Ecology jt2012

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Ecology jt2012

  1. 1. Ecology - C. 18The study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment.
  2. 2. Levels of Organization• Biosphere-everything living• Ecosystem-living and nonliving in an area• Community-group of populations• Population- # same species in an area• Organism-an individual Theme: Interconnectedness. No organism is isolated!
  3. 3. Coevolution of Species
  4. 4. Population DynamicsPopulation: Members of the same species livingin a particular place at the same time.
  5. 5. Measuring Population Density:The Mark-Recapture Method Formula for calculating population size: N = (M * C) / R N = population size M = individuals marked on first sampling effort C = individuals marked on second sampling effort R = individuals captured both times
  6. 6. Distribution
  7. 7. Measuring Populations• Demographics-study of population dynamics. How populations grow and what factors limit growth.• Per Capita Growth: BR-DR = GR
  8. 8. Models of Growth• Exponential Growth • Logistic Growth
  9. 9. Exponential Growth of Bacteria
  10. 10. Logistic GrowthFur Seals on Saint Paul Island, off the coast of Alaska
  11. 11. Limiting Factors & Carrying Capacity
  12. 12. Population Cycles: Predation
  13. 13. Human Population Growth
  14. 14. Survivorship Curves
  15. 15. Ecosystem Components• Abiotic Factors: non-living components such as sunlight, water, temperature, wind, natural disasters and rocks and soil.• Biotic Factors: living components (or biota) such as plants, animals, and microorganisms.
  16. 16. Communities- C. 19• All interacting organisms living in one area.
  17. 17. Biodiversity• The biodiversity of an area is a way of describing how many different organisms live there• Low biodiversity is a major problem that can occur to decrease the aesthetic and/or utilitarian value of an ecosystem• A variety of indices can be used to describe an area’s biodiversity
  18. 18. Invasive Species• An invasive species is one Dutch Elm Disease that when brought to a new area or part of an area is likely to cause or will cause environmental harm• Most often, the harm caused is a loss of biodiversity or loss of some other species• An exotic or alien species is one that is not native to an area
  19. 19. Species Interactions
  20. 20. Examples of Species Interactions •Mutualism• Commensalism •Parasitism
  21. 21. Keystone Species
  22. 22. CompetitionCompetitive Exclusion Resource Partitioning, Anolis lizards
  23. 23. Creating or Repairing: Succession
  24. 24. Successionin Iceland
  25. 25. Periodic DisturbancesIncreased sunlight and soil nutrients released from the tress that burnedin a forest fire in Yellowstone National Park greatly contributed to therecolonization of the land.
  26. 26. Energy in Ecosystems
  27. 27. Food Chain
  28. 28. Food Web
  29. 29. Trophic Levels
  30. 30. Energy Pyramids
  31. 31. Carbon Cycle
  32. 32. Nitrogen Cycle
  33. 33. Where do Organisms Live? Climate is a major Influence
  34. 34. Biomes: In General
  35. 35. Tropical Rain Forest
  36. 36. Temperate Deciduous Forest
  37. 37. Taiga
  38. 38. Savanna
  39. 39. Temperate Grassland
  40. 40. Chaparral
  41. 41. Desert
  42. 42. Tundra
  43. 43. Lakes
  44. 44. River
  45. 45. Wetland
  46. 46. Estuary
  47. 47. Intertidal Zone
  48. 48. Oceans
  49. 49. Coral Reefs
  50. 50. Benthic Zone

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