Icon Exchange Discrimination Phases

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Icon Exchange Discrimination Phases

  1. 1. Icon Exchange<br />Discrimination Phases<br />Created By: Courtney June<br />Behavior Analysis Training System<br />Western Michigan University<br />
  2. 2. What is discrimination?<br />The ability to choose between a preferred item and a non preferred item.<br />“Which icon will get me something cool, and which one will get me something lame?”<br />
  3. 3. General Info<br />Always have the correct icon for each item<br />If not, ask for it<br />Reinforce within ½ second<br />Use a variety of tutors and items, both preferred and non-preferred<br />Set up for next trial while child is engaged with the reinforcer<br />Number of icons on the <br /> three right strips is phase<br /> specific<br />
  4. 4. Remember: There should never be more than 5 icons on the three right strips for discrimination phases<br />
  5. 5. Preferred Vs. Non-preferred<br />A preferred item-- an item the child consistently eats or engages with for 10 – 15 seconds<br />Eating goldfish<br />Putting a puzzle together<br />Flipping through a book<br />A non-preferred item-- something the child is not interested in, and will not engage in for 10 – 15 seconds<br />A spoon<br />A shoe<br />A piece of paper<br />
  6. 6. Non-preferred Vs. Neutral<br />Again, a non-preferred is anything the child does not like and rejects <br />Paper towel<br />A sock<br />A neutral item is an item that is non-preferred but used functionally:<br />Using a fork to eat <br />Drinking from a cup<br />Putting on a shoe<br />If you find a neutral item for your child do not use it as preferred or non-preferred, in the discrimination trials.<br />
  7. 7. Phases 3<br />The child learns to discriminate between a reinforcing preferred item and a non-preferred item<br />Previously the child always got something good from exchanging the icon, now they have to look at the icons to make sure they are getting what they want<br />
  8. 8. Question #1: <br />What is the maximum number of icons that can be on the three right strips of the PECS book?<br />
  9. 9. Enticing vs. Prompting<br />Entice a child “to want” an item <br /> and,<br />Prompt a child “to ask” for an item<br />Examples of enticing:<br />Pretend to eat an edible without attending to the child<br />Play with a car or toy by yourself<br />Examples of prompting:<br />“WOW look at this COOL car!”<br />“OOO this is a YUMMY Cheeto<br />
  10. 10. Which is Enticing? Prompting?<br />
  11. 11. Enticing vs Prompting<br />Prompting<br />Enticing<br />
  12. 12. What happens in an incorrect trial?<br />The child chooses a non-preferred icon and rejects it when it is presented<br />Examples of rejection:<br />Not taking the item from you<br />Throwing the item<br />Pushing the item away<br />Dropping the item<br />If 3 incorrect responses occur, move onto the 4 Step Error Correction<br />
  13. 13. Tips for Emotional Responding<br />During instances of emotional rejection<br />Such as crying or tantrums,<br />Do not give the child a different preferred item to calm them,<br />Work through the rest of the trial, giving prompts as needed, and<br />If the child aggresses:<br />Block it and continue to work through the trial<br />After completing the trial do ELOs to achieve compliance <br />Once child complies, move on to the next trial<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Question #2: <br />Which is an example of rejection?<br />A. The child grabs the sock and makes a hand puppet.<br />B. The child eats the cheeto.<br />C. The child ignores the item and pretends to sleep.<br />
  16. 16. Phase 3<br />Allow the child to play with the preferred item for 10–15 seconds before the trial begins<br />1 preferred item and 1 non-preferred item is used<br />Do preference assessments every few trials to find both preferred and non-preferred items<br />“OOO the new”<br />Reinforce the childs correct reaching response with “OOO” as the child reaches for the correct icon during the trial<br />
  17. 17. “OOO”<br />
  18. 18. Phase 3<br />Be sure to place the PECS book between the student and tutor<br />Alternate back and forth between phases 3 and 2F<br />5 trials of 2F outside of the booth<br />5 trials of 3 in the setting the tutor chooses<br />Trial is considered incorrect after 15 seconds<br />If the child makes 3 incorrect responses in a row, remove incorrect icon during the 4 step error correction<br />
  19. 19. Question #3:<br />The tutor silently reading a child’s book in front of the child is an example of what?<br />Question #4:<br />Exclaiming “VROOM VROOM, this car is so much FUN!” in front of the child is an example of what?<br />
  20. 20. Phase 3A<br />The child learns to discriminate between a reinforcing preferred item and a non-preferred item<br />WHILE TRAVELING (outside the booth)<br />
  21. 21. Phase 3A<br />Again allow the child to eat or engage with the reinforcer for 10-15 seconds<br />1 preferred and 2 non-preferred icons on any of the 3 right velcro strips<br />Do preference assessments every few trials<br />If the student does not engage in the item for at least 15 seconds, it is incorrect<br />After 3 incorrect responses in a row, remove the incorrect icon and go into the 4 Step Error Correction<br />
  22. 22. Question #5:<br /> If a child is given a sock and puts in on his/her foot, what kind of item is it?<br />A: Preferred<br />B: Non-preferred<br />C: Neutral<br />
  23. 23. The 4 Step Error Correction<br />Step 1: Model<br />Step 2: Practice<br />Step 3: Distract<br />Step 4: Repeat<br />
  24. 24. Step 1: Model<br />Point to the correct icon<br />If gestural prompt is not effective, move to partial physical prompt and full physical prompt if necessary<br />Move onto step 2<br />
  25. 25. Step 1: Model<br />Gesturaly prompt to the correct icon<br />If gestural prompt is not effective, move to partial physical prompt and full physical prompt if necessary<br />That is all step one requires move on to step 2<br />
  26. 26. Step 2: Practice<br />Let the child give you the icon you prompted towards<br />Label item but do not give it to the child, this is just for practice<br />Move on to step 3<br />
  27. 27. Step 3: Distract<br />Flip the book over and do an ELO:<br />Clap hands<br />Tap table<br />Touch nose<br />Move on to step 4<br />
  28. 28. Step 4: Repeat<br />Flip book back over<br />Wait for the child to make an independent response.<br />Entice if necessary<br />If child makes incorrect response, repeat the 4 Step Error Correction<br />If you go through the 4 step error correction 3 times in one trial, remove the incorrect icons so the child has to make a correct response during step 4<br />
  29. 29. What problems could occur?<br />Children’s preferences may change often<br />If the child changes reinforcers often, make sure you do frequent preference assessments to ensure that you have what the child will be motivated enough to ask for<br />Finding a non-preferred item can sometimes be difficult<br />If you are having trouble finding a non-preferred item, keep doing a preference assessment until you find one, or ask a supervisor for help<br />
  30. 30. No Motivation<br />
  31. 31. Question 7: What are the 4 steps in the 4 Step Error Correction?<br />
  32. 32. Tips<br />Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial<br />DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction<br /> After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure<br />Continuing the procedure then punishes responding<br />
  33. 33. Tips<br />Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial<br />DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction<br /> After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure<br />Continuing the procedure then punishes responding<br />Get a supervisor to code the data sheet, end that PECS session and move on using the reinforcer the child tried to grab for another procedure<br />
  34. 34. Tips<br />Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial<br />DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction<br /> After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure<br />Continuing the procedure then punishes responding<br />How should the supervisor code it?<br />
  35. 35. Tips<br />Switch icon positions only after a correct trial on the initial trial<br />DO NOT switch icons after a correct response on the “repeat step” of the 4 Step Error Correction<br /> After 3 incorrect initial trials, which include the 4 Step Error Correction, stop the procedure<br />Continuing the procedure then punishes responding<br />Your supervisor should use the Implementation Problem code (IP) or the Alternative Appropriate Activity code (AAA)<br />
  36. 36. Tips on Coding Data Sheet<br />The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary<br />If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial<br />This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials) <br />
  37. 37. Tips on Coding Data Sheet<br />The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary<br />If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial<br />This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials) <br />Note:<br /> If you do 3 consecutive initial trials & have to go through the 4 step error correction each time, STOP THE PROCEDURE & GET IT CODED BY A SUPERVISOR<br />
  38. 38. Tips on Coding Data Sheet<br />The 4 step error correction cycle can be repeated up to a total of 3 times if necessary<br />If you do complete 2 full cycles of the 4 step error correction & the child still has not responded correctly, remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps so the child can only make a correct response. Replace the incorrect icon move on to the next initial trial<br />This means in 3 initial trials, if you had to go through the 4 step error correction you could have gone through a total of 9 cycles of 4 step error correction (3 full cycles for each of 3 initial trials) <br />If you have to go through the 4 step error correction a few times, you still only take data on the initial trials.<br />
  39. 39. Example Data Sheet<br />
  40. 40. What do we mean by the Initial Trial?<br />The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.<br />If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.<br />Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure<br />When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.<br />
  41. 41. What do we mean by the Initial Trial?<br />The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.<br />If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.<br />Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure<br />When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.<br />So, if I start the initial trial and the child rejects the item, I mark the data for the initial trial as - and do the 4 step error correction, with the possibility of doing the 4 steps up to three times?<br />
  42. 42. What do we mean by the Initial Trial?<br />The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.<br />If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.<br />Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure<br />When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.<br />That’s right!<br />
  43. 43. What do we mean by the Initial Trial?<br />The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.<br />If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.<br />Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure<br />When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.<br />Then what do I do?<br />
  44. 44. What do we mean by the Initial Trial?<br />The initial trial is the chance when the child gets to independently make a response and choose what item they want.<br />If they reject the item they chose only then do you go into the 4 step error correction.<br />Although the 4 step error correction comes right after an incorrect response it is not part of the initial trial, it is the correction procedure<br />When the child rejected the item they received a – on the data sheet and that was the end of the initial trial.<br />You start the next initial trial, and take your next data mark.<br />
  45. 45. 4-Step Error Correction<br />Child chooses icon<br />Accepts item<br />Rejects item<br />TAKE DATA HERE<br />Correct on data sheet<br />Incorrect on data sheet<br />Read from top to bottom following the arrows as necessary<br />Go onto next trial<br />Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon<br />Practice<br />-Child exchanges preferred icon<br />-Label, but do not give item<br />Distract<br />-Turn book over<br />-Do ELO<br />Repeat<br />-Turn book back over<br />-Child independently chooses icon<br />-Label and give item<br />1<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />Accepts item<br />Rejects item<br />Go onto next trial<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />Accepts item<br />4<br />ModelPracticeDistractRepeat<br />Rejects item<br />Go onto next trial<br />Accepts item<br />1<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />ModelPracticeDistractRepeat<br />Do preference assessment<br />Go onto next trial<br />Rejects item<br />Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps<br />On repeat they get the treat!<br />
  46. 46. 4-Step Error Correction<br />Child chooses icon<br />Accepts item<br />Rejects item<br />TAKE DATA HERE<br />Correct on data sheet<br />Incorrect on data sheet<br />Go onto next trial<br />Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon<br />Practice<br />-Child exchanges preferred icon<br />-Label, but do not give item<br />Distract<br />-Turn book over<br />-Do ELO<br />Repeat<br />-Turn book back over<br />-Child independently chooses icon<br />-Label and give item<br />1<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />Accepts item<br />Rejects item<br />Go onto next trial<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />Accepts item<br />4<br />ModelPracticeDistractRepeat<br />Rejects item<br />Go onto next trial<br />Accepts item<br />1<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />ModelPracticeDistractRepeat<br />Do preference assessment<br />Go onto next trial<br />Rejects item<br />Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps<br />On repeat they get the treat!<br />
  47. 47. Phase 3B<br />Phase 3B teaches discrimination between preferred items/icons while traveling<br />Tutor has 2 highly preferred items available and the 2 corresponding icons on the book<br />Incorrect responses: <br />student reaches for a different item, or<br />Chooses corresponding item but does not engage in interacting with it for at least 15 seconds<br />
  48. 48. Phase 3B continued<br />Correspondence checks are necessary for 50% of the trials<br />5 of the 10 trials<br />Rotate between correspondence checks and labeling while giving the item<br />Label then give item<br />Student does not accept the item when it is presented<br />If the student makes 3 incorrect responses in a row, remove incorrect icon during 4 Step Error Correction<br />
  49. 49. For Correspondence Checks<br />Hold out the items corresponding to icons, and say,<br />“Take it”<br />Then mark “CC” in the OT column on the data sheet<br />Correct trial: the child chooses the item corresponding to the icon they gave you<br />Incorrect trial: the child chooses the item that does not correspond to the icon they gave you<br />Block the incorrect response and go directly into the 4 Step Error Correction<br />Start with pointing to the item the child should have taken<br />
  50. 50. Requirement:<br />Combine phases 2F and 3B<br />Complete<br /> 5 trials of 2F outside the booth<br />5 trials of 3B in the setting the tutor chooses<br />
  51. 51. Phase 3C<br />Phase 3C teaches discrimination between preferred items/icons while traveling<br />Tutor has 5 highly preferred items available<br />And 5 corresponding icons on the book<br />Run correspondence checks for 60% of the trials (6 of 10)<br />Randomly rotate between correspondence checks and labeling while giving the item<br />
  52. 52. Correspondence Checks<br />Hold out the items on a bin lid corresponding to the icons, and say, “take it”<br />Mark “CC” in the OT column on the data sheet<br />REQUIREMENT:<br />Combine phases 2F and 3C. <br />5 trials must be completed outside the booth where the student must travel to book and then discriminate between icons<br />
  53. 53. Phase 3C<br />4 preferred items<br />Do correspondence checks using all 4 items<br />For this phase it is easier to put the items on a bin lid so that they are spread out and easily accessible to the child<br />When items are not spread out and accessible, tutors can easily mistake which item the child is reaching for<br />Trial is correct when child chooses the item they asked for<br />Trial is incorrect if child chooses a different item then what they asked for<br />Use 4 step error correction for incorrect trials<br />
  54. 54. Phase 3C continued<br />Trial is correct if the student gives the icon to the tutor then picks up and accepts corresponding item (engages with for at least 15 seconds)<br />Trial is incorrect if the student does not give icon to tutor or does not pick up or accept (engage in item for at least 15 seconds) corresponding item <br />
  55. 55. Question 8: <br /> True or False: You have to run 10 trials for every PECS session<br />Question 9: <br /> How often should you do correspondence checks in phase 3B ? __ How about in 3C? __<br />A: 20% of the trials <br />B: 40% of the trials<br />C: 60% of the trials<br />D: never<br />
  56. 56. 4-Step Error Correction<br />Chooses correct item<br />Chooses incorrect item<br />Child chooses item<br />TAKE DATA HERE<br />Correct on data sheet<br />Incorrect on data sheet<br />Go onto next trial<br />Model-Gestural prompt to preferred icon<br />Practice<br />-Child exchanges preferred icon<br />-Label, but do not give item<br />Distract<br />-Turn book over<br />-Do ELO<br />Repeat<br />-Turn book back over<br />-Child independently chooses icon<br />-Correspondence check<br />1<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />Correct item<br />Incorrect item<br />Go onto next trial<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />Correct item<br />4<br />ModelPracticeDistractRepeat<br />Incorrect item<br />Go onto next trial<br />Correct item<br />1<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />ModelPracticeDistractRepeat<br />Do preference assessment<br />Go onto next trial<br />Incorrect item<br />Remove the incorrect icon and repeat the 4 steps<br />On repeat they get the treat!<br />
  57. 57. Tips<br />Remember we do not take data on the 4 step error correction, we only take data on the initial trial<br />Note: If you get three consecutive incorrect responses on the initial trials, stop the procedure and get it coded by a supervisor<br />
  58. 58. Still have questions?<br />Contact the <br />Icon Exchange Junior System Manager: <br />Courtney June <br />at<br />Lea.c.june@wmich.edu<br />or ask a supervisor.<br />

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