Autonomous vehicles[1]


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Autonomous vehicles[1]

  1. 1. Autonomous Vehicles
  2. 2. History • The first actual representation was in 1977 at the Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Lab in Japan - Got up to 30 km/h by tracking white street markers urne/slides/fitzroy065567.htm
  3. 3. History Cont. • 1980s DARPA-funded Autonomous Land Vehicle in U.S. achieved first road following demonstration that used: - laser (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan) - computing vision (Carnegie Mellon University and SRI) - autonomous robotic control (Carnegie Mellon and Martin Marietta) - Goes up to 30km/h
  4. 4. History Cont. • In 2000 three U.S. Gov’t funded military efforts known as Demo I (Army), Demo II (DARPA), and Demo III (Army) are underway. • Demo III demonstrated the ability to drive on off-road terrain and avoid obstacles.
  5. 5. History Cont. • In 2010, VisLab ran VIAC (VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge) - 13,000 km test run - 4 driverless vans ended the drive from Italy to China by arriving at Shanghai Expo on October 28 • In 2008, General Motors said they would begin testing driverless cars by 2015 and could be on the road by 2018. 8000-mile-journey-from-italy-to-china/italy-driverless- odyssey/
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Paved Road Autonomous Vehicles • Google Driverless Car • Euro EUREKA Prometheus Project • VIAC Challenge • DARPA Grand Challenge • Argo Vehicle • Stanford’s Racing Team’s car • Volkswagen Golf GTI 53+1 8/soon-a-car-that-drives-on-its-own.htm vanced_research_robotic_vehicles.htm
  8. 8. Free Ranging Autonomous Vehicles • DARPA Grand Challenge • European Robot Trial • Israeli Military- Industrial Complex
  9. 9. Automated Highway System • Efforts to construct special lanes with magnets to allow vehicles to stay in the center of the lane while communicating with other vehicles
  10. 10. Free Ranging Grid • Combination of autonomous vehicles and a supervisory central system - The vehicle locates itself using odometer readings, recalibrating themselves occasionally using a “maze” of magnets embedding in the environment, and GPS -They avoid wrecks using lasers and ultra sonic sensors -Only for commercial use.
  11. 11. Sensorial-Informative • Warn or inform drivers about events that have passed unnoticed such as - Lane Warning system - Rear-view alarm- detect obstacles behind - Visibility aid for the driver to cover blind spots and enhanced vision system such as radar, wireless vehicle safety communication, and night vision - Infrastructure-based, driver warning/ information-giving systems such as those developed by Japanese government pot.htm nfo&cPath=202_3&products_id=705
  12. 12. Actuation- Corrective • Modify driver’s instruction to execute them in a more effective way - anti lock brakes - traction control system - four wheel drive - electronic stability control - dynamic steering response il/safety/safety2.html
  13. 13. Systemic • Automatic parking • Following another car • Distance control assistance • Dead man’s switch
  14. 14. Existing and Missing Technologies • Understanding immediate environment (Sensors) Knowing where it is and where it wants to go (Navigation) • Finding its way in Traffic (Motion Planning) Operating Mechanics of the vehicle (Actuation)
  15. 15. Short Term Advantages • Increasing roadway capacity by reducing distance between cars • Reduce congestion by controlling flow of traffic • Can do work or rest while driver • No longer need to leave work to do errands • Takes itself to gas station and to get repaired/serviced
  16. 16. Long Term Advantages • Longer commutes will be more tolerable. • Cut down on commuter rail ridership • Cut down on costs of bus service • You can just click an app on you Smartphone to get a car to you immediately • Become a much cheaper way to live in the city without a car - like owning a car without worrying about parking • Increase safety by reducing driver error • Fewer mechanical problems and breakdowns. • Decrease amount of import oil • Reduce urban greenhouse gas emissions by 80%
  17. 17. Ethical Implications • Not enough proper training on vehicles for users • One corporation may control all technology and may not take ethical considerations seriously - Could create monopoly
  18. 18. Bibliography • • Forrest, Alex. "Autonomous Cars and Society." WPI. N.p., 01/05/2007. Web. 2 Nov 2010. < project-043007-205701/unrestricted/IQPOVP06B1.pdf>. • "Driverless Car." Wikipedia. N.p., 31/10/2010. Web. 2 Nov 2010. <>. • Schmidhuber, J. "Robot Cars." idsia. N.p., 2005. Web. 2 Nov 2010. <>. • Templeton, Brad. "Where Robot Cars Can Really Take Us." N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov 2010. <>. • Finn, Anthony. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles : a compendium . 1st ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2010. 23-49. Print. • Smith, Mary. "Driverless Car Technology Through GM." Newsoxy 14 Nov 2010, Print.