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Steering and suspension

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Steering and suspension

  1. 1. STEERING AND SUSPENSION
  2. 2. Suspension Types  Solid Axle  Good load capacity  Poor dynamic characteristics  Twin I Beam  Good load capacity and travel  Poor tire wear & handling  Short Arm-Long Arm (SLA)  Independent suspension  Good tire wear & load carrying capability  McPherson Strut  Good handling characteristics  Light weight
  3. 3. Suspension Components  Suspension components must perform the following  Turn wheels left and right  Maintain alignment angles through wheel travel  Provide for nice ride on various road surfaces  Support the weight of the vehicle
  4. 4. Springs  Leaf Spring  Torsion bar  Coil Spring  Progressive Coil Spring  A Spring is designed to maintain the vehicle ride height, support the vehicle’s sprung weight and supply the desired amount of ride comfort.
  5. 5. Take a piece of flat metal stock, harden it a bit to make it tough and you have a …
  6. 6. Rear Leaf Spring
  7. 7. Leaf Spring To make a leaf spring weaker, use less leafs or longer leafs. To make a leaf spring stronger, use more leafs or shorter leafs.
  8. 8. Take a piece of round metal stock, harden it a bit to make it tough and you have a …
  9. 9. Torsion Bar
  10. 10. Torsion Bar To make a torsion bar weaker, use a smaller diameter bar or longer bar. To make a torsion bar stronger, use a larger diameter bar or shorter bar.
  11. 11. Take our torsion bar, wind it into a round shape and you have a…
  12. 12. Coil Spring & Progressive Coil Spring
  13. 13. Coil Springs (same rules as torsion bar) To make a coil spring weaker, use a smaller diameter coil wire or longer coil wire. To make a coil spring stronger, use a larger diameter coil wire or shorter coil wire.
  14. 14. Shock / Strut  A Shock or Strut is responsible for dampening spring oscillation. Active Suspension
  15. 15. Shock Strut
  16. 16. Suspension Components  Low weight  Good feed back to driver  Minimal wear parts  Can be manual or hydraulic  Heavy duty design  Can be manual or hydraulic Rack and Pinion Steering Gear Conventional Steering Gear Box
  17. 17. Rack & Pinion Steering Gear
  18. 18. Conventional Gear Box
  19. 19. Steering Components SLA  Sway Bar  Pitman Arm  Center Link  Inner Tie Rod  Outer Tie Rod  Steering Knuckle  Upper Ball Joint  Lower Ball Joint  Upper Control Arm  Lower Control Arm  Tie Rod Sleeve
  20. 20. Steering Components Rack & Pinion Outer Tie Rod Inner Tie Rod Steering gearBellows Boot Mounting bolts Bellows Boot Jam nut
  21. 21. Alignment Angles  4 Wheel alignment is responsible for the following  Directional Stability  Reduced Tire Wear  Cornering  Returnability  Predictability  Tracking  Road Isolation / Feedback  Centered Steering wheel
  22. 22. Camber  Camber is measured in Degrees from true vertical  Positive Camber  Wheel tilts outward  Negative Camber  Wheel tilts inward
  23. 23. Camber Wear  Camber causes shoulder wear on tires  Positive Camber  Outer edge  Negative Camber  Inner edge  Typical Camber reading +- ¾ Degree
  24. 24. Camber Wear
  25. 25. Caster  Caster measured in degrees from true vertical using the steering axis  Positive Caster  Steering Axis tilts back  Negative Caster  Steering Axis tilts forward (non used)
  26. 26. Caster  Is non wearing angle  Causes pull if exceeds ½ deg difference side to side  Typical Caster readings are 2-6 degrees positive
  27. 27. Toe  The difference in the distance measured between lines drawn through the center of tires on the same axle.  Measurements are taken at the front and rear of the tires.  Typical Toe reading 1/16 “+- 1/32  Toe is the fastest tire wearing angle
  28. 28. Toe Toe In Toe Out
  29. 29. Ride Height should be verified before alignment
  30. 30. 4 Wheel Alignment  All suspension components must be tight  The vehicle should be normally loaded  Tire pressure & size correct  All 4 wheels should be aligned
  31. 31. Tire Rotation
  32. 32. End Steering and Suspension

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