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Healing garden or gardening?

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Observing natural scenes contributes to reduce stress, promotes positive mood states and feelings, and may facilitate recovery from different type of diseases. To our knowledge, little is known about the difference in the perceived restorative power resulting from being surrounded by nature or from working with plants.

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Healing garden or gardening?

  1. 1. Healing garden or gardening? Data from the Perceived Restorativeness Scale Costantina Righetto, Francesca Meneghello and Giorgio Prosdocimi Gianquinto AgrUrb Roma 2015
  2. 2. The environmental context
  3. 3. Restorative potential of the garden A restorative environment can provide cognitive restoration, recovery from stress, shift to more positive mood states or recovery from directed attentional fatigue Garden to Relive
  4. 4. Theoretical bases • Attention Restauration Theory (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1995) • Stress reduction Theory (Ulrich, 1983; Ulrich et al., 1991) • Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) (Hartig et al., 1997) • Higher scores in the PRS mean higher regenerative potential (Hartig et al., 1997) • Pasini et al. (2009) demonstrated that an Italian version of PRS is reliable
  5. 5. The PRS scale is based on the four regenerative factors : being away, fascination, extent, and compatibility Fascination Compatibility Being away Extent Restorativeness
  6. 6. Fascination is the property of an environment that holds one’s effortless attention Fascination
  7. 7. Being away means a physically or conceptually distance in one’s mind from usual routines Being away
  8. 8. Extent of the environment allows one to remain engaged Extent
  9. 9. Compatibility is the property of an environment that supports what one wants to do Compatibility
  10. 10. The question Is there any difference in the regenerative potential of the garden between people walking in the garden people engaged in horticultural and gardening activities People who know the existence of the garden, that work nearby it and that sometimes look at it but don’t regularly attend the garden
  11. 11. Activity Total number Relatives Hospital employees Patients Working 34 4 1 29 Walking 27 12 2 13 Not regularly attending the garden 37 15 14 8 The sample
  12. 12. PRS Scale: the items (Hartig et al.1997) List of variables determining the regenerative capacity BAWAY_1 Spending time here give me a good break from my day to day routine BAWAY_2 It is an escape experience EXT_1 There is much to explore and discover here EXT_2 It is a orderly place FASC_1 The setting has fascinating qualities FASC_2 I would like to get to know this place better COMP_1 Being here suits my personality COMP_2 I can do things I like here It includes eight questions with two items for each regenerative factor.
  13. 13. Italian version of PRS (Dentamaro et al., 2011) List of variables determining the regenerative capacity and related questions in Italian language BAWAY_1 Trascorrere il tempo qui mi permette di staccare dal mio tran tran quotidiano BAWAY_2 In questo luogo posso scappare dalle cose che di solito richiedono la mia attenzione EXT_1 E’come se questo luogo non avesse confini EXT_2 C’è un ordine chiaro nella disposizione fisica di questo luogo FASC_1 Questo luogo è affascinante FASC_2 C’è molto da esplorare e da scoprire in questo luogo COMP_1 Essere in questo luogo è in accordo con i miei interessi personali COMP_2 In questo luogo è facile fare ciò che voglio
  14. 14. Statistical analisys The restorative potential was obtained from the average of the eight answers related to the four regenerative factors (Berto, 2005; Ivarsson & Hagerhall, 2008). Collected data were analysed using ANOVA and Chi- square Test.
  15. 15. Results: analysis of the components of the restorative effect
  16. 16. Results : analysis of the components of the restorative effect being away Average of being away for the different activities (Anova) P-value 0,0021 Average of being away for the different activities (Chi-square Test) 2,76* 2,10 2,09 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 Working in the garden Not regularly attending the garden Walking in the garden BEING AWAY
  17. 17. Results extent Average of extent for the different activities (Anova) P-value 0,0000 Average of extent for the different activities (Chi- square Test)) 2,97* 2,14 2,42 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 Working in the garden Not regularly attending the garden Walking in the garden EXTENT
  18. 18. Results fascination Average of fascination for the different activities (Anova) P-value 0,0003 Average of fascination for the different activities (Chi-square Test)) 3,23* 2,89 2,44 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 Working in the garden Not regularly attending the garden Walking in the garden FASCINATION
  19. 19. Results compatibility Average of compatibility for the different activities (Anova) P-value 0,0002 Average of compatibility for the different activities (Chi-square Test)) 2,77* 1,98 2,01 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 Working in the garden Not regularly attending the garden Walking in the garden COMPATIBILITY
  20. 20. Results restorativeness capability of the garden Level of restorativeness for the different activities (Chi square Test) P-value 0,0000 Average of restorativeness for the different activities (Anova) 2,93* 2,28 2,24 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 Working in the garden Looking at the garden Walking in the garden
  21. 21. CONCLUSION 1 Results suggest that between the acts of walking in a garden or working in a garden or just looking at it, there is a consequence in the regenerative capacity that the garden can provide. Despite some methodological limitations the assumption that the direct contact with the plants offers the possibility of a greater regeneration was confirmed.
  22. 22. CONCLUSION 2 It could be assumed that working with plants would open a kind of deep connection with nature that is so essential to receive psychological and physiological benefits (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1990; Lee, 2010; Palsdottir et al., 2014).
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention costantinarighetto2@unibo.it giardino.terapeutico@ospedalesancamillo.net

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