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Good Governance 3


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Good Governance 3

  1. 1. Governance In India CREATE BRAND MARKET Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Democratic governance
  2. 2. “Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development.” - UN Secretary General Kofi Annan Section I: Changing Contours of Governance ‘Why attempts at reforms did not succeed’. Section II: The Judiciary and the Civil Society Section III: What can be done? Ancient wisdom beacons! Introduction Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Introduction Good governance
  3. 3.  India did not discard the British system of governance after Independence. Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel thought it prudent . Mahatma Gandhi and many others disagreed. However, hindsight does raise a question whether India committed a mistake in the name of pragmatism and prudence. The bureaucracy adapted reasonably well to the new role of administering economic development and worked in tandem with the political leadership. Democratic governance for development was the clearly stated goal. However, in spite of a good beginning things went awry. WHY? Changing contours of the Government Changing contours of the Government Democratic gove Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal
  4. 4. The theorem that power corrupts has been validated in India. The need for administrative reforms was felt continuously.  Setting up of Administrative Reforms Commission in 1966  Management Orientation in Rajiv Gandhi’s Period The Age of economic reforms Changing contours of the Government Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Changing contours of the Government Democratic gove
  5. 5. NDA Government The NDA Government, when it came to power, launched its own agenda of reforms. Interestingly the new government accepted the need for economic reforms initiated by the previous government and pushed it into the second generation with greater vigor, the ‘swadeshi’ opposition from within BJP and outside, notwithstanding.  The Conference of Chief Secretaries on ‘An Agenda for an Effective and Responsive Administration’ in November 1996 inaugurated by the Prime Minister A. B. Vajpayee was one of the landmarks of the efforts of NDA Government on the administrative reforms front. A national debate was called to elicit the views of different sections of Indian society.  The Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) prepared a comprehensive document containing a 9-point action plan. Changing contours of the Government Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Changing contours of the Government Democratic gove
  6. 6. The 9-point action plan talked of a citizens’ charter and an accountable administration;  An effective and speedy public grievance redressal system; Empowerment of elected local bodies in rural and urban areas and decentralized delivery of services;  Review of the laws, regulations and procedures;  Transparency and right to information;  Access of the public to information from public offices and creation of facilitation counters;   Code of ethics for public services;  Action for tackling corruption and cleansing the administration; and stability of tenure and a scheme for civil services boards. Yet, the Government has not really moved beyond framing rules and regulations. Changing contours of the Government Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Changing contours of the Government Democratic gove
  7. 7. Why do recommendations for reforms not result in reforms in practice? There is no dearth of analyses. A good amount of literature has been produced on ‘Good Governance’ .To quote just one here by [Basu (1998), p. 673]: “The paradoxical absence of any long- term impact of the administrative reforms … can only be explained by our preoccupation with forms, facades, intentions and rituals…. Whenever decisions involve replacing any old system for the new, inertia continues to operate strongly against such change. This has been the fate of committees and commissions and task forces appointed from time to time – many of whose reports are either not read or not considered for years.” Nonetheless, the disease is more complicated than the diagnosis suggests. Changing contours of the Government Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Changing contours of the Government Democratic gove
  8. 8.  The Supreme Court and state high courts have been a cornerstone of India’s democracy.  The ray of hope is that the judiciary has so far maintained its independence.  It has occasionally adopted rather an activist role to help defend the citizens’ fundamental rights, safeguard environment and other public goods, and has tackled cases pertaining to accountability and corruption in the executive. The synergy of courts, civil society, and reform-minded people including retired judges has effectively advanced these causes. While the public at large has appreciated the judicial activism, some sections of the power elite do not agree with the approach. A lively debate is on as regards the judicial activism. Judiciary & Civil Society Judiciary & Civil Society Rights Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal
  9. 9. Yet, all is not well with the judiciary.  Undoubtedly, the delay at the doors of justice is extremely worrying. ‘Justice delayed is justice denied.’  In addition, the cost factor plays its role of the villain of the piece. Even if ‘satyameva jayate’ (the truth must ultimately win) is true, it is too costly to afford.  Further, it is known that court justice and rule of law do not reach the remote areas. Worse still, reports in the media regarding the undesirable acts of lawyers, judges and other officials of judiciary are turning out to be too many and too serious to be ignored. The suspicion that the courts of justice too may not be above board is gaining ground. Judiciary & Civil Society Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Judiciary & Civil Society Rights
  10. 10. Civil society organizations and social movements might be making minor ripples, not major dents. Indeed, all is not well also with the organizations that stand for social cause. Some of these organizations are genuine and effective. Of the rest, some suffer from dysfunctions of the government type, some from dysfunctions of the private sector type and some others from both the types. In view of their size and numbers and the above listed problems the need for professional management of these organizations is being increasingly recognized. Some of these organizations have already gone for professional management and with good results in terms of improved efficiency and effectiveness [Indian Management, “Theme / Non Profits”, (April, 2003), pp. 35-51] Judiciary & Civil Society Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Judiciary & Civil Society Rights
  11. 11. Why does all this happen? Analysts agree that it is primarily due to lackadaisical attitude of the politicians, bureaucrats, and others. Proper attitude/mindset is sine qua non of good governance. What can be done to mould the mindset? Behavioral scientists, particularly those concerned with improving performance of managers in the corporate sector, have discovered that although there is a genetic component to attitude but nurture also can play a role. Based on extensive researches, modern behavioral scientists claim that mindset can be changed. They have tried to operationalize the rather abstract concepts of mindset and attitude in terms of what is known as emotional intelligence (EI). For an excellent reference, see Daniel Goleman [1998]. What can be done What can be done Analysis Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal
  12. 12. EI has five components:  Self–awareness – defined as the abiity to recognize and understand your moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their effects on others. Its hallmarks are self-confidence, realistic self - assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humor. Self-regulation – defined as the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods; the propensity to suspend judgement – to think before acting. Its hallmarks are trustworthiness and integrity, comfort with ambiguity, and openness to change. Self-motivation – defined as a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money and status; a propensity to pursue goals with energy and persistence. Its hallmarks are a strong drive to achieve, optimism, even in the face of failure and organizational commitment . Empathy – defined as the ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people; skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions. Its hallmarks are expertise in building and retaining talent, cross-cultural sensitivity and service to clients and customers. Social skill – defined as proficiency in managing relationships and building networks; an ability to find common ground and build rapport. Instruments to measure emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) empirically are now available although these are expensive.  What can be done Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal What can be done Analysis
  13. 13. An encouraging aspect of the EQ is that it can be enhanced through proper training. But, there is a caveat. Attitude is born in the neurotransmitters of the limbic system of the brain. The limbic system governs feelings, impulses and drives. The other part of the brain is neocortex that governs analytical and technical abilities. The focus of most of the training programs, workshops, conferences and seminars intended to improve efficiency and effectiveness of governance has been the neocortex. Thus, such programs would develop technical and analytical ability, increase awareness and knowledge, improve grasp of concepts and logic. However, they would bring little change in the mindset and attitude. In fact, the programs that operate on neocortex might even be counter-productive. The interventions that aim at attitudes, feelings, impulses and drives should be specially designed to operate through the limbic system. The task is not easy and requires individualized approach, motivation, extended practice and feedback. What can be done Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal What can be done Analysis
  14. 14. It may be apt to mention here that what the behavioral scientist have discovered through modern scientific methods was also visualized in Shrimadbhagavadgita.  Arjuna tells Krishna:“Chanchalam hi manah Krishna pramathi balawaddridham. Tasyaham nigraham manye vayoriva sudushkaram.”(Mind is volatile and too powerful to mould. It is like changing the direction of a mighty wind).  In response, Krishna agrees with Arjuna, but exalts him:“Asanshayam mahabaho mano durnigraham chalam. Abhyasen tu kaunteya vairagyena cha grihyate.” (No doubt, mighty one! the mind is volatile and difficult to mould. However, it can be moulded through right practice with detachment).  The DARGP Document referred to above desired a strong message to be conveyed that ‘administration is for the people and not for the public servants themselves’, and that ‘public servants should realize that efficiency will be measured not in terms of what the services purport to offer, but in terms of public satisfaction’. What can be done Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal What can be done Analysis
  15. 15. Those could be conveyed effectively, as explained above, only through programs that operate on limbic system and not on neocortex. The Document talks of code of ethics and value systems. The programs aimed at enhancing EQ would convince the participants that these codes are meant to improve their own performance and thereby their prestige in society. That is possible only through motivation (not preaching or lecturing) and extended practice and feedback. Indeed, the task is enormous in view of the number of behavior therapists with the kind of rare psychological expertise required of them, the amount of time and money involved. It would also be quite useful to involve spiritually oriented secular individuals/ organizations in the process. Some psychologists have also started talking about spirituality quotient (SQ) on the lines of EQ as a determinant of success in practical life. What can be done Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal What can be done Analysis
  16. 16. Quite a few individuals/organizations are busy on their own initiative and in their own way to train people in self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation (where craving for money and status are considered obstacles rather than motivators in self- development) and empathy. And they are effective. Patanjali’s Yoga-Darshana [undated] consists of a highly developed science and art of emotional intelligence.  Quite a few other scriptures scientifically deal with the subject. Modern methods developed in the West and the ancient Indian wisdom can be judiciously combined. Secularism and spirituality are not antonyms. Werner Heisenberg, a great German scientist whose principle of uncertainty brought revolution in the world of physics said to one of his Indian students in 1975, “You know, in the West we have built a large ship. It has all the comforts in it, but one thing is missing: it has no compass and does not know where to go. Men like Tagore and Gandhi and their spiritual forebears found the compass. Why can this compass not be put in the ship so that both can realize their purpose?” What can be done Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal What can be done Analysis
  17. 17. While the Indian leaders are busy building the ‘ship’, they do not seem to bother about the compass. “Anekachittavibhranta mohajalasamavritah Prasaktah kamabhogeshu patanti narake ashuchau” (Confused by numerous alternative thoughts, enveloped in the mesh of delusion and addicted to the enjoyment of sensuous pleasures they fall into foulest hell) says Shrimadbhagavadgita [Chapter 16, Shloka 16]. Is it that the addiction to sensuous pleasures and unending efforts to amass material wealth to afford the multitude of sensuous pleasures is the real problem! What can be done Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal What can be done Analysis
  18. 18. Reputation to overall gains Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal Strategically connected with clients, engaging and involving them: •How to get closer to customers? •To build brand awareness and enhance loyalty? •To position new products and services for the effective market penetration? •To fulfill what customers really desire? Specialties Brand Strategy, business entry & planning, product development, internet marketing, trade distribution, public private partnerships, sustainable tourism management and investment promotion. Crafting, Operationalizing and Implementing Growth Strategies to maximize opportunities in emerging geographies; experience as my strong resource and capability Sachin Bansal Enhancing business profitability
  19. 19. SACHIN BANSAL- Chief Explorer INDIA : +91 97111 90192 DELHI LONDON MELBOURNE NEW YORK ITALY Enhancing business profitability…. Copyright 2013-2014 Presentation by: Sachin Bansal