Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
PLANTS
Prepared by Prof. Craig A. Casillas
Introduction to Plants
lants are multicellular
eukaryotes whose cells have cell
walls. Most plants are
autotrophs-they pro...
Establishments of plants on Land
n order to thrive on land plants
had to:
• Absorbed nutrients from the soil
through their...
Plant Life Cycles

• Sporophyte in plants and algae
that have alternation of
generations, the diploid
individual or genera...
Characteristics of a Nonvascular Plants
onvascular plants are small plants that reproduce by means of
spores. They lack tr...
Life Cycle of a Moss
Characteristic of a Seedless Vascular Plants
porophytes of seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue, but
gametophytes...
Life Cycle of a Fern
Characteristics of a Seed Plant
• Kind of seed plants:
• Gymnosperms are vascular seed plants whose seed are not enclosed ...
Gymnosperms
here are for major groups of
gymnosperms:
• Conifers
• Cycads
• Ginkgoes
• Gnetophytes
eproduction in conifers...
Life Cycle of a Conifer
Characteristics of Flowering Plants
ind of Angiosperms:
• Monocots
• Dicots
onocots
• Have one cotyledon, the embryonic le...
Structure of a Flower
Life Cycle of an Angiosperm
Pollination
he flowers of many angiosperms are adapted for pollination by wind
or by animals.
nimal-Pollinated Flowers
• F...
Fruits
he ovary of the pistil is called a
fruit after its ovules are
fertilized.
fruit is the structure that is
develop fr...
Vegetative Reproduction
lants reproduce asexually in a variety of ways that involves
nonreproductive parts, such as stems,...
Vegetative Reproduction
Plant Tissue Systems
ascular plants have three
systems:
• The dermal tissue forms the
protective outer layer of the
plant
...
Dermal Tissue Systems
ermal tissue covers the outside of a plant’s body. In the non-wood parts,
dermal tissue forms a “ski...
Stomata
tomata are opening in a leaf or
steam of a plant that enables gas
exchange to occur.
t exchange carbon dioxide and...
Vascular Tissue System
ascular plants have two kinds of
vascular tissues, called the
xylem and phloem, that
transport wate...
Ground Tissue Systems
round Tissue makes up
much of the inside of
most non-woody plants,
where it surrounds and
supports v...
Roots
ost plants are anchored to
the spot where they grow by
roots, which absorb water
and mineral nutrients.
n many plant...
Stems
tems support the leaves and house the vascular tissue, which transport
substances between the roots and the leaves.
...
Leaves
eaves are the primary
photosynthetic organ of
plants.
any plants have modified
leaves that are specialized
for part...
Plant Embryo
he plants possesses an
embryonic root and embryonic
shoot. Leaflike structures called
cotyledons, or seed lea...
Meristems
lants grow by producing new cells in
regions of active cell division called
meristems.
eristems are a region of
...
Nutrient Transportation on Plants
Calvin Cycle in Plants
he Calvin Cycle is a metabolic
pathway found in the stroma of
the chloroplast in which carbon
enter...
he cycle spends ATP as an energy source and consumes NADPH2 as
reducing power for adding high energy electrons to make the...
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
World of Plants
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

World of Plants

810 views

Published on

A good descriptive presentation on Plants.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

World of Plants

  1. 1. PLANTS Prepared by Prof. Craig A. Casillas
  2. 2. Introduction to Plants lants are multicellular eukaryotes whose cells have cell walls. Most plants are autotrophs-they produce their own food through photosynthesis. hotosynthesis is the process by which plants produce organic materials from inorganic materials by using energy from the sun and carbon dioxide. hotosynthesis occurs in
  3. 3. Establishments of plants on Land n order to thrive on land plants had to: • Absorbed nutrients from the soil through their roots. • Prevent water loss using cuticles, which are a waxy fatty and watertight layer on the external wall of epidermal cells. • Dispersal on land when the releases the spores, which are a reproductive cell or multicellular structure that is resistant to the environmental conditions.
  4. 4. Plant Life Cycles • Sporophyte in plants and algae that have alternation of generations, the diploid individual or generation that produces haploid spores. • Gametophyte in alternation of generations, the phase in which gametes are formed; a haploid individual that produces gametes. • Plants have life cycles in which haploids gametophytes alternate with diploids sporophytes. • A life cycle in which a gametophyte alternates with sporophyte called alternation of generations.
  5. 5. Characteristics of a Nonvascular Plants onvascular plants are small plants that reproduce by means of spores. They lack true roots, stems, and leaves, which are complex structures that contains vascular, or conducting tissues. ater is transport by diffusion and osmosis. xample of Nonvascular Plants: • Mosses • Liverworts • Hornworts eproduction in Nonvascular Plants • In the life cycle of nonvascular plants, the gametophyte is the dominant generation. Gametophytes must be covered by a film of water in order for fertilization to occur.
  6. 6. Life Cycle of a Moss
  7. 7. Characteristic of a Seedless Vascular Plants porophytes of seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue, but gametophytes lack vascular tissue. Because of their vascular system, vascular plants grow much larger than nonvascular plants and also develop true roots, stems, and leaves. here are two major groups of seedless vascular plants: • Lycophytes, like the club moss, have roots, stems, and leaves. Their leafy green stems branch from an under ground rhizome. Rhizomes are horizontal, underground stems. Spores develop in the sporangia that form a specialized leaves name cones. • Monilophytes, like the ferns, have rhizomes that are anchored by roots and have leaves called fronds. eedless vascular plants can reproduce sexually only when a film of water covers the gametophyte. Unlike nonvascular plants, seedless vascular have sporophytes that are much larger than their gametophytes. pores is a haploid reproductive cell. A spore is produce by meiosis and is capable of developing into an adult without fusing with another cell. The
  8. 8. Life Cycle of a Fern
  9. 9. Characteristics of a Seed Plant • Kind of seed plants: • Gymnosperms are vascular seed plants whose seed are not enclosed by a fruit. • Angiosperms a flowering plant that produce seed within a fruit. • Seed plants don’t required water to reproduce sexually. Reproduction in seed plants is also characterized by greatly reduced gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte. • Sporophyte produce two kind of spores that develop in two kind of gametophyte: • Female gametophyte, which produce eggs called ovule that develops into a seed. • Male gametophyte, which produce sperm that is called the pollen gratin. • The process steps of reproduction of seed plants are: • Pollination and Fertilization • Seed formation • Seed dispersal: • Dispersal by wind • Dispersal by Animal
  10. 10. Gymnosperms here are for major groups of gymnosperms: • Conifers • Cycads • Ginkgoes • Gnetophytes eproduction in conifers is characterized by a dominant sporophyte, wind pollination, and the development of seed in cones. ones are the gametophytes of
  11. 11. Life Cycle of a Conifer
  12. 12. Characteristics of Flowering Plants ind of Angiosperms: • Monocots • Dicots onocots • Have one cotyledon, the embryonic leaf in the seed. • Leaves have parallel venation • Flower parts usually occurs in multiple of three icots • Two cotyledons • Leaves have net venation • Flowers parts usually occurs in multiples of four or five. flower is a specialize reproductive structure of angiosperms. The male and female gametophytes develop within the flower, which promote pollination and
  13. 13. Structure of a Flower
  14. 14. Life Cycle of an Angiosperm
  15. 15. Pollination he flowers of many angiosperms are adapted for pollination by wind or by animals. nimal-Pollinated Flowers • Flowers contains structural elements to attract animals (color, odor, food source) • Some flowers are pollinated by insect moving from flower to flower. ind-Pollinated Flowers • Flowers are small • Flowers lack elements to attract pollinators
  16. 16. Fruits he ovary of the pistil is called a fruit after its ovules are fertilized. fruit is the structure that is develop from a ovary of a flower and contains seeds. lthough fruits provide some protection from developing seeds, they primarily function in seed dispersal.
  17. 17. Vegetative Reproduction lants reproduce asexually in a variety of ways that involves nonreproductive parts, such as stems, roots, and leaves. The reproduction of plants from these parts is called vegetative reproduction. any of the structures by which plants reproduce vegetatively are modified stems, such as bulbs, tubers, runner, and stolons.
  18. 18. Vegetative Reproduction
  19. 19. Plant Tissue Systems ascular plants have three systems: • The dermal tissue forms the protective outer layer of the plant • The vascular tissue forms strands that conduct water, minerals, and organic compounds throughout a vascular plant. • Ground Tissue makes up much of the inside of the non-wood parts of a plant, including roots, stems, and
  20. 20. Dermal Tissue Systems ermal tissue covers the outside of a plant’s body. In the non-wood parts, dermal tissue forms a “skin” called epidermis. he epidermis is made of single layer of flat cells. xtension of epidermis in stems and leaves helps to slow water loss. xtension of epidermis in root tips are called root hairs, help increase the absorption of water. n woody stems the epidermis and roots consist in dead cells called cork, that helps in gas exchange and absorption of minerals nutrients.
  21. 21. Stomata tomata are opening in a leaf or steam of a plant that enables gas exchange to occur. t exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen. tomata have a guard cell that is a pair of specialized cells that borders a stoma and regulate gas exchange.
  22. 22. Vascular Tissue System ascular plants have two kinds of vascular tissues, called the xylem and phloem, that transport water, minerals, and nutrients throughout the plant. ylem is the type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots. hloem is the tissue that carries organic and inorganic nutrients in any direction, depending on the plant’s needs.
  23. 23. Ground Tissue Systems round Tissue makes up much of the inside of most non-woody plants, where it surrounds and supports vascular tissue.
  24. 24. Roots ost plants are anchored to the spot where they grow by roots, which absorb water and mineral nutrients. n many plants, roots also function in the storage of organic nutrients, such as sugar and starch. here are two types of roots: • Fibrous roots • Taproots
  25. 25. Stems tems support the leaves and house the vascular tissue, which transport substances between the roots and the leaves. tems can be: • Woody • Nonwoody
  26. 26. Leaves eaves are the primary photosynthetic organ of plants. any plants have modified leaves that are specialized for particular functions.
  27. 27. Plant Embryo he plants possesses an embryonic root and embryonic shoot. Leaflike structures called cotyledons, or seed leaves, are attached to the embryonic shoot. ermination is the beginning of growth or development in a seed, spore, or zygote, especially after a period of inactivity.
  28. 28. Meristems lants grow by producing new cells in regions of active cell division called meristems. eristems are a region of undifferentiated plant cells that are capable of dividing developing into specialized plant tissues. rimary growth is the growth that occurs as a result of cells division at the tip of stems and roots and that gives rise to primary tissue. • Apical Meristems econdary growth is the growth that results from cell division in the cambia,
  29. 29. Nutrient Transportation on Plants
  30. 30. Calvin Cycle in Plants he Calvin Cycle is a metabolic pathway found in the stroma of the chloroplast in which carbon enters in the form of CO2 and leaves in the form of sugar. he reactions in Calvin Cycle are also called light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
  31. 31. he cycle spends ATP as an energy source and consumes NADPH2 as reducing power for adding high energy electrons to make the sugar. There are three phases of the cycle. • In phase 1 (Carbon Fixation), CO2 is incorporated into a five-carbon sugar named ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP). The enzyme which catalyzes this first step is RuBP carboxylase or rubisco. It is the most abundant protein in chloroplasts and probably the most abundant protein on Earth. The product of the reaction is a six-carbon intermediate which immediately splits in half to form two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. • In phase 2 ( Reduction), ATP and NADPH2 from the light reactions are used to convert 3-phosphoglycerate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the threecarbon carbohydrate precursor to glucose and other sugars. • In phase 3 (Regeneration), more ATP is used to convert some of the of the pool of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate back to RuBP, the acceptor for CO 2, thereby completing the cycle. For every three molecules of CO 2 that enter the cycle, the net output is one molecule of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). For each G3P synthesized, the cycle spends nine molecules of ATP

×