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Wild Collection and Cultivation
of Native Species in Iceland
C. W. Whitney1,2,*, J. Gebauer1, M. Anderson3
1 Faculty of Li...
Introduction	
  
•  Iceland is an important ‘cold spot’ of
biodiversity (Kassam 2008)
•  Disturbed from landnám (Íslending...
Research Aims
Describe the ethnobotany of Iceland
•  Determine the extent, composition and function
of uses of plants, as ...
Materials & Methods	
  
•  Fieldwork summer of
2010 with 67 informants
in Iceland
•  Surveys with chefs,
Organic farmers,
...
View From Dettifoss
Typical Icelandic Landscape	
  
Results	
  
Ethnobotany of 91 species
URs in quantitative ethnobotany analysis cultural importance index (Tardio
& Pardo-d...
Angelica sp.
	
  
Betula sp.
	
  
Cetraria islandica
	
  
Leccinum scabrum
	
  
Ascophyllum nodosum
	
  
Discussion & Conclusions	
  
•  Respondents using living natural resources in a
landscape with greatly diminished biodiver...
Future Research 	
  
•  The role that Icelanders play in the conservation
of native species to guide local food and
conser...
Acknowledgements	
  
Financial support of the Partridge Foundation through the Trans
Atlantic Partnership with the Organic...
Literature	
  
1.  Kassam, K. A. Diversity as if Nature and Culture Matter:
Bio-Cultural Diversity and Indigenous Peoples....
Wild Collection and Cultivation of Native Species in Iceland
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Wild Collection and Cultivation of Native Species in Iceland

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Presented in October 2014 at the 4th ISOFAR Scientific Conference 'Building Organic Bridges' at the Organic World Congress 2014 in Istanbul, Turkey.

The original report is online at Organic e-prints http://orgprints.org/22897/

Published in: Science
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Wild Collection and Cultivation of Native Species in Iceland

  1. 1. Wild Collection and Cultivation of Native Species in Iceland C. W. Whitney1,2,*, J. Gebauer1, M. Anderson3 1 Faculty of Life Sciences, Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Marie-Curie-Straße 1, 47533 Kleve, Germany 2 PhD Candidate, University Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany *contact: cory.whitney@hsrw.eu, +49 2821 80673 +664 3 Partridge Chair, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, Maine, United States  
  2. 2. Introduction   •  Iceland is an important ‘cold spot’ of biodiversity (Kassam 2008) •  Disturbed from landnám (Íslendingabókar and Landnámabók) (Benediktsson 1968) •  Soil degradation & basalt deserts (Arnalds & Gisladottir 2000) •  Conservation-minded Icelanders with sustainable use of native species
  3. 3. Research Aims Describe the ethnobotany of Iceland •  Determine the extent, composition and function of uses of plants, as well as fungi and marine algae, in the region •  Determine the associated conservation practices of plant, fungi and marine algae uses
  4. 4. Materials & Methods   •  Fieldwork summer of 2010 with 67 informants in Iceland •  Surveys with chefs, Organic farmers, gardeners, and herbalists sought through botanical, horticultural, and other networks •  Observation, walk-in- the-woods, freelisting Where NC=number of use categories, u=uses, i=informant, and N=total number of informants
  5. 5. View From Dettifoss Typical Icelandic Landscape  
  6. 6. Results   Ethnobotany of 91 species URs in quantitative ethnobotany analysis cultural importance index (Tardio & Pardo-de-Santayana 2008)   Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for Quantitative Ethnobotany Scores on 91 Species in Iceland D=standard deviation, VAR=variance, CV=coefficient of variation NU=number of uses, FC=frequency of citation, UR=use reports, CI=cultural importance. NU FC UR CI index Total 90 420 527 7.99 Mean 4 20 25 0.38 Min 1 8 10 0.15 Max 10 42 66 1.00 SD 2.19 11.16 15.69 0.24 CV 0.51 0.56 0.63 0.63 VAR 5 125 246 0.06 1 Where NC=number of use categories, u=uses, i=informant, and N=total number of informants
  7. 7. Angelica sp.   Betula sp.   Cetraria islandica   Leccinum scabrum   Ascophyllum nodosum  
  8. 8. Discussion & Conclusions   •  Respondents using living natural resources in a landscape with greatly diminished biodiversity •  Outstanding species to serve as cultural keystones in conservation efforts •  Edibility and nutrition paramount for cultural significance •  Use of native plants, fungi, and marine algae raises awareness of local ecology / supports conservation efforts e.g. in situ and political action to both conserve and utilize native species
  9. 9. Future Research   •  The role that Icelanders play in the conservation of native species to guide local food and conservation movements •  Determine the socio-economic and influences on CI index scores / exact biodiversity implications of native species uses •  Analysis of the ecological distribution of utilized species / time and volume of harvest
  10. 10. Acknowledgements   Financial support of the Partridge Foundation through the Trans Atlantic Partnership with the Organic Centre in the UK, College of the Atlantic in the US, and the University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, in Germany. Special thanks to the many chefs, gardeners, and farmers of Iceland, especially of Egilsstaðir Organic Farm as well as the Horticultural Society of Iceland, Rekyavik Botanical Garden, Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Icelandic Horticultural College, Iceland Slow Food, New Nordic Kitchen, Iceland Food Not Bombs, Náttúran.is, and Vottunarstofan Tún.  
  11. 11. Literature   1.  Kassam, K. A. Diversity as if Nature and Culture Matter: Bio-Cultural Diversity and Indigenous Peoples. The International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities & Nations, 8(2) (2008). 2.  Benediktsson, J. Íslendingabók. Landnámabók, Íslenzk Fornrit 1 (Hid Íslenzka Fornritafélag, Reykjavík, 1968). 3.  Arnalds, O. & Gisladottir, F. O. S., H. Sandy deserts of Iceland: An overview. Journal of Arid Environments 47, 359-371 (2000). 4.  Tardio, J., & Pardo-de-Santayana, M. Cultural importance indices: A comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain). Economic Botany 62, 24-39 (2008).

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