SURFACE COMPUTINGSubmitted To:                                    Submitted By:Ms. Nidhi Tyagi                            ...
SURFACE COMPUTINGABSTRACTThe name Surface comes from “surface computing” and Microsoft envisions the coffee-tablemachine a...
SURFACE COMPUTINGCONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………..42. WHAT IS SURFACE COMPUTING? .........................
SURFACE COMPUTING1. Introduction:        Over the past couple of years, a new class of interactive device has begun to eme...
SURFACE COMPUTING2. What is surface computing?         Surface computing is a new way of working with computers that moves...
SURFACE COMPUTINGbrainstorm sessions, they started talking about an idea for an interactive table that couldunderstand the...
SURFACE COMPUTINGdesign (seen today) was finalized in 2005. Also in 2005, Wilson and Bathiche introduced theconcept of sur...
SURFACE COMPUTING• Object recognition. Users can place physical objects on the surface to trigger different typesof digita...
SURFACE COMPUTING       Surface computing breaks down traditional barriers between people and technology,changing the way ...
SURFACE COMPUTING(2) Infrared: Surfaces "machine vision" operates in the near-infrared spectrum, using an850-nanometer-wav...
SURFACE COMPUTING7. Features:Multi-touch display: The Microsoft Surface display is capable of multi-touch interaction,reco...
SURFACE COMPUTING9.2 Paint        Surface’s paint program is even lighter on features than MacPaint was, but the naturalus...
SURFACE COMPUTING 9.4 Photos        Sharing photos is a much more unrestricted activity, thanks to the fact that theconsum...
SURFACE COMPUTING10. Surface Computing - In Future:       Although surface computing is a new experience for consumers, ov...
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Surface computing1

  1. 1. SURFACE COMPUTINGSubmitted To: Submitted By:Ms. Nidhi Tyagi Kumar Gaurav B.Tech 4th Year (CS) MRT09UGBCS013 Faculty of Electronics, Informatics & Computer Engineering 2012-13
  2. 2. SURFACE COMPUTINGABSTRACTThe name Surface comes from “surface computing” and Microsoft envisions the coffee-tablemachine as the first of many such devices. Surface computing uses a blend of wirelessprotocols, special machine-readable tags and shape recognition to seamlessly merge the realand the virtual world — an idea the Milan team refers to as "blended reality." The table canbe built with a variety of wireless transceivers, including Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and (eventually)radio frequency identification (RFID) and is designed to sync instantly with any device thattouches its surface.It supports multiple touch points – Microsoft says "dozens and dozens" -- as well as multipleusers simultaneously, so more than one person could be using it at once, or one personcould be doing multiple tasks.The term "surface" describes how its used. There is no keyboard or mouse. All interactionswith the computer are done via touching the surface of the computers screen with hands orbrushes, or via wireless interaction with devices such as smartphones, digital cameras orMicrosofts Zune music player. Because of the cameras, the device can also recognize physicalobjects; for instance credit cards or hotel "loyalty" cards. For instance, a user could set a digitalcamera down on the tabletop and wirelessly transfer pictures into folders on Surfaces harddrive. Or setting a music player down would let a user drag songs from his or her home musiccollection directly into the player, or between two players, using a finger – or transfer mappinginformation for the location of a restaurant where you just made reservations through aSurface tabletop over to a smartphone just before you walk out the door.
  3. 3. SURFACE COMPUTINGCONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………..42. WHAT IS SURFACE COMPUTING? ...............................................53. HISTORY OF SURFACE COMPUTING………………………………………….5 3.1 Hardware Design……………………………………………………..6 3.2 From Prototype to Product………………………………………74. KEY ATTRIBUTES OF SURFACE COMPUTING……………………………..75. TECHNOLOGY BEHIND SURFACE COMPUTING………………………….86. MICROSOFT SURFACE OVERVIEW……………………………………………..8 6.1 The Hardware……………………………………………………………9 6.2 System Software……………………………………………………….107. FEATURES………………………………………………………………………………….118. APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE COMPUTING………………………………..11 8.1 Water………………………………………………………………………11 8.2 Paint………………………………………………………………………..12 8.3 Music………………………………………………………………………12 8.4 Photos…………………………………………………………………….13 8.5 Casino……………………………………………………………………..13 8.6 Dining……………………………………………………………………..139. SURFACE COMPUTING – IN FUTURE………………………………………..1410. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………….1411. BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………….14
  4. 4. SURFACE COMPUTING1. Introduction: Over the past couple of years, a new class of interactive device has begun to emerge,what can best be described as ―surface computing‖. Two examples are illustrated in thisreport. They are, Surface Table top Perceptive Pixel The Surface table top typically incorporates a rear-projection display coupled with anoptical system to capture touch points by detecting shadows from below. Different approachesto doing the detection have been used, but most employ some form of IR illumination coupledwith IR cameras. With today’s camera and signal-processing capability, reliable responsive andaccurate multi-touch capabilities can be achieved. The multitouch pioneer and his company,Perceptive Pixel , have devoted the better part of two years to building an entirely newmultitouch framework from the ground up. Instead of simply mapping multitouch technologyto familiar interfaces and devices, Hans goal is far more sweeping: To use the technology as afoundation for an entirely new operating system. Because they are new to most, the tendency in seeing these systems is to assume thatthey are all more-or-less alike. Well, in a way that is true. But on the other hand, that isperhaps no more so than to say that all ICs are more-or-less alike, since they are blackplastic things with feet like centipedes which contain a bunch of transistors and other stuff.In short, the more that you know, the more you can differentiate. But even looking at the twosystems in the photo, there is evidence of really significant difference. The really significantdifference is that one is vertical and the other is horizontal. Why is this significant? Well, this isone of those questions perhaps best answered by a child in kindergarten. They will tell you thatif you put a glass of water on the vertical one, it will fall to the floor, leading to a bout of sittingin the corner. On the other hand, it is perfectly safe to put things on a table. They will staythere.
  5. 5. SURFACE COMPUTING2. What is surface computing? Surface computing is a new way of working with computers that moves beyondthe traditional mouse-and-keyboard experience. It is a natural user interface that allowspeople to interact with digital content the same way they have interacted with everydayitems such as photos, paintbrushes and music their entire life: with their hands, withgestures and by putting real-world objects on the surface. Surface computing opens up awhole new category of products for users to interact with. Surface computing is a completely intuitive and liberating way to interact withdigital content. It blurs the lines between the physical and virtual worlds. By using yourhands or placing other unique everyday objects on the surface – such as an item you’regoing to purchase at a retail store or a paint brush – you can interact with, share andcollaborate like you’ve never done before. Imagine you’re out at a restaurant with friendsand you each place your beverage on the table – and all kinds of information appears byyour glass, such as wine pairings with a restaurant’s menu. Surface computing is a powerful movement. In fact, it’s as significant as the movefrom DOS [Disk Operating System] to GUI [Graphic User Interface]. Our research showsthat many people are intimidated and isolated by today’s technology. Many featuresavailable in mobile phones, PCs and other electronic devices like digital cameras aren’teven used because the technology is intimidating. Surface computing breaks down thosetraditional barriers to technology so that people can interact with all kinds of digitalcontent in a more intuitive, engaging and efficient manner. It’s about technology adaptingto the user, rather than the user adapting to the technology.3. History of Surface Computing: Surface computing is a major advancement that moves beyond the traditional userinterface to a more natural way of interacting with digital content. Microsoft Surface™,Microsoft Corp.’s first commercially available surface computer, breaks down the traditionalbarriers between people and technology to provide effortless interaction with all forms ofdigital content through natural gestures, touch and physical objects instead of a mouse andkeyboard. The people will be able to interact with Surface in select restaurants, hotels, retailestablishments and public entertainment. In 2001, Stevie Bathiche of Microsoft Hardware and Andy Wilson of MicrosoftResearch began working together on various projects that took advantage of theircomplementary expertise in the areas of hardware and software. In one of their regular
  6. 6. SURFACE COMPUTINGbrainstorm sessions, they started talking about an idea for an interactive table that couldunderstand the manipulation of physical pieces. Although there were related efforts happeningin academia, Bathiche and Wilson saw the need for a product where the interaction was richerand more intuitive, and at the same time practical for everyone to use. This conversation wasthe beginning of an idea that would later result in the development of Surface, and over thecourse of the following year, various people at Microsoft involved in developing new productconcepts, including the gaming-specific PlayTable, continued to think through the possibilitiesand feasibility of the project. Then in October 2001 a virtual team was formed to fully pursuebringing the idea to the next stage of development; Bathiche and Wilson were key members ofthe team. In early 2003, the team presented the idea to Bill Gates, Microsoft chairman, in agroup review. Gates instantly liked the idea and encouraged the team to continue to developtheir thinking. The virtual team expanded, and within a month, through constant discussion andbrainstorming, the first humble prototype was born and nicknamed T1. The model was based on an IKEA table with a hole cut in the top and a sheet of architectvellum used as a diffuser. The evolution of Surface had begun. A variety of early applicationswere also built, including pinball, a photo browser and a video puzzle. As more applicationswere developed, the team saw the value of the surface computer beyond simply gaming andbegan to favor those applications that took advantage of the unique ability of Surface torecognize physical objects placed on the table. One of the key attributes of Surface is object recognition and the ability of objectsplaced on the surface to trigger different types of digital responses, including the transfer ofdigital content. This feature went through numerous rounds of testing and refining. The teamexplored various tag formats of all shapes and sizes before landing on the domino tag (usedtoday) which is an 8-bit, three-quarter-inch-square tag that is optimal thanks to its small size. Atthe same time, the original plan of using a single camera in the vision system was proving to beunreliable. After exploring a variety of options, including camera placement and differentcamera lens sizes, it was decided that Surface would use five cameras that would moreaccurately detect natural movements and gestures from the surface.3.1 Hardware design:The “Tub” model: By late 2004, the software development platform of Surface was well-establishedand attention turned to the form factor. A number of different experimental prototypeswere built including ―the tub‖ model, which was encased in a rounded plastic shell, adesk-height model with a square top and cloth-covered sides, and even a bar-height model thatcould be used while standing. After extensive testing and user research, the final hardware
  7. 7. SURFACE COMPUTINGdesign (seen today) was finalized in 2005. Also in 2005, Wilson and Bathiche introduced theconcept of surface computing in a paper for Gates’ twice-yearly ―Think Week, a time Gatestakes to evaluate new ideas and technologies for the company.3.2 From Prototype to Product:“T1 Prototype” The next phase of the development of Surface focused on continuing the journeyfrom concept to product. Although much of what would later ship as Surface was determined,there was significant work to be done to develop a market-ready product that could be scaledto mass production. In early 2006, Pete Thompson joined the group as general manager, tasked withdriving end-to-end business and growing development and marketing. Under his leadership,the group has grown to more than 100 employees. Today Surface has become the market-ready product once only envisioned by the group, a 30-inch display in a table- like form factorthat’s easy for individuals or small groups to use collaboratively. The sleek, translucent surfacelets people engage with Surface using touch, natural hand gestures and physical objects placedon the surface. Years in the making, Microsoft Surface is now poised to transform the waypeople shop, dine, entertain and live. This is a radically different user-interface experience thananything and it’s really a testament to the innovation that comes from marrying brilliance andcreativity.4. Key attributes of Surface Computing: Surface computing features four key attributes:• Direct interaction. Users can actually ―grab‖ digital information with their hands andinteract with content through touch and gesture, without the use of a mouse or keyboard.• Multi touch contact. Surface computing recognizes many points of contact simultaneously,not just from one finger as with a typical touch screen, but up to dozens and dozens of items atonce.• Multi - user experience. The horizontal form factor makes it easy for several people to gatheraround surface computers together, providing a collaborative, face to face computingexperience.
  8. 8. SURFACE COMPUTING• Object recognition. Users can place physical objects on the surface to trigger different typesof digital responses, including the transfer of digital content.5. Technology behind Surface Computing: Microsoft Surface uses cameras to sense objects, hand gestures and touch. This userinput is then processed and displayed using rear projection. Specifically: Microsoft Surface usesa rear projection system which displays an image onto the underside of a thin diffuser. Objects such as fingers are visible through the diffuser by series of infrared–sensitivecameras, positioned underneath the display. An image processing system processes the camera images to detect fingers, customtags and other objects such as paint brushes when touching the display. The objects recognized with this system are reported to applications running in thecomputer so that they can react to object shapes, 2D tags, movement and touch. One of the key components of surface computing is a "multitouch" screen. It is anidea that has been floating around the research community since the 1980s and is swiftlybecoming a hip new product interface — Apples new iPhone has multitouch scrolling andpicture manipulation. Multitouch devices accept input from multiple fingers and multiple userssimultaneously, allowing for complex gestures, including grabbing, stretching, swiveling andsliding virtual objects across the table. And the Surface has the added advantage of a horizontalscreen, so several people can gather around and use it together. Its interface is the exactopposite of the personal computer: cooperative, hands- on, and designed for public spaces.6. Microsoft Surface Overview: Microsoft Surface turns an ordinary tabletop into a vibrant, interactive computingexperience. The product provides effortless interaction with digital content through naturalgestures, touch and physical objects. In Essence, it’s a surface that comes to life for exploring,learning, sharing, creating, buying and much more. Currently available in select in restaurants,hotels, retail establishments and public entertainment venues, this experience will transformthe way people shop, dine, entertain and live. Surface is a 30 inch display in a table like form factor that’s easy for individuals or smallgroups to interact with in a way that feels familiar, just like in the real world. Surface cansimultaneously recognize dozens and dozens of movements such as touch, gestures and actualunique objects that have identification tags similar to bar codes.
  9. 9. SURFACE COMPUTING Surface computing breaks down traditional barriers between people and technology,changing the way people interact with all kinds of everyday content, from photos to maps tomenus. The intuitive user interface works without a traditional mouse or keyboard, allowingpeople to interact with content and information by using their hands and natural movements.Users are able to access information either on their own or collaboratively with their friendsand families, unlike any experience available today.6.1 The Hardware: Essentially, Microsoft Surface is a computer embedded in a medium-sized table, with alarge, flat display on top that is touch-sensitive. The software reacts to the touch of any object,including human fingers, and can track the presence and movement of many different objectsat the same time. In addition to sensing touch, the Microsoft Surface unit can detect objectsthat are labeled with small "domino" stickers, and in the future, it will identify devices via radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. The demonstration unit I used was housed in an attractive glass table about threefeet high, with a solid base that hides a fairly standard computer equipped with an Intel Core 2Duo processor, an AMI BIOS, 2 GB of RAM, and Windows Vista. The team lead would notdivulge which graphics card was inside, but they said that it was a moderately- powerfulgraphics card from either AMD/ATI or NVIDIA. (1) Screen: A diffuser turns the Surfaces acrylic tabletop into a large horizontal "multitouch"screen, capable of processing multiple inputs from multiple users. The Surface can alsorecognize objects by their shapes or by reading coded "domino" tags.
  10. 10. SURFACE COMPUTING(2) Infrared: Surfaces "machine vision" operates in the near-infrared spectrum, using an850-nanometer-wavelength LED light source aimed at the screen. When objects touch thetabletop, the light reflects back and is picked up by multiple infrared cameras with a netresolution of 1280 x 960. (3) CPU: Surface uses many of the same components found in everyday desktop computers —a Core 2 Duo processor, 2GB of RAM and a 256MB graphics card. Wireless communication withdevices on the surface is handled using WiFi and Bluetooth antennas (future versions mayincorporate RFID or Near Field Communications). The underlying operating system is a modifiedversion of Microsoft Vista.(4) Projector: Microsofts Surface uses the same DLP light engine found in many rear-projection HDTVs. The footprint of the visible light screen, at 1024 x 768 pixels, is actuallysmaller than the invisible overlapping infrared projection to allow for better recognition at theedges of the screen.6.2 System software: Microsoft Surface works much like another Microsoft product, Media Center, in that themain application runs on top of Windows and takes over the whole screen. Like Media Center,it is designed to be difficult to exit the application without using a mouse or keyboard. I asked ifthe Surface team considered allowing the user to drop into Windows mode while retaining thetouch functionality, but they felt that the product worked better if it stayed in this mode. The various demonstration programs are accessed from a main menu, which scrolls leftand right in an endless loop. The user moves the selection by swiping back and forth and selectsan application with a single tap. This works reasonably well and feels quite natural. There were eight different programs available: Water, Video Puzzle, Paint, Music,Photos, Casino, a T-Mobile demonstration app, and Dining. Much of the software was writtenusing Microsofts WPF (Windows Presentation Foundation), though the XNA developmenttoolkit, a framework originally created for writing PC and Xbox 360 games, is also supported.XNA allows programmers to use managed code written in C# to manipulate various DirectXfeatures; managed code frees the programmer from worrying about handling memory,allocating and discarding memory automatically. This approach has allowed Microsoft and itspartners to write impressive-looking demonstration programs for Surface more quickly thanwould otherwise be possible.
  11. 11. SURFACE COMPUTING7. Features:Multi-touch display: The Microsoft Surface display is capable of multi-touch interaction,recognizing dozens and dozens of touches simultaneously, including fingers, hands, gesturesand objects. Perceptive Pixel’s touch screens work via frustrated total internal reflectionTechnology: The acrylic surface has infrared LEDs on the edges. When undisturbed, thelight passes along predictable paths, a process known as total internal reflection. Whenone or more fingers touch the surface, the light diffuses at the contact points, changingthe internal-reflection pathways. A camera below the surface captures the diffusion andsends the information to image-processing software, which translates it into a command.Horizontal orientation: The 30-inch display in a table-sized form factor allows users to share,explore and create experiences together, enabling a truly collaborative computing experience.Dimensions: Microsoft Surface is 22 inches high, 21 inches deep and 42 inches wide.Materials: The Microsoft Surface tabletop is acrylic, and its interior frame is powder-coatedsteel.9. Applications of Surface Computing:9.1 Water and Drinks One interesting feature of Water is that if you take any object (the team used a regularstove dial) and stick an identification sticker on the bottom, the program will switch backgroundpictures whenever you turn the dial.
  12. 12. SURFACE COMPUTING9.2 Paint Surface’s paint program is even lighter on features than MacPaint was, but the naturaluser interface makes up for this deficiency. There are three draw modes that can be toggled by touching an icon on the bottom ofthe toolbar: brush, paint, and reveal, the last of which is kind of a negative brush that shows abackground bitmap underneath. The brush mode is a bit spotty and tends to skip, but the paintmode is smooth and fun. You can draw using one finger, all your fingers at once (good fordrawing hair), the palm of your hand, or using any natural object such as a regular paintbrush.Using the program is like having a flashback to finger painting back in kindergarten (minus themess), and certainly children will have tons of fun with this kind of application.9.3 Music The Music application works like a virtual jukebox, displaying music arranged by albumand allowing the user to flip over albums, select songs, and drag them to the "Now Playing"section. The album browser works a bit like Apple’s Cover Flow, although many albums arevisible at once without scrolling. Another feature is swapping music from one mp3 player to another.
  13. 13. SURFACE COMPUTING 9.4 Photos Sharing photos is a much more unrestricted activity, thanks to the fact that theconsumer is also the creator of the content, and the photo album application reflected thisfreedom. By simply placing a Bluetooth-equipped digital camera on the tabletop, Surface wasable to import the photos and place them in a pile on the screen, which Bolger verified bytaking a picture of Cindy, my Microsoft PR contact who was sitting in the next chair. Not only pictures but full-motion videos can be viewed in this way; tapping the videoonce starts the playback, and it can be smoothly resized and rotated while it plays.9.5 Casino The Casino application was developed in cooperation with Harrahs of Las Vegas and isa good example of how Surface can be used in a hospitality environment. The backgroundimage is a giant map of the hotel and casino, with all the attractions marked for furtherinspection. Hotel customers can place their card anywhere on the screen and reserve tickets toany of these shows. The background map can be easily scrolled with a brush of the hand, andzoomed in and out by performing the two-finger pinch.9.6 Dining The application allows diners to preview the entire menu by choosing a category(drinks, appetizers, main courses, and so forth) and then scrolling left and right through theavailable options. Items can be dragged into a central "ordering area" and when everyone issatisfied with their choices, a single tap on the Order button sends the list out to the waiter.This could potentially save service people huge chunks of time and would be very useful forbusy restaurants. The software can display the daily specials, and for regular customers withtheir own identification cards, it could display a list of "favorites" to make ordering even easier.
  14. 14. SURFACE COMPUTING10. Surface Computing - In Future: Although surface computing is a new experience for consumers, over time Microsoftbelieves there will be a whole range of surface computing devices and the technology willbecome pervasive in people’s lives in a variety of environments. As form factors continue to evolve, surface computing will be in any number ofenvironments— schools, businesses, homes — and in any number of form factors — part ofthe countertop, the wall or the refrigerator.11. Conclusions: Some people will look at Surface and claim that it does nothing that hasnt been triedbefore: computers with touch screens have been around for years and have already foundniches in ATMs, ticket ordering machines, and restaurant point-of-sale devices. This view largelymisses the point of the product. Like most projects, Surface takes existing technology andpresents it in a new way. Playing with the unit felt a bit like being in the movie Minority Report (in a good way),but it also felt like a more natural and enjoyable method of doing certain computing tasks.Sharing and looking at family photos, for example, is more fun on Surface than on any otherdevice. The retail applications, particularly the dining application, show how businesses coulduse the technology to really stand out from competitors, though one wonders how diners willreact when their table locks up and needs a reboot. Many people who viewed the early Xerox PARC demonstrations of the GUI came out ofthat experience knowing that every computer would work that way someday, and they wereright. Playing with Surface, one gets the sense that although not every computer will work likethis someday, many of them will.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY:1. Apple iPhone Multi-touch. http://www.apple.com/iphone/2. www.scribd.com3. www.whereisdoc.com4. www.docjax.com5. Microsoft Surface, http://www.surface.com6. Perceptive Pixel, http://www.perceptivepixel.com

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