the amount of food or toxins in the environment is increasing or decreasing and change the frequency of tumbling to move toward attractants and away from repellents. √ Jan 2009
    65. 68. BASIC STAMP Programmable Control Chip Pin Out Pin Name Description Comments 5-20 P0-P15 I/O Ports Input/Output ports. From 0-15. 21 +5V +5V supply 5-volt input or regulated output 22 RES Active-low reset Pull low to reset; goes low during reset 23 GND System Ground You must have all grounds connected together. 24 PWR Regulator Input Voltage regulator input; takes 5-15 sonar: high ping ' Turn pinger off initially high compRC ' Raise C2 to +5 volts. pause 1 ' Allow time for C2 to reach +5V. input compRC ' Disconnect pin from C2. pulsout ping,pingLen ' Send a short 40kHz pulse. rctime rcvr,0,echTime ' Wait for echo; save time to echTime. if echTime < 150 then hurt if echTime > 149 then run return again: 'beginning of the function pulsout 0,150 '0, and 1 are the i/o pins on the 'stamp which the motors are on. pulsout 1, 150 '150 is the ms pulse sent to the motors. 'adjust accordingly. pause 15 'waits a tiny bit.. goto again 'begins the fuction again (creates a loop) fate VAR word 'random what-to-do-next variable choice VAR byte 'selector for branch ticks VAR byte 'amount of time to continue a course mot_L VAR word 'left-motor speed mot_R VAR word 'right-motor speed Lp CON 1 'I/O pin which the left motor is 'on. change accordingly Rp CON 0 'I/O pin which the right motor is 'on. change accordingly hafSec con 25 'Approx. number of ticks in a 1/2 second Don’t Underestimate Wiring and Programming
    66. 69. This simple robot requires a computer chip and a program to allow it move until it encounters a object then turn around. In bacteria; chemical concentrations, complex reaction pathways, enzymes, inhibitors and activators are the wires, processors, and programs which do much much more .
    67. 70. Even if motors and computers chips, batteries and sensors were already made; Random mixing will not cause the parts to assemble, Static discharges will not program the chip. Each bumb is as likely to turn a screw out as it is to turn a screw in. Each discharge is as likely to unwrite a bit as to write a bit. Animated Slide
    68. 71. Lac Operon Regulation √ Jan 2009
    69. 72. Tryptophan Operon Regulation √ Jan 2009
    70. 73. Bacterial Conjugation Exchanges DNA √ Jan 2009
    71. 74. Bacterial Transformation Incorporates New DNA into Genome √ Jan 2009
    72. 75. Plasmid Segregation √ Jan 2009
    73. 76. Efflux Pumps Remove Toxins √ Jan 2009
    74. 77. Active Transport Pumps Move Molecules into Cells √ Jan 2009
    75. 78. Restriction Enzymes cut DNA at specific sites leaving sticky ends for splicing √ Jan 2009
    76. 79. Animated Slide
    77. 80. Enzymes Cut or Splice Specific Molecules √ Jan 2009
    78. 81. Links for the videos on the previous page if not included. Bacteria Bacterial Flagella 1, 2, 3 Chemitaxis Slides 41-44 as separate presentation Neutrophil Chasing Bacteria in Blood Lactose Repressor Tryptophan Operon Bacterial Conjagation Bacterial Transformation Par M and Plasmid Segregation Bacterial Eflux Pump Active Transport Bacterial Restriction Enzymes Restriction Enzyme Animation Bacterial Rhodospin Slide 39 as separate presentation Bacteria How much Code? How Complex? Slide 38 as separate presentation Enzymes
    79. 82.
    80. 83. The Inner Life of the Cell / √ Jan 2009
    81. 84. Nikon Microscopy U √ Jan 2009
    82. 85. √ Jan 2009
    83. 86. <ul><li>Motors on actin filaments belong to myosin superfamily. </li></ul><ul><li>Myosins change cell shapes and power muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Motors on microtubules are from either kinesin superfamily or dynein family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesins form a large superfamily most members walk towards plus end of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microtubules. Kinesins move organelles arround cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fastest kinesin have speed of 2-3 microns/s. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyneins are large and fast motor proteins, and walk towards minus end of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microtubules. Dyneins power cilia and flagella in eukaryote cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In vitro studies indicates a speed of 14 microns/s. </li></ul></ul></ul>Walking Molecular Motors !
    84. 87. √ Jan 2009
    85. 88. √ Jan 2009
    86. 89. Dynein Motor Powers Eukaryote Cilia and Flagella √ Jan 2009
    87. 90. Dynein Powered Cilia and Flagella Move Forward And Backwards √ Jan 2009
    88. 91. Cilia Dynein Motor Protein Nexin Elastic Protein Animated Slide
    89. 92. Mitochondria √ Jan 2009
    90. 93. Mitochondria use glucose sugar to make ATP energy. The Powerhouse of the Cell
    91. 94. The Citric Acid Cycle √ Jan 2009
    92. 95. Enzymes in The Citric Acid Cycle √ Jan 2009
    93. 96. The Electron Transport Cycle √ Jan 2009
    94. 97. ATP Synthase Produces most of the power your Cells run on √ Jan 2009
    95. 98. Photosynthesis √ Jan 2009
    96. 99. Mitosis Cell Division √ Jan 2009
    97. 100. Cell Division √ Jan 2009
    98. 101. Microtubules √ Jan 2009
    99. 102. Microtubule Instability √ Jan 2009
    100. 103. The Mitotic Spindle I √ Jan 2009
    101. 104. The Mitotic Spindle II √ Jan 2009
    102. 105. Proteasomes degrade damaged or un-needed proteins √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009
    103. 106. The Golgi body and Cytomembrane Secretion √ Jan 2009
    104. 107. The Golgi Body and Microtubules √ Jan 2009
    105. 108. The Golgi Body and Transport Vessicles √ Jan 2009
    106. 109. 3D Microscopy of the Golgi Body √ Jan 2009
    107. 110. Inner Life of a Cell Simple Cells Myosin and Kinesin walking Motors Slide 46 as separate presentation Myosin Walking on Actin Kinesin walking on Microtubule Cillia and Flagella 3D structute of mitochondrion Glycolosis Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle Electron Transport System ATP Synthase Photosynthesis Cell Mitosis Cell Division Microtubules Microtubules and Chromosome Division Slide 40 as separate PPT Proteasomes Slide 48 as separate PPT Cell Compartments and Golgi Apparatus 3D Exocytotic Transport Specialized Cells Muscles Action Potential and Muscle Contraction Nerve cells finding pathways Synapse
    108. 111. <ul><li>Answers In Genesis </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Check out the Videos on Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Northwest Creation Network </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Check out the Free Online Videos </li></ul><ul><li>and Power Points. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Evidence for Creation </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Watch the On-Line Seminar Videos </li></ul><ul><li>Creationism . org </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Links, Articles, Books </li></ul>√ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009 √ Jan 2009
    109. 112. Free Bible Resources Check out the Free Online Videos. Chick Publishing Online Books and Comics. First Baptist Church of Hammond IN. Audio Bible Studies North Valley Baptist Church Video Bible Conferences.