Presentation Of Physical Disabilities


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Presentation Of Physical Disabilities

  1. 1. Cerebral Palsy Presentation of Physical Disabilities Presented by: Shirlyn, Crystal, Sushi & Suhaidah
  2. 2. What are Physical Disabilities? <ul><li>Physical disabilities affect the function of a person’s motor mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of PD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral Palsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non progressive lesion to the brain that affect the motor movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal Bifida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paralysis due to damage to the spinal cord </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular Atrophies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak muscles, delayed in motor development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal Muscular Mypathies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low muscle tones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteogenesis Imperfecta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brittle bones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. History of Cerebral Palsy <ul><li>Known as “Cerebral Paralysis” or “Little’s Disease” was identified by a British surgeon William Little in 1860. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of CP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral (Brain) Palsy (Weakness in a person’s movement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A non- progressive neurological disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects communication between the brain and the muscles </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Cerebral Palsy <ul><li>May be classified by the type of movement problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inability of a muscle to relax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athetoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inability to control the movement of a muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ataxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>problems with balance and coordination. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By the body parts involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monoplegia – affect 1 limb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemiplegia – affect left and right side of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double hemiplegia - affect both side of the body (different severity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diplegia - effect only 2 limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadriplegia – affect both side of the body (diff. severity) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Possible Causes of Cerebral Palsy <ul><li>Babies who have congenital malformations in systems such as heart, kidneys & spine can then have congenital malformations in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Brain injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During fetal development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At birth or shortly after birth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Premature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low weight at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of oxygen to the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not cry in the first five minutes after delivery </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Possible Causes of Cerebral Palsy <ul><li>Seizures in a newborn </li></ul><ul><li>Fetus during/after birth exposed to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>certain chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectant mother suffers severe physical trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Drug/ alcohol abuse or smoking during pregnancy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other Complications… <ul><li>Delay in milestone development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fine and complex gross motor development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory or Visual perceptual deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in communication </li></ul><ul><li>Other concerns – asthma, epilepsy, seizure and drooling </li></ul>
  8. 8. What Educators / Para educators can do to help in the classroom? <ul><li>Physical setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students in wheelchair and with auditory or visual problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>seated where there are minimal movement behind them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>near the teacher and blackboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom should be organised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promote social, cultural and emotional development & academic progress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide mattress to cushion the fall during seizure attack </li></ul>
  9. 9. What Educators / Para educators can do to help in the classroom? <ul><li>Instructional Cues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aid in learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give 1 direction at a time . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use short, simple, one concept phrase to give direction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be patient and look at the student when giving instruction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>repeat verbal directions slowly, firmly and clearly or use visual cues. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What Educators / Para educators can do to help in the classroom? <ul><li>Social Emotional Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage sharing sessions among peers to develop friendships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include them in most class and outdoor activities (E.g. P.E lessons, excursions, field trips) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home-school partnership – Parental involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioural Aspect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No special consideration and provision concerning rules and regulation, unless the need arises </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Importance of Teacher’s Role <ul><li>Teachers should be ready for specialized and high-tech equipment to be part of classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must be confident about specific procedures and in case of emergency (E.g. epilepsy, seizure) </li></ul><ul><li>Modify and accommodate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>curriculum to support the learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give extra time to complete schoolwork or tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for participation and success. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on student’s strengths </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Local resources / local practices / links /article <ul><li>The Spastic Children's Association of Singapore (SCAS) was established in 1957 to provide medical treatment and therapy for children with cerebral palsy in Singapore </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Neuroscience Institute: Singhealth. Describes Neurosurgical Treatment of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rainbow Centre runs 3 programmes, 2 of which caters to children with Physical CP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EIPIC - Early Intervention Programme for Infants & Young Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCMH - Programme for Children with Multiple Handicaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>“ … disorder of movement .. caused by a damage to the brain … </li></ul><ul><li>they are not stupid” </li></ul><ul><li>Source: (Stanton, M.1992. The Cerebral Palsy Handbook : A guide for parents and carers. London: Random House) </li></ul><ul><li>*Handouts will be given… </li></ul>