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Before "pop" or others, there was MILITARY REQUIREMENTS for CHIEFS (NAVEDTRA 14144) that described CPO Leadership required to deliver on deckplates in each of the 21 foundational programs listed in: http://www.public.navy.mil/usff/Pages/practices_of_successful_commands.aspx

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  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 LEADERSHIP LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1. Describe how to apply sound leadership 4. Identify the steps necessary to monitor the practices to managerial abilities. progress of overall division work efforts. 2. Interpret command or departmental instruc- 5. Identify the methods used to determine tions and documents used to formulate division timelines. division work requirements. 3. Analyze division material and personnel 6. Identify the methods used to monitor the readiness. assignment of division personnel. This chapter addresses the topics of leadership A Guide for Senior and Master Chief Pettyand management. The chapter should provide you Officers, NAVEDTRA 10049, gives an excellentwith an introduction to the fundamentals of general overview of leadership and managementleadership and management required at the chief fundamentals used by chief petty officers.petty officer level. Topics covered in this chapterinclude effective management, leadership, personal SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITIEScharacteristics, and Total Quality Management(TQM). An in-depth discussion of the topics Within the formal Navy management structure,presented in this chapter is beyond the scope of management begins at the chief petty officer levelthis text. However, Management Fundamentals: (fig. 3-1). Top-level management is composed of Figure 3-1.-Levels of management. 3-1
  2. 2. executive officers and above. Those officers are ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES. —responsible for setting the direction and vision of Organizational objectives are long-range objec-the command. In short, they set the major goals tives. They serve as the goals for management inthe command is to accomplish. achieving the organizational mission. The type Middle management is composed of department commander or squadron-level commanders setheads. The department heads determine which organizational objectives. You can find thoseelements of their department are required to meet objectives in your command’s five-year plan,each of the specific goals set by upper manage- yearly schedule, and quarterly schedule. Examplesment. Department heads also assist in coordinating of organizational objectives are the board ofaction between their divisions or interaction with inspection and survey (INSURV), the operationalother departments. propulsion plant examination (OPPE), the Operating-level management is composed of operational readiness inspection (ORI), anddivision officers and chief petty officers. Personnel deployment schedules.at that level are responsible for fulfilling the super- You can use those long-range objectives tovisory function of management. The operating assist you in planning your work center objectives.level of management is responsible for taking the An example of a work center objective is preparinggoals and determining a plan of action to for an upcoming board of inspection and surveyaccomplish the goals. The operating level is also (INSURV) visit.responsible for ensuring the workers accomplish As a work center supervisor, you will probablythe goals in a timely manner. The elements of discover an upcoming inspection the month beforemanagement chief petty officers are involved in it occurs. You could, however, find out theinclude planning, staffing, controlling, organizing, approximate date of the inspection 2 or moreand leading. years in advance so that you could begin correcting or documenting discrepancies. That type of planningPLANS eliminates crisis management. Plans are methods devised to achieve a goal. Standing PlansThey are like road maps—they set the course thecommand will follow. All levels of management Standing plans are those the Navy uses forare involved in one type of planning or another. recurring or long-range activities. They includeAt the chief petty officer level, you will probably United States Navy Regulations, 1990 (Navybe involved in only one type of planning. Regs), Standard Organization and Regulations of All plans fall into one of three general groups: the U.S. Navy (SORN), SORM, S E C N A Vstrategic plans, standing plans, and single-use instructions, OPNAV instructions, captain’s nightplans. Although you will normally be involved in orders, technical manuals, and so forth. Chiefsingle-use plans, understanding all levels of petty officers use standing plans to determineplanning will help you meet your planning require- routine work requirements within the division orments. work center.Strategic Plans POLICIES. —Policies are broad general statements of expected behavior. You should Strategic plans involve activities that will take become familiar with the command policies statedplace in 2 to 5 years. The type commander in the SORM. You could be tasked with helping(TYCOM) or higher authority uses the strategic the division officer develop divisional policies.plans of an organization to set its organizational Divisional policies involve areas such as the com-mission and objectives. The commanding officer mand sponsor program, extra military instructionmay set additional organizational objectives such (EMI), extension of work hours, and routing ofas receiving the Golden Anchor Award or pass- request chits. As a general rule, your division willing the operational propulsion plant examination already have division and command policy state-(OPPE) with no discrepancies. ments; your job is to ensure your subordinates ORGANIZATIONAL MISSION. — T h e carry out those policies.organizational mission states the intended purposeof the command. The S h i p ’ s / C o m m a n d ’ s PROCEDURES. —Procedures are detailedOrganization and Regulation Manual (SORM) standing plans. Procedures define the exact stepscontains the organizational mission. in sequence personnel should take to achieve the 3-2
  3. 3. organizational objective. Examples are an BUDGETS. —Budgets are planned revenueelectrical tag-out procedure, a maintenance and expenditures of money, time, personnel,requirement card (MRC), or a command check- equipment, and so forth, expressed in numericalin/out sheet. Ensure personnel comply with your terms, usually by category and over a period ofdivision’s established procedures, and submit time. Most people think of budgets only in relationrequests for correction whenever a procedure to money. You should think of a budget as abecomes outdated or is in error. detailed plan of how you will use all of your resources, RULES AND REGULATIONS. —Rules and When you plan a project, make a budget ofregulations are standing plans that specifically the time allowed, the personnel assigned, and thestate what personnel can and cannot do in a given material resources and funding required.circumstance. Commands use them to ensurepersonnel adhere to policy. Navy Regs, SORN, MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVESand command regulations fall into this category. Although you should enforce rules and regula- Management by objectives (MBO) is a fancytions, you don’t have to place everyone who term for the type of management most commandsviolates a rule or regulation on report. As a chief use. MBO means supervisors and subordinatespetty officer, you have some latitude in applying take part in setting overall goals for the organiza-corrective measures, depending on the severity of tion. Each individual has a responsibility forthe infraction. meeting a major area of the goal. The command expresses that responsibility as those steps itSingle-Use Plans expects individuals to take in meeting those goals. The command then uses those expectations as a Single-use plans are those used for short-range measuring device to gauge the successfulnonrecurring activities. You should excel in this completion of the job.area of planning. Make short-range planning a The Navy Leader Development Programpart of your daily activity. Use strategic plans and (NAVLEAD) is based on MBO. It teaches Navystanding plans to determine short-range planning leaders to set goals. The leaders use managementrequirements. Short-range plans should include and supervisory skills, outlined later in thismonthly, weekly, and daily plans. Types of single- chapter, to achieve desired results in the workuse plans you will develop include programs, center or division.projects, and budgets. Objectives PROGRAMS. —Programs are single-use plansthat state a specific goal and give the major steps, The purpose of MBO is to set clearly definedthe timing of those steps, and the resources goals that all participants can easily understand.required to meet the stated goal. Examples of MBO helps managers plan, define jobs, motivateprograms include the Personal Excellence Program, subordinates, interact with subordinates, evaluatethe National Apprenticeship Program, and the worker performance, and link command objectivesOverseas Duty Support Program. to division or work center objectives. PROJECTS. —Projects are the separate tasks Basic Principlesyou must plan to meet program goals. When youmake plans to paint divisional spaces, you are MBO is based on two basic principles. Theplanning a project required to meet the goals of first is that if you get people committed to a goal,the Habitability Program. When you fill out a they are more willing to work toward that goal.training schedule, you are planning a project The second is that if you allow people to set therequired to meet the goals of your command training goal, they will do everything possible to achieveprogram. that goal. Become familiar with the Navy’s programs. As a manager, your first job is to get peopleDoing so can help you to lead and manage your committed to a goal through joint decisionwork center more efficiently because you will be making. When done correctly, your subordinatesaware of what is expected of you. You will also will have a personal interest in accomplishing thehave steps to follow in reaching program goals. goal. The goal will no longer be just what the chiefYou can then devise projects to meet those goals, wants to do, but what your subordinates told you 3-3
  4. 4. they were capable of accomplishing. At that point requirements outlined in your command’s variousthe goal has become the personal goal of your plans. In this case, you need to revise thesubordinates. division work requirements to conform to the Your second job is to work with your command’s plans. Or you may find your divisionsubordinates to set a goal. Goals should be has the correct work requirements, but the goalsrealistic and attainable. When subordinates for those requirements are not being met. In thisparticipate in goal setting, they help to set the case, you need to revise the division’s goals forstandards and criteria you will use to evaluate their accomplishing the work requirements.performance in reaching that goal. The real-ideal model (fig. 3-2) is a flow chartAdvantages and Disadvantages you can use in setting new goals for your division’s work requirements. The exact sequence of setting MBO provides some advantages over other goals for work requirements should be done intypes of management styles. It involves subor- the following order:dinates in setting goals, forces leaders to focus onimportant objectives, increases communication, Recognize the real situation in yourand establishes measurable performance goals. division. However, MBO also has some disadvantages.An organization can use it only in certain Review strategic, standing, and single-usesituations. It requires more time to use, increases plans to determine the ideal situation forpaperwork, and may overlook objectives that your division.cannot be measured. In addition, MBO will workonly if top leaders support it and peoplecommunicate as required. When leaders don’tsupport MBO, the disadvantages can cripple anorganization.DETERMINING WORKREQUIREMENTS ANDSETTING PRIORITIES One of the most difficult and often overlookedjobs of the chief petty officer is to determinedivisional work requirements and priorities. Youwill find the work requirements in your division’sstrategic plans, rules and regulations, and single-use plans. Once you have determined the require-ments, you must determine the tasks needed tocomplete them. Then you will set priorities basedon the order in which the division needs tocomplete each task.Determining Work Requirements To determine work requirements, you need astarting point to establish what your division ispresently accomplishing (the real situation) inrelation to what the division should be accom-plishing (the ideal situation). The work requirements your division shouldbe accomplishing are outlined in your command’sstrategic, standing, and single-use plans. Youshould compare these work requirements to whatyour division is currently accomplishing. You mayfind your division is not following the work Figure 3-2.-Real-ideal model. 3-4
  5. 5. •and ideal the differences between the real Identify situation. to subordinates. Delegate those in the nonroutine column if possible; however, monitor job progress closely. • Determine if the gap between the real and Ensure you have trained your subordinates before delegating any work to them. When you ideal is large enough to require corrective measures. delegate work, let your subordinates know you are available to help with any problems. •required.a commitment to change if so Make STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, • Set the goals for accomplishing the change. OPPORTUNITIES, AND THREATS (SWOT) • change. a single-use plan to implement the Develop You can use the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis to help you determine the needs of the division. The After your goals for the work requirements objective of the SWOT analysis is to help youare set, you should review them to ensure they identify those areas in which the division (1) needswill be effective. Effective goals for work require- improvement (2) has available opportunities andments should meet four criteria: (3) must overcome certain obstacles. To perform a SWOT analysis, first take an 1. Be behavior specific—specify the necessary objective look at your division. Make a list of its action to take strengths. Those are the areas in which the 2. Be measurable—specify criteria or check- division does a good job. Second, make a list of points for accomplishing the goal the division’s weaknesses. Those are the areas in 3. Be realistic but challenging—test your which the division needs to improve. Third, make ability, but have at least a 50-percent a list of opportunities. Those are areas that could chance of being attained help the division, such as unfilled school quotas, 4. Be time-phased—provide a time schedule surplus supply funds, personnel due to report, and or deadline for reaching the goal maintenance availabilities. Last, make a list of threats. Those could be upcoming inspections,Priorities personnel losses, and cuts in funding. Perform the SWOT analysis before the beginning of each You should now have determined your quarter, and then use it in developing your short-division or work center work requirements by range plans.using the real-ideal model. The next step is toprioritize the work requirements. To determinepriorities, ask the question What is the purpose STAFFof my division? Then use the answer to thisquestion to set your number one priority. Every job the Navy has requires people. Each Next, at the top of a sheet of paper, write two person is important to the overall mission of theheadings: ROUTINE and NONROUTINE. In the Navy. Therefore, the staffing of personnel is anroutine column, list tasks that take place on a important part of your job. In determiningrecurring basis. In the nonroutine column, list personnel needs and qualifications to keep yourtasks that do not occur often and need your division running smoothly, remember that peoplespecial attention. Within each column, label each are your most important resource.task Important, Urgent, or Important/Urgent asappropriate. Important/urgent tasks require Personnel Needsimmediate attention; do those first. Do the Urgenttasks next and the Important tasks last. Some You will assist the division officer in reviewingtasks may not fit any of the categories; do those the ship manning document to determine futuretasks when you have time. manning requirements. Since your command may You have now divided all tasks into two periodically request additional billets to covercolumns and prioritized them. Which tasks do you personnel shortages, be sure to document yourdo? You do only those which require your special division’s personnel requirements to justify thoseskills. Delegate the tasks in the routine column requests. 3-5
  6. 6. Additionally, you may be required to solicit of control is when the officer of the deckor provide additional manpower from or to other (OOD) makes course changes during navigationdivisions to accomplish assigned tasks. Careful detail.planning and cooperation with other divisions canresult in benefits for both divisions. Never askfor more people than you need, but be sure you Feedbackhave enough people on hand to meet specialrequirements. Feedback involves making corrections after an event has happened. You monitor the event and then evaluate how to improve the outcome thePersonnel Qualifications next time. Examples of this type of control include performance evaluations, inspections, and You need more than just people to accomplish captain’s mast.tasks—you need qualified people. Reviewpersonnel qualifications to ensure you assignqualified people to do jobs. When people are not Inventory Controlqualified, assign a qualified person to help themin task accomplishment. The Navy supply system is designed to be an effective inventory control system when used When reviewing personnel qualifications, correctly. However, most supervisors oftenmake sure their service records document those overlook inventory control until they go toqualifications. A person is not qualified until the supply to request a part. Make sure you performrequired entries have been made in his or her inventory control by monitoring division supplies.service record. Don’t put yourself in the position Ensure your coordinated shipboard allowance listof having to endure a mishap investigation (COSAL) is current and that supply has all thebecause your people were unqualified. spare parts or required supplies listed in your COSAL inventory.CONTROLLING Quality Control Controlling is another term for monitoring.Control ensures the Navy and your command, Quality control is a method of ensuring thatdepartment, and division meet their goals. You your customers receive a product that meetsmust use different types of control to maintain performance expectations. Your customers arestability within your division. divisions or departments that use your division’s work output. Your customers also include other commands and the American taxpayer. A basicFeedforward quality control system involves some or all of the following measures: Feedforward control is a way of trying toanticipate problems and make adjustments beforethe problems occur. You try to foresee possible • Setting standards so that quality goals can be established and then measuring orproblems and apply a solution to prevent them evaluating those goalsfrom occurring. The planned maintenance system(PMS) used aboard ship is an example of feed-forward control. • Inspecting and comparing materials, parts, and services to a set standardConcurrent • Using statistics to measure deviation and determine if quality is within set standards Concurrent control involves making changeswhile an event is taking place. You constantly • Using measurements or inspections to evaluate or compare actual quality tomake little changes to keep your division movingtoward your stated goal. An example of this type division goals for quality 3-6
  7. 7. FEEDFORWARD QUALITY CONTROL. – ZERO DEFECTS. —Zero defects is a type ofFeedforward control, when used as a quality quality control that is based on the theory ofcontrol device, is an inspection of the raw doing the job right the first time. Supervisorsinput for defects. An example is when you encourage workers to stop work to seek a solutioncheck parts received from supply to ensure when they identify a problem and to suggestthey are of the correct type and number methods of improvement. Supervisors follow upand are free of defects. If you find a problem, on suggestions and put into effect those which areyou should try to determine where it occurred. feasible. Workers who practice this type ofDid your division order the wrong part, control save time because they do not have towrong quantity of parts, or wrong style rework a task.of part? Does the supply system have aquality control problem that should be iden-tified and passed on to higher authority for Measurable and Nonmeasurable Controlaction? To achieve control, you can use two methods: (1) measurable and (2) nonmeasurable. CONCURRENT QUALITY CONTROL. —Concurrent control, as a quality control device,uses inspections to identify potential defects MEASURABLE CONTROL. —You can usewhile the work is taking place. An example is measurable control to determine the quality andwhen you inspect surfaces to be painted before quantity of the work output. This method ofpainting. control involves the use of specific information and measurements, such as budgets, audits or inspections, Gantt charts, and performance FEEDBACK QUALITY CONTROL. —Feed- evaluation and review techniques (PERT).back, when used as a quality control device,occurs after the task has been completed. This NONMEASURABLE. —You can use non-technique is useful to improve future quality. measurable control to measure overall divisionHowever, if you omit feedforward and concurrent performance while performing other functionscontrol and only rely on feedback, many tasks such as planning, staffing, organizing, andmay require complete rework because of problems leading. You can also use it to control the attitudesin quality. and performance of workers. This method of control involves the use of techniques such STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. —When the as discussions with workers, oral or writtennumber of items produced is too large for an reports, performance evaluations, inspections,inspection of each item, statistical analysis and observations of work.is used. Random samples are taken andmeasured against the stated quality goal. TYPES OF MEASURABLE CONTROL. —If the samples fail to meet expectations, Most of the nonmeasurable controls are builtthen the entire batch or lot could have into the Navy system or are self-explanatory. Wefailed to meet quality goals. An example is will limit this discussion to the measurablea periodic planned maintenance system inspection methods of control most people may not beby the type commander (TYCOM). TYCOM familiar with. These methods are the plan ofmight make random maintenance inspections action and milestones, Gantt chart, programand use the results to form conclusions about evaluation and review technique (PERT), andoverall maintenance within the command. critical path method (CPM). QUALITY CIRCLES. —Quality circles consist Plan of Action and Milestones. —A plan ofof small groups of workers within each division action and milestones (POA&M) could bewho look for ways to reduce defects, rework, and considered a budgetary type of control. You useequipment downtime. The workers also make the POA&M to budget time, personnel, andrecommendations concerning morale, working resources necessary to complete a task. The basicconditions, and worker recognition for superior POA&M defines the job to be done, resourcesperformance. required, steps to be taken, and progress expected 3-7
  8. 8. Figure 3-3.-Sample Plan of Action and Milestones (POA&M).at specified times (see figure 3-3 for a sample The side of the chart indicates work output,POA&M). The POA&M is commonly used in and the top of the chart is divided into units ofcommands throughout the Navy. time. Refer to figure 3-4. The left side of the chart lists tasks to be completed. The top of the chart Gantt Chart. —The Gantt chart shows planned shows the time allotted for task completion. Theand accomplished work in relation to each other unshaded bars represent the time allowed for eachand in relation to time. The Navy uses it as the individual task. The solid bar represents howbasis for more complicated charts, such as PERT much of each task has been completed.and CPM. You will find the Gantt chartparticularly useful in planning and controlling Program Evaluation and Review Technique. —operational-level tasks. The Navy developed the program evaluation and 3-8
  9. 9. Figure 3-4.-Sample Gantt chart.review technique (PERT) while constructing the complete the component task. Third, analyze andPolaris fleet ballistic missile. It focuses on key estimate the time required to complete eachpoints and steps that may present potential component task and for the entire project.problems. You will find PERT helpful when Fourth, find the critical path. The critical pathscheduling complicated nonrepetitive tasks and as is the longest path from the beginning componenta device to evaluate and report progress. task to the ending component task. Fifth, look The PERT uses a line chart to show the for ways to improve the project though modifica-relationship of tasks and the time required to tions. Sixth, control the project. See figure 3-5complete each task. The chart contains lines and for a sample PERT chart.nodes (circles) that represent the start andcompletion of tasks. Critical Path Method. —The critical path When using the PERT, you apply a mathe- method (CPM) is very similar to the PERT. Thematical formula instead of guesswork to figure major difference is the PERT focuses on timethe time needed to perform a task. You need three without regard to cost. The CPM focuses on bothtime estimates to complete the formula. First, time and cost. The CPM and PERT have threeestimate an optimistic time (T O ) based on a major differences. First, the CPM only requiresminimum of difficulties that could occur. Second, a one-time estimate. Second, the CPM includesestimate a pessimistic time (Tp) based on the a cost estimate as well as normal and crisis timemaximum difficulties that could occur. Third, estimates. Third, the CPM is based on theestimate a normal completion time (T n) based on assumption that you have at least some experiencethe average time you could expect to complete the with the work needed to complete each componenttask. The formula for figuring estimated PERT task.time (Te) is as follows: Elements of Effective Control Control systems such as quality control or inventory control need certain elements to be To construct a PERT network, follow the six effective: controlled work activities, timeliness,basic steps applied to all PERT projects. First, effectiveness, accuracy, and acceptance. Theseidentify the component task you will perform. elements of control influence how the work willSecond, define the order in which you need to be accomplished and how long work will take. 3-9
  10. 10. Figure 3-5. 3-10
  11. 11. ACTIVITIES. —Your subordinates expect work, It promotes teamwork and identifies theyou to control their work by comparing it to a authority, responsibility, and accountability ofset standard. When they know you will exercise individuals within the command.that control, they will try to meet that standard. An in-depth discussion of organization is well beyond the scope of this text. Therefore, this TIMELINESS. —Since managers need time to chapter will touch on only a few basic ideas andtake corrective action when tasks deviate from the concepts of which you should be aware. Thosenormal standard, subordinates must make a timely ideas and concepts include types of organizations,report of those deviations. The “timeliness” of organizational concepts, delegation of work, andreports depends on the amount of time a manager authority and power.designates as adequate—it could range fromminutes to months. Therefore, when designing Types of Organizationyour control system, specify the amount of timeyou consider to be timely. Of the many different types of organization used today, the Navy uses three specific types: EFFECTIVENESS. —Control systems may line, staff, and functional.involve additional cost. You should work toreduce the cost of your control system, while still LINE. —Line organizations refer to the majorretaining an effective system. Additional costs departments responsible for accomplishing thecould result from the need for additional people, mission of the command. These departments arematerial, equipment, or time. Evaluate your usually Deck, Engineering, Operations, Weaponscontrol system to eliminate or modify needless or Combat Systems, and Air.costs . STAFF. —Staff organizations refer to person- ACCURACY. —Your control system monitors nel who advise, assist, counsel, and serve the lineprogress and serves as the basis for corrective departments. Staff usually does not have authorityaction. Therefore, you should ensure it provides over line departments. Examples of staff includeyou with accurate information from which to the Supply Department, 3-M Coordinator, educa-make decisions. Be aware that since people are tional services officer (ESO), and drug and alcoholhuman, errors will occur in the reporting process. program advisor (DAPA).Also realize some people will present informationin a manner that will reemphasize the negative FUNCTIONAL. —Functional organizationswhile accentuating the positive. People usually refer to special departments that are neither linepresent information in that manner to try to make nor staff. Usually a functional organization startsthemselves look good. out filling a staff function and becomes so important to the success of the command that it ACCEPTANCE. —People usually resist con- is given special status. The manager has thetrol. The strongest resistance comes when people authority to ensure all parts of the commandperceive the control to be excessive. Excessive perform as necessary to carry out that function.control gives the impression you do not trust your Examples of functional organizations include thesubordinates. Medical, Safety, Legal, and Administrative To avoid resistance, explain the purpose of the Departments.control system to your subordinates. Make themfeel they have an interest in the success of the Organizational Conceptssystem. By explaining the purpose and generatinginterest in the control system, you have a greater At certain times you must report items suchchance of convincing subordinates to accept it. as personnel readiness or material readiness to higher authority. The method used to make theseORGANIZATION reports will vary from command to command. However, certain basic concepts are common to Organization is the process of arranging all methods: the chain of command, unity ofmaterial and personnel by functions to attain command, span of control, and specialization.the objective of the command. Organizationestablishes the working relationships among CHAIN OF COMMAND. —The chain ofcommand personnel and establishes the flow of command is the order of authority among Navy 3-11
  12. 12. members. The chain of command begins with the wrong decisions, they will learn from theircommanding officer (CO) and flows down to the mistakes. However, encourage and train yourseaman recruit. All members use the chain of subordinates to come to you if they need help incommand when they communicate about orders, making a decision. Since you are training yourresponsibilities, reports, and requests from higher subordinates to fill a higher position of authority,to lower authority or lower to higher authority. help them, but do not do the delegated workMembers also use the chain of command when yourself.they communicate with others who have the samelevel of authority, such as a counterpart in another WHY YOU SHOULD DELEGATE. —division. Delegating allows you to accomplish more than if you try to complete every task yourself. It allows UNITY OF COMMAND. —Unity of command you to focus your attention where it is mostis the order of control of an organization. It gives needed and to train and develop subordinates.one person control over one segment of the Delegation also allows you to make goodorganization. It ensures that a person reports decisions outside your area of expertise. Fordirectly to and receives orders from only one example, because of specialization, you may notindividual. The person in control issues all orders have the knowledge level required to make theand receives all reports from his or her segment correct decision about how to complete a task.of the organization. To ensure all personnel know In that case, you would be wise to delegate thewhom they direct and to whom they report, task and have the subordinate report back to youcommands should have clearly set lines of with alternative courses of action. You would thenauthority. review the alternatives and make your decision Use of the chain of command and an based on the information presented.organizational chart will help you maintain unityof command. Be sure you clarify your positionboth to your superiors and subordinates. FAILURE TO DELEGATE. —Many super- visors fail to delegate, or they delegate poorly. SPAN OF CONTROL. —Span of control Some people refuse to delegate because they feelrefers to the ideal number of people one person more powerful when they make all the decisions.can effectively supervise. The ideal number is Others avoid delegating because they think subor-based on the scope of the assigned functional dinates might exercise poor judgement. Someresponsibilities and the time available to the supervisors have a fear of letting subordinatessupervisor. Normally a supervisor is responsible make decisions they will be responsible for. Somefor at least three but not more than seven people. supervisors are afraid the subordinate will be more effective and thus threaten their position. Still SPECIALIZATION. —Specialization refers other supervisors do not believe subordinates wantto the division of work. The organizational chart the opportunity to have more authority andnormally shows the division of work. Work decision-making responsibility.centers are highly specialized by ratings. Divisions Make sure you train your subordinatesusually contain personnel in similar ratings, and through delegation of authority. Both you anddepartments contain personnel in ratings that your subordinates will be happier and have moreperform similar tasks. time.Delegation of Authority SUBORDINATES’ ROLE IN DELEGA- TION. —When you delegate the authority to The American citizens delegate authority to complete a task, your subordinates’ role is tothe President, who, in turn, delegates authority accept that authority. Along with that authority,down the chain of command to you. You delegate they must accept the additional responsibility andauthority to the lowest level competent to handle accountability that go with it.the specific responsibility. Although you may Subordinates sometimes are unwilling todelegate authority for a task, you have the final accept authority for the following reasons:responsibility for the completion of that task. When you delegate authority to your subor- • They don’t want to risk making a decision.dinates, let them make their own decisions abouthow to handle problems that arise. If they make • They have a fear of being criticized. 3-12
  13. 13. • They have a lack of self-confidence. not, however, have the authority to enter your work center or division and make changes that •tional responsibility. the pressure of addi- They want to avoid only you and your superiors have the authority to make. FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY. —Certain staff Counsel any of your subordinates who show organizations are granted functional authority tothese signs of unwillingness. Help them overcome direct line units within the area of the staffstheir fears and learn to accept authority and specialty. Examples of staff organizations withresponsibility. functional authority include the Legal, Equal Opportunity, and Safety Departments.AUTHORITY AND POWER Power With authority comes power. Power is theability to influence people toward organizational In conjunction with your authority, you useobjectives. However, you have limits on your power to influence others toward the accomplish-authority and power. View your authority and ment of command goals. You can use power forpower as a funnel, broad at the top and narrow personal gain or for the good of the organization.at the bottom. Always assume you have enough However, if your subordinates believe you useauthority and power to meet your obligations, but power for personal gain, you will soon suffer ando not exceed that limit. erosion of that power. On the other hand, if subordinates believe you use power to accomplishAuthority the organizational goals, your power to influence them will become stronger. Your power will also Authority only exists when subordinates become stronger when you share it throughaccept the idea that the supervisor has authority delegation of authority.over them. Subordinates can fail to recognize Of the six types of power—reward, coercive,authority through disobedience, denial, or work legitimate, informational, referent, and expert—delays. Subordinates usually accept authority you may use one or more in various combinations.readily; however, abusing your authority as a Each situation will determine the one or ones yousupervisor can make you ineffective. use. Although most authority in the Navy resultsfrom a member’s rank or position in the chain REWARD POWER. —Reward power stemsof command, many types of authority exist. Most from your use of positive and negative rewardsauthority in the Navy is delegated. to influence subordinates. Positive rewards range from a smile or kind word to recommendations LINE AUTHORITY. —Line authority is the for awards. Negative rewards range from corrective-authority you have over subordinates in your type counseling to placing a person on report.chain of command. This type of authority You will find one of the best ways to influencecorresponds directly to your place within the chain your subordinates is through the use of yourof command and does not exist outside the chain reward power. As a chief, you are responsible forof command. starting the positive reward process. First, write a recommendation for the award. Once the STAFF AUTHORITY. —Staff authority is recommendation is typed in the command’sthe right of staff to counsel, advise, or make standard award letter format, forward it up therecommendations to line personnel. This type of chain of command for approval. Your job doesauthority does not give staff the right to give line not end here. Always follow-up on the recommen-personnel orders that affect the mission of the line dation, using your influence and persuasion to getorganization. the award to the proper command level. A chief from another work center or division Frequent use of positive rewards will amplifycould, by virtue of his or her rank, exercise staff the effect of a negative reward. Give positiveauthority over a person in your work center or rewards freely, but use restraint in giving negativedivision by counseling or advising him or her to rewards. If you use negative rewards frequently,get a haircut. Failure to follow the advice or subordinates will begin to expect a negativecounsel may result in nonjudicial punishment reward. Their expectation of a negative reward(NJP) for the subordinate. The other chief would will lessen your power. 3-13
  14. 14. COERCIVE POWER. —Coercive power said. . ." Phrase and present the order in aresults from the expectation of a negative reward manner that leaves no doubt you initiated it.if your wishes are not obeyed. For example, Rely on your own resources to stay fully informedsuppose you have counseled a subordinate twice instead of depending on others. Subordinates mayfor minor infractions of regulations. At the third present unreliable information in a manner thatcounseling session, you threaten the subordinate makes it appear to be true. Superiors may becomewith NJP. At the next occurrence of the un- so involved with projects they forget to keep youdesirable behavior, you place the subordinate on informed of tasks being assigned or upcomingreport. inspections. Information is power. Stay informed! Coercive power works, but is not the preferred REFERENT POWER. —Referent powermethod of leading subordinates. It works best if derives from your subordinates’ identification orused when all else fails and you feel sure you can association with you. You have this power bycarry through with a threat. Before giving a simply being "the chief." People identify with thethreat, you should have some insight as to how ideals you stand for.the CO will handle the case. You do not want to The chief has a pre-established image. You canrecommend maximum punishment only to have enhance that image by exhibiting charisma,the CO dismiss the case at mast. courage, and charm. An improved image increases LEGITIMATE POWER. —Legitimate power your referent power. Always be aware of howcomes from the authority of your rate and others will perceive your actions. A negative imageposition in the chain of command. You use this in the eyes of others will lessen your power andpower in day-to-day business. Although legitimate render you ineffective. Maintain a positive image!power increases with added responsibilities, you EXPERT POWER. —Expert power comescan decrease that power if you fail to meet all of from your knowledge in a specific area throughyour responsibilities. which you influence others. You have expert To increase your legitimate power, assume power because your subordinates regard you assome of the division officer’s responsibilities. At an expert in your rating. Subordinates may alsofirst, the division officer will be glad to have the have this type of power. When you combinehelp. In time, the division officer will view the expert power with other types of power, you willresponsibilities as yours and formally delegate find it an effective tool in influencing others.additional authority to you. That would increase However, when you use it by itself, you will findyour legitimate power without diminishing the it ineffective.power of the division officer. Just as you can increase your legitimate power LEADERSHIPby assuming more responsibility, you can decreasethat power by losing responsibility. For example,if you permit the division officer to assume some Good leadership is of primary impor-of your responsibilities, the division officer will tance in that it provides the motivatingeventually begin to view your responsibilities as force which leads to coordinated actionhis or hers. You will then have less legitimate and unity of effort. Personnel leadershippower. However, when a subordinate wishes to must be fused with authority since a leaderassume some of your responsibilities, formally must encourage, inspire, teach, stimulate,delegate those responsibilities to the subordinate. and motivate all individuals of the organi-That makes the subordinate accountable to you. zation to perform their respective assign-You then increase the subordinate’s power while ments well, enthusiastically, and as a team.retaining your power. Leadership must ensure equity for each member of the organization. Concerning INFORMATIONAL POWER. —Informational actions in his or her area of responsibility,power depends on your giving or withholding of the leader should never allow a subordinateinformation or having knowledge that others do to be criticized or penalized except bynot have. Use informational power when giving himself or herself or such other authorityorders to subordinates. Give orders in such a as the law prescribes.manner that your subordinates presume the orderoriginated at your level. When forced to comply —Standard Organization andwith orders you do not agree with, don’t introduce Regulations of the U.S. Navythe order by saying "The division officer 3-14
  15. 15. Leadership is often talked about and discussed leaders plan well, establish an effective organiza-without thoroughly being explained. Exactly, tion, set up an efficient and effective controlwhat is leadership? Are leaders born or can they system, and staff required jobs with the rightbe trained? Management specialists have been people. Finally the leader excels at inspiring andsearching for the correct answers for over 90 motivating subordinates.years. The Navy defines leadership as the ability to Leadership Stylesinfluence others toward achieving the goals andobjectives of the organization. Leadership What’s your style of leadership? Do youinvolves inspiring, motivating, and developing practice one style of leadership all the time, orothers. do you vary your actions according to the Many theories have been developed to explain particular situation or type of people with whomthe leadership process. The theories range from you are working? You might have asked yourself,Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y to How do I maintain respect for my position ofWilliam Ouchi’s Theory Z. The Japanese used authority and at the same time allow my peopleTheory Z to develop the Total Quality Manage- to voice their opinions? How can I take the timement (TQM) leadership style, discussed later in to get their point of view when I’m under pressurethis chapter. to get the job done? These questions are puzzling, Based on Theory X, the leader assumes people and they have no easy answers. A leader mustare basically lazy; will avoid working if possible; walk a tightrope when it comes to solving thesemust be coerced, controlled, directed, or dilemmas of leadership.threatened; wish to avoid responsibility; have no As a leader, you can practice leadership inambition; and want security. People who base many ways. Research on leaders and leadershiptheir leadership style on that theory use threats has identified several leadership styles. Mostto motivate subordinates. people have a preferred range of styles. No one Theory Y proposes that the leader assumes leadership style is right or wrong; the appropriatepeople like to work; will seek additional style depends on the people being led, theresponsibility when the proper work environment situation, and the requirements of the job.exists; will exercise self-direction and self-control; In any situation, a leader must perform sixand have a high level of imagination, ingenuity, tasks that in some way involve or affect subor-and creativity. People who pattern their leadership dinates. A good leader takes the following actions:style after this theory help subordinates performwork assignments. According to Theory Z, people who don’t fit •solve problems Listens to subordinates to diagnose oreither Theory X or Theory Y are really acombination of the two. People who develop aleadership style based on Theory Z use different •range goals and develops short- and long- Sets action plansstyles of leadership with different people,depending on the situation. •tasks todirections about who is to do which Gives what standardsRelation to Management Civilian management sees leadership as just • Provides feedback on task performanceone of its five functions. It expects its managersto plan, organize, control, staff, and then apply •and personal disciplines task performance Rewards or characteristicsleadership to motivate employees. The Navy seesleadership as all-encompassing. The Navy leader • Develops subordinatesfirst and foremost motivates subordinates. TheNavy then applies the management functions of The way these six tasks are handled at any oneplanning, organizing, controlling, and staffing as time varies with the nature of the jobs. A differentneeded to meet organizational goals. leadership style should be used for routine tasks Although the views of the civilians and the than for innovative tasks or for situations thatNavy seem to be different, both have one element require crisis management. Similarly, tasks ofin common. Effective leadership involves planning, short duration often warrant a different style fromorganizing, controlling, and staffing. Good those that extend over long periods. 3-15
  16. 16. You can adapt the six different leadership Democratic leaders usually reward averagestyles (coercer, authoritarian, affiliator, demo- performance and rarely give negative feedback orcratic, pacesetter, and coach) to meet the punishment.requirements of different situations. PACESETTER. —Pacesetter leaders would COERCER. —In this style of leadership, rather do the job themselves. They set highsubordinates are expected to do the job the way standards, and they lead by example. They arethe leader tells them to do it. Coercer leaders loners. They expect self-direction of themselvesprovide clear directions by telling subordinates and others. Pacesetter leaders have troublewhat to do and how to do it. They don’t listen delegating because they believe they can do theto the subordinates nor permit much subordinate job much better than their subordinates. Theyinput. They expect immediate compliance and become coercive when their subordinates haveobedience to orders, and they control the jobs very difficulty or when things go wrong. Pacesettertightly. This style of leadership requires many leaders don’t develop subordinates because theydetailed reports on the job, including progress and are continually taking away the subordinates’problems with the job. Coercer leaders give more responsibility and exerting their own authority.negative and personalized feedback than positivefeedback and frequently resort to name calling to COACH. —In the coach style of leadership,accomplish the job. They motivate their subor- leaders are concerned with the development ofdinates by threats of discipline or punishment. their subordinates. They are concerned with high standards but have trouble communicating these AUTHORITARIAN. —Authoritarian leaders high standards to subordinates. Coach leaders seeare firm but fair. They tactfully provide clear their job as developing and improving thedirection but leave no doubt about what is performance of their subordinates. They directexpected or who makes the final decisions. They by having subordinates set their own goals. Theysolicit some input from subordinates on how to get their workers to develop plans and identifydo the job and ways to make the job easier. solutions instead of giving them clear, conciseAuthoritarian leaders see their influence as a key instructions on what to do and how to do it.part of their job. They persuade subordinates todo the job by explaining the “whys” behind Advantages and Disadvantagesdecisions. They monitor all jobs closely and of the Leadership Stylesprovide negative and positive feedback to theirsubordinates. Each of the six leadership styles has advantages and disadvantages. Usually a good leader is a AFFILIATOR. —In this leadership style the combination of several of these styles. You mustpeople are the leader’s first concern. Affiliator tailor your personal leadership style to fit eachleaders consider concern for subordinates and situation.personal popularity as the most important aspect The coercer style is especially effective duringof their job. They don’t provide clear direction, a wartime situation when the command is instandards, or goals. They provide for job security combat or under fire. However, this style ofand fringe benefits to keep their subordinates leadership can have some negative effects if thehappy. Affiliators avoid conflicts that might cause command, work center, or individual is performinghard feelings. They reward personal characteristics at a high rate of efficiency. Subordinates will notrather than job performance, and they rarely respond well to the repeated use of threats duringpunish subordinates. normal situations. You might find the authoritarian leadership DEMOCRATIC. —This style of leadership style useful when seeking information on a particularrelies on participation of the group. Democratic situation or before inspections. However, it isleaders believe subordinates should take part in normally not a good style to use in personalthe decision-making process. They base decisions counseling sessions. This leadership style doesn’ton the consensus of opinion of the entire group. allow enough flexibility to provide alternativeThey consider specific direction and close super- solutions to subordinates’ personal problems.vision unnecessary in completing the job when Using this style by jumping in and taking over intrust has been established. They frequently hold situations when you have technically competentmeetings and listen to their subordinates. workers is counterproductive. 3-16
  17. 17. The affiliator style of leadership is especially important. If power is important to you, you maywell adapted to the role of counselor. It is also emphasize the coercer style of leadership. If youeffective when you need to recognize someone for value friendship, you may tend to emphasize thedoing a good job. However, the affiliator has a democratic or affiliator style of leadership.negative effect when the work center has a tightdeadline or when you are in a leadership role for PAST EXPERIENCES. —If a particularlong periods. leadership style has worked in the past, you will People who use the democratic leadership style probably use it again in similar situations. If alisten to subordinates. Therefore, you could certain style didn’t work, you will avoid using itbenefit from this style when showing a new again. Therefore, past experiences influence yourmaintenance procedure or how a new piece of leadership style.equipment works. You would also find it helpfulwhen planning social events based on a consensus PAST AND PRESENT SUPERVISORS. —of opinion. Using this style when preparing for Since supervisors serve as role models, subor-an inspection would be harmful because you dinates frequently imitate their behavior;would lack control. It would also be harmful therefore, your supervisors influence yourduring drills or combat because you would not dominant leadership style.have time to hold meetings. You would have to JOBS OR TASKS. —The job or task yourtell subordinates what to do or the entire work center performs affects your leadershipcommand could be lost. style. A new procedure or the installation of a Using the pacesetter style of leadership is piece of equipment may call for the pacesetterhelpful when you are working with a new work style of leadership. An emergency situation maycenter or teaching a new maintenance procedure cause you to be coercive.by example. However, if you begin doing otherpeople’s work, rather than training, monitoring, ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES ANDand developing subordinates, the pacesetter style NORMS. —Civilian businesses provide a servicebecomes harmful to the work center. or product to society. Since the products and The coach style of leadership is helpful when services provided by businesses differ, the needsa worker is attempting to learn a new procedure and requirements of their workers also differ. Theor master a new technique. It is also effective same is true for the Navy. The Navy provides awhen you need to counsel a subordinate who service to its country. Each organizational levelfrequently arrives late at the work center. of the Navy performs a specific job or providesHowever, this style of leadership has no effect on a product that contributes to that service.a subordinate who knows how to perform a job Therefore, the needs and requirements of theor task but refuses to do the work. workers at each level also differ. This difference creates different work environments (cultures) andFactors Affecting Leadership Styles different relationships (norms) between the workers. The culture of your organization has a The following six elements interact to deter- great impact on your leadership style. Yourmine your leadership style: leadership style changes to fit the organizational • Motives and values culture of your work center. In short, you will change your leadership style to meet the • Past experiences expectations of your superiors. SITUATIONS. —Specific situations determine • Past and present supervisors your leadership style because each one could involve a different number of people and a • Jobs or tasks different amount of pressure or stress. For example, you might use the democratic style when • Organizational culture and norms assigning a daily task because you would have time to explain the "why" of doing it. However, • Situations you would be unable to use that style during an emergency. Can you imagine explaining why you MOTIVES AND VALUES. —Your leadership want the electrical power secured during a firestyle reflects those motives and values you see as aboard ship? 3-17
  18. 18. Management and Supervisory Skills Use the skills of planning and organizing to determine the status and impact of your division Maintaining an effective and efficient work work on the work of other divisions. Becomecenter or division requires five management and proficient in your planning of divisional work bysupervisory skills. Those skills are a concern for applying the strategic, standing, and single-usestandards, a concern for efficiency, planning and plans discussed earlier in this chapter. Becomeorganizing, supervising for effective performance, efficient at setting goals, and then analyze yourand monitoring. Develop these skills in super- plans to reach those goals by using the SWOTvising your people. analysis. CONCERN FOR STANDARDS. —Emphasize SUPERVISING FOR EFFECTIVE PER-the importance of doing a job right and enforce FORMANCE. —Get the best results from yourhigh standards by doing the following: subordinates by coordinating their actions. Set challenging standards and demand high levels of •according to tasks are done safely and Ensuring regulations performance; then supervise your subordinates’ performance as follows: •updated that required documentation is Seeing •tationsand clearly communicate yourinexpec- Set for the level of performance your work center or division. • Being intolerant of poor performance •violationsupof front theor consequences for State conduct nonperformance. CONCERN FOR EFFICIENCY. —Defineand organize each task to best use your workcenter’s or division’s time and resources as •performance. Hold subordinates accountable for poorfollows: •performance. and jobs to get the best Match people • Identify inefficiencies. • Improve the efficiency of existing systems. •effective performance. and teamwork for Promote cooperation • Delegate tasks to improve efficiency. MONITORING. —Develop the habit of •toEncourage superiors to use efficient ways accomplish tasks. routinely gathering information and keeping track of ongoing work to monitor work center progress by doing the following: • day-to-day routine of the work centerthe Build preparations for inspections into or • Observe procedures and processes. division. •resources. records, equipment, and Monitor PLANNING AND ORGANIZING. —Takethe following steps to carefully and systematically •your subordinates.assess the readiness of Ask questions todevelop thorough and specific plans andschedules: Monitoring is a control function of manage- • Set priorities, goals, and deadlines. ment, as previously discussed in this chapter. You can use inventory control, one of the six types of • Develop detailed, step-by-step plans. quality control, or a control method such as the POA&M, the Gantt chart, CPM, or PERT to help •allocated manpower. that optimize the Develop schedules you in monitoring. Effective Leadership • Coordinate schedules with others. To be an effective leader requires certain skills. • Anticipate obstacles and plan accordingly. The Navy has identified six skills effective leaders 3-18
  19. 19. have in common. These skills area commitment Using threats or your authority toto the command’s mission, self-image as a leader, influence otherscommunication, influencing, development ofothers, and a concern for subordinates. Let’s look Presenting logical reasons or informationat how you should apply those skills in leading to persuadeothers, Using the proper setting and timing for COMMITMENT TO COMMAND’S MIS- optimum impactSION. —Take the following steps to show subor-dinates you have a strong dedication to the Navy, Acting to motivate subordinatesthe command, and the work center: • Act with the best interest of the command in mind. Giving reasons for your decisions Devising and using a strategy for influ- • Put the Navy, the command, and the work center needs above concern for any encing others DEVELOPMENT OF OTHERS. —Use routine individual. tasks to train division personnel to function effectively in your absence. Give enough guidance SELF-IMAGE AS A LEADER. —Identify to the leading petty officer (LPO) to allow himyourself as a leader and a key factor in the or her to complete delegated tasks proficiently.successful performance of the command or work Train the LPO to assume your job so that whencenter as follows: his or her turn comes to make chief, he or she • Clearly define your role and respon- sibilities to both superiors and subor- will be ready. Develop the performance of your subordinates through the following methods: dinates. Making training opportunities, different • See yourself as a leader. jobs, and expert help available • Set the example for subordinates. Providing constructive feedback • See yourself as someone who makes things happen. Using delegation as a tool to develop subordinates COMMUNICATION. —Use the chain of Using the opportunities presented bycommand to provide and receive information to routine tasks to train subordinateshelp all levels of the chain of command under-stand task-related issues more easily. Improve CONCERN FOR SUBORDINATES. —Activelycommunication throughout the chain of com- support subordinates who must overcome problemsmand in the following ways: by showing concern for them as follows: Keep others informed. Give clear directions and assign specific • Expressing positive expectations responsibilities when delegating. • Taking the action required to provide rewards, recognition, or special liberty for Listen to suggestions from subordinates. your subordinates Make yourself available to answer questions. Helping your subordinates in overcoming problems INFLUENCING. —Influence others towardtask accomplishment by using a variety of Effective Personal Characteristicsstrategies, such as the following: Successful chief petty officers exhibit certain • Persuading others by pointing out how personal characteristics that support command they will benefit leadership and management policies. You should 3-19
  20. 20. develop these characteristics and make them part INITIATIVE. —Taking the initiative meansof your personality profile. Effective personal you are a self-starter who sees problems and takescharacteristics include concern for achievement, action to correct them without being told. Ifanalytical problem solving, interpersonal aware- needed, you take action to make changes inness, initiative, persistence, and assertiveness. work center operations. You don’t hesitate to investigate and tackle difficult situations. The CONCERN FOR ACHIEVEMENT. —If you following are some other traits that show you havehave concern for achievement, you seek new initiative:challenges and work to reach higher levels ofaccomplishment. Four traits show you have a •accomplish tasks information needed to Searching out or make decisionsconcern for achievement: Taking on new challenges with enthusiasm •systems new plans, procedures, or Developing Trying to persuade your work center or division to outperform others or to exceed the set standard • Taking calculated risks Assessing the work center’s level of per- formance using comparative measures • and exhibiting the pacesettersituations Taking an active role in critical style of leadership when required Feeling frustrated when situations or other people prevent you from completing your assigned task in a timely and effective PERSISTENCE. —You show persistence manner when you expend extraordinary effort to complete a task or overcome an obstacle. You usually get ANALYTICAL PROBLEM SOLVING. — your own way by showing persistence becauseAnalytical problem solving involves analyzing people become tired of listening to you and willcomplex situations and evaluating information to do anything to help solve your problem. Thechoose the best solution to a problem. The follow- following traits show you are a person withing are some traits you will exhibit when using persistence:analytical problem solving: • Identifying the causes or central issues • Doing whatever is ethically needed to complete a job involved in a problem • Weighing the pros and cons of each alter- • Taking repeated action to overcome obstacles and ensure your goals are met native course of action • Drawing inferences and seeing the implica- tions of problems and solutions • Making yourself and your subordinates available - to work the hours needed to • Relating present situations to similar past accomplish your goals experiences ASSERTIVENESS. —When you show assertive- INTERPERSONAL AWARENESS. —When ness, you confront issues directly and insist othersdealing with subordinates with whom you have recognize your place in the chain of command.problems, try to anticipate their behavior before You do not become emotionally involved indeciding on a course of action. Anticipating their stressful situations and show restraint whenbehavior requires a sense of interpersonal awareness required. The following traits indicate you are athrough which you gain insight into what is causing person with assertiveness:the behavior. The following traits show that youhave a keen sense of interpersonal awareness: • Addressing key issues and conflicts you • orThinking aboutofthe impact of your actions have with other people the actions other people • Acting forcefully and with confidence • ofTrying topeople the motives or perspectives other assess when you are dealing with superiors or peers 3-20
  21. 21. •sibility forinsisting on you are full respon- Always each task having assigned develop the ability to ferret out these improve- ments and incorporate them into standard procedures. That serves a dual purpose. First, it •when you are provoked in a conflict or Demonstrating self-control ensures the recommended improvement is usable and meets all applicable standards. Second, the improved method is made available to everyoneTotal Quality Management (TQM) involved in that process. Both of these purposes serve a practical application of "working smarter, A major problem facing the armed services not harder."today is a lack of money. The budgets of ourforces are not going to increase in the foreseeable Benefits of TQMfuture. Indeed, they will probably continue toshrink. Although our present system of doing A popular myth among military managersbusiness is adequate, it doesn’t allow for many holds that increased quality results in increasedimprovements in productivity. We have done an costs and decreased productivity. In reality,excellent job with our present system. To wring improved quality ultimately results in decreasedany more bang from our buck, however, will costs and increased productivity. How can this be?mean a change in the way we do business. A focus on quality extends the time between Management by objectives is a time-honored failures on equipment and improves the efficiencyprinciple of management. However, we now must of our operations. It reduces rework requirementschange our objectives. Today’s managers must set as well as the need for special waivers oftheir sights on a larger, system-wide objective. standards. It also reduces mistakes and producesThat objective is increased productivity through monetary savings through more efficient use ofbetter quality. scarce resources. The Department of the Navy (DON) has Direct benefits of TQM are as follows:recently adopted the concept of Total QualityManagement (TQM) as the means of meetingDON needs into the 21st century. Executive Order •individual workers workmanship among Increased pride of12637, signed April 27, 1988, establishes theProductivity Improvement Program for thefederal government. TQM IS THE NAVY’S • Increased readinessANSWER TO THAT ORDER. The Navy hasadopted the civilian TQM concept and changed • time between equipment failuresextended Improved sustainability caused bythe name to a more military sounding name—Total Quality Leadership (TQL). • Greater mission survivabilityTQM, What Is It? •more efficient operations because of Better justification for budgets TQM focuses on the process by which workgets done. The person most familiar with thatprocess is the individual worker responsible for •processes maintenance and production Streamlinedmaking it work. Often, a process is eitherunmanageable or just plain unworkable. In a rigid The bottom line of TQM is “more bang forbureaucracy, for workers to persuade upper the buck.”echelons of a need to change a procedure isnearly impossible. Under TQM, management is The Concept of Quality Managementresponsible for making a particular job as easyas possible for workers. Supervisors and managers The concept behind quality managementmonitor the work process and respond to revolves around a change from management bysuggestions from the work force concerning results to management by process (quality)unworkable procedures. Sailors in particular are improvement. Managers are tasked with con-infamous for coming up with nonstandard (but tinuously improving each and every processworkable) solutions to problems. In some cases, in their organization. That means combiningthis results in unsafe practices. However, these quantitative methods and human resource manage-solutions are often extremely practical. We must ment techniques to improve customer-supplier 3-21