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Evolving to operate at scale: a mind map at PayPal – Couchbase Connect 2016

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Operating Couchbase (or any other NoSQL technology) at scale requires rapidly developing maturity on a number of vectors, including design and deployment standards, well understood standard operating procedures (SOPs), adequate QA/PoC testing, vendor management, skill upgrading, cost management, technology selection, and data modeling standards, etc. In this talk, we will use a "Mind Map" to categorize these vectors and "walk the tree" along each of these vectors.

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Evolving to operate at scale: a mind map at PayPal – Couchbase Connect 2016

  1. 1. Evolving to operate at scale: A Mind Map: 1
  2. 2. AGENDA ©2015 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 2 • Setting the Stage • The Mind Map: An overview • Diving into the Details • Q & A
  3. 3. Speaker Qualifications Currently Sr. Database/Data Architect @ PayPal Has been working with Oracle Databases and UNIX for 28 years Working on various NoSQL technologies for the past 3 years Has worked on many Sharded applications – Both Oracle and NoSQL Author, Technical editor, Oracle ACE, Frequent speaker Loves to mentor new speakers and authors! http://www.linkedin.com/in/johnkanagaraj
  4. 4. Audience Survey • Using Couchbase in Production? • Using other NoSQL technologies in Production? • Considering Couchbase (or other NoSQL)? • In the process of (or already in) the Cloud? 4
  5. 5. ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 5 Couchbase Landscape at PayPal • PayPal uses a Polyglot of Database technologies • Oracle RDBMS • NoSQL – Couchbase, Cassandra, Aerospike, MongoDB, … • Couchbase usage @ PayPal • One of the earliest NoSQL’s adopted (2013) • Used primarily for low latency caching, cookie store, temporary token store, etc. • Mostly Couchbase 4.1.x, planned to move to 4.5.x+ next year • Ten Couchbase cluster families, 250+ servers • See prior Couchbase connect presentations here , here and here • Database team organized by Architecture, Engineering, Delivery and Operations across multiple geographies, supporting polyglot technologies
  6. 6. ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 6 Challenges at Scale • Pushing the limits • Connections • Memory • Interconnect • CPU • DDL on busy tables • RAC reconfiguration • Redo rate • I/O latencies • SAN Storage limits • Replication latencies • Solutions • Read Scale out (replication) • Microservices • Connection multiplexing • Custom caching • Sharding • ..... And now ..... • Active-Active Scale out using NoSQL
  7. 7. Operationalizing NoSQL: Mind Map – A high level view ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 7 A mind map is a hierarchical diagram used to visually organize information by showing relationships among pieces of the whole… Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.
  8. 8. The Mind Map – The Whole View! ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 8 • The “Whole View” has a lot of detail! • Organized around five themes: 1. Drivers – What’s driving this change? 2. Proof of Concept – Look before you leap! 3. Pre-production – Getting set before you start (if you get time!) 4. Production – Organizing your operations 5. Tackling the “Known Unknowns” (and the “unknown unknowns”!) • This is based on my journey – It could be different for you and your organization • Couchbase is easy to install and use • But introducing and operationalizing a new technology in a large and dynamic org is challenging!
  9. 9. Decisions, Decisions - (RDBMS vs NoSQL): a 4 x 4 matrix ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 9 Challenges of Traditional RDBMS 1. ACID overheads inhibit scalability 2. Lack of native sharding 3. Need for “schema before write” 4. Higher base cost for setup and scale up Advantages of NoSQL 1. Highly (and quickly) scalable at lower cost 2. Low latency, scalable K-V read/write 3. Flexible data model *1 4. Open source and Enterprise model Advantages of Traditional RDBMS 1. ACID is essential in many cases! 2. Complex data model support 3. Mature technology and ecosystem 4. Wider skill availability Challenges of NoSQL 1. Limited ACID and Transactions 2. CAP Theorem is real! *2 3. Technology evolving, maturing but fragmented landscape 4. Skillsets not widely available (yet!) *1 – Establishing an initial data model is easy, evolving it is harder *2 – This caveat applies to all distributed databases, whether RDBMS or NoSQL. Out of box though, NoSQL databases are distributed
  10. 10. Drivers ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 10 • All organizations are perpetually challenged on multiple fronts • Many industries are being disrupted (esp. by Silicon Valley!) • Cost is always a challenge • New ways of working – Cloud, DevOps, Agile programming, etc. • Many options and new technologies are available • Easy to adopt, but challenging to operate in large, diverse orgs • Reality: Need to maintain the old, while building the new (polyglot persistence) • Need management direction, understanding and support • Each technology has its +/- • Is there a single solution?
  11. 11. Look before you leap – Conducting a PoC ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 11 • Do you have the time and resources for a PoC? • Options available – 3rd party managed. List here • Internal run – Opportunity to learn • Vendor support – Choose wisely! • Choose the right use case • Simple to develop/deploy • Sufficiently important to org • Cloud based deployments • Easy to use – In built templates for compute • Option to “fold in your cards” and walk away • Use Caution esp. when deciding on performance tests • Look for learnings, not hard numbers
  12. 12. Before you begin – You wanna cloud? ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 12 • Cloud vendors are a plenty, but top three are well known • Amazon Web Services • Microsoft Azure • Google Cloud Platform • Represents a new way of working • Provides “pay as you go” model for • IaaS – Infrastructure • PaaS – Platform • SaaS - Software • Vendor provided “Managed DB” services • Fully offload DB services and operations • Multi-region, Multi-Availability zones • Set a cadence for migration • Applications will need refactoring for cloud based deployments
  13. 13. Couchbase to the rescue! • Ease of use • Couchbase is easy to learn, setup and use • Scaleout is simple – Just add servers • Many use cases will not need full Transactions/ACID • Single node failure is much less impactful • Couchbase interface easier with N1QL and Full document support • Support • Mature Enterprise Support with Couchbase • Large, growing user base both in the US and Internationally • Healthy community support • Deployment • Multi datacenter, distributed processing and locality via XDCR • Journey to the cloud is much easier (with a wide variety of choices) ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 13
  14. 14. On Premises - Hard (and Soft) Choices ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 14 • On-prem gives you control • Data privacy regulations may restrict you to on-prem services • In-house clouds – OpenStack, VMWare, Oracle, etc. • Choosing your SKU • Based on technology • VM or BM (Bare Metal) • What is the driving vector? • Dev/QA vs Prod • Containerization options available • Procurement: • One-off (longer lead times, but more optimized, buy-as- you-go) • “Rack and Roll” – Fixed, pre-purchased racks, buy- ahead, optimized for time- to-market
  15. 15. PPT : The Three-legged stool of IT ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 15 People, Process, Technology • People • Recruit or Retrain • Organize and Lead • Motivate and Retain • Manage the culture • Process • Recognize the need • Create or Adapt • Clear Roles and Responsibilities • Measure, report and adjust • Technology • Making the right choice • Manage the product lifecycle • Adapt to changes • Cost management
  16. 16. Training and Learning • Formal/Informal Training • Instructor led from Couchbase (Virtual and Classroom) • Self paced from Couchbase.com • Onsite • Various paths (Dev/Mobile Dev/DBA) • Conferences and Meetups • Learn from other’s experience • Use cases organized around many vectors • Couchbase Blogs (a great source of information) • Getting Started – a Roadmap ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 16 Training is optional, (Ongoing) Learning is Essential!
  17. 17. People - Your most important (and very precious) resource! ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 17 • Hiring (and retaining) the right set of people is key to your success! • Training is formal, but is just the start – Learning is perpetual • Develop standards and evolve them • Design: Making the right choices • Developers: Choice of language, Client side interaction frameworks (Spring) • Operation – Whole bunch of SOP’s • Review use cases, designs and code with your vendor SA’s
  18. 18. Running a Production environment – Part 1 ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 18 • Monitoring and Alerting needs to be solid from Day 1 !!! • Use out-of-box alerting as much as possible • May need integration to Enterprise ”single pane of glass” • Error/INFO logging on both Server and Client – Key to troubleshooting • Capacity modeling • Initial and Ongoing • Knowing which metric to record and trend is key • Metrics analysis • “W-o-W” and “Y-o-Y” • Map to business metrics • Review capacity periodically
  19. 19. Running a Production environment – Part 2 ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 19 • Secure from start • Access logging is key • RBAC still maturing in NoSQL • Admin vs. Dev: Don’t let Production become Wild West • Change management: necessary friction • Production operations • Layer your support • 24x7 for L1, Oncall for L2/L3 • Automation is key • Create Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) • Understand and learn from failures • Backup but also test Restore • Change Data Capture/ETL is hard! • Data Management and Governance
  20. 20. Running a Production environment – Part 3 ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 20 • Establish, measure and report SLAs – Performance and Failure • Fleet management and Infrastructure life cycle management is necessary • Data Center Strategy – Active/Active or DR only? • Vendor and Technology management • License management • Vendor TAM, PM and SM relationships • Quarterly Business Reviews • Help create technology roadmaps and features • Community participation • Stronger Together! • Learn from each other • Participate and contribute
  21. 21. Operationalizing Couchbase • Alerting and Monitoring • Use Out of Box alerting for important alerts and Admin Console for most metrics • Command line and REST API access to metrics • Custom alerts via scripts – Connection count, Disk Queue, CPU, Active Resident Ratio, etc. • Other monitoring frameworks (e.g. Nagios) • Consider integration to your org’s SPOG (Single-Pane-Of-Glass) for monitoring • Capacity management • Understanding, recording and reporting on various capacity vectors • Periodic review and capacity additions • Security – Build in from the start • Production operations – Virtuous loop of monitoring, responding and fixing • Involve Couchbase resources (requires support contract) ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 21 Making Couchbase work
  22. 22. The ”Known Unknowns” – Know the hidden enemy ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 22 • There are many unknowns • ”Complex systems fail in complex ways” – New ways of failing • Embrace concept of “Fail Fast” • Giving up Data Consistency is hard – CAP Theorem is real • Data management responsibilities shift • DevOps culture needs to be adopted • New Concept: “Treat Infrastructure as Code” (E.g. DCOS, Chef/Puppet/Ansible Automation, Scripts in GitHub) • Getting rid of legacy is very hard, and will stick around forever in hidden ways • Teams WILL get silo’ed if you don’t recognize and “spread the wealth”
  23. 23. Putting it all together ©2016 PayPal Inc. Confidential and proprietary. 23 • Couchbase is Easy – But introducing and operationalizing NoSQL can be difficult • Requires new way of thinking and working • Hopefully, this Mind Map is a framework that may be useful • “Forewarned is Forearmed” • Q & A and Wrap up • Connect with me on LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/johnkanagaraj

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