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Food security and
traditional farming
systems
A case study of homegardens in Southwestern
Uganda
Cory W. Whitney1, Jens Ge...
Concepts / Overview
Photo: C. Whitney
Niñez, V. Introduction: Household gardens and small-scale food
production. Food and ...
Intercropped banana plantations
Ugandan Homegardens
Photos: C. Whitney
Multi-layered agroforestry system
under continual h...
Study Aims
Agro-biodiversity of
Ugandan
Homegardens
Niñez, V. Introduction: Household gardens and
small-scale food product...
Materials & Methods
Greater Bushenyi Region of Uganda;
D-Maps (INPI 09 3 673 169), developed in QGIS 2.0.1-Dufour
Rubirizi...
Collaborative
Investigations
Homegarden
plant
inventories
(n=102)
Multiple-pass
24-hour recalls
(n=588)
Household
Food
Ins...
Materials and Methods
 worry that your household would not have enough food
 not eat the kinds of foods you preferred
 ...
Dietary Diversity counting each of 9 food groups
>=6 high, <4.5 poor dietary diversity (IFPRI)
Materials and Methods
Starc...
Results: Agro-biodiversity
250 plant species
mean richness of 24
(range 10-54)
Food Plants Non Food Plants
Total number of...
Carica papaya
Manihot
esculenta
Psidium guajava Mangifera indica Persea americana
Musa spp.
Passiflora spp.
Ananas comosus...
Results: Household Food Insecurity
Photos: C. Whitney
All Regions: 82% severe hunger
14
13
69
0 20 40 60 80
Little or no H...
Results: Dietary Diversity
0.3%
0.3%
17%
34%
38%
60%
92%
95%
98%
0 100 200 300 400 500
Organ meats
Eggs
Meat & fish
Milk &...
Results: Individual Dietary Diversity
Photos: C. Whitney
All Regions: 53% low diversityRubirizi: 70% low diversity
Ishaka:...
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Stunted
Underweight
Results: Child Stunting <5 years
High stunting rates (44%)
Photos: C. Whitney
n...
Results: Food Sources
24 hour recalls
Photos: C. Whitney
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Home
Purchased
School
Neighbors
97...
Conclusions
1. Plant diversity: High 2. Dietary Diversity:
Low
3. Room for
Improvement
Literature
 ALI A.M.S. 2005. I - Homegardens in Smallholder Farming Systems: Examples From Bangladesh. Hum Ecol
33: 245-2...
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Food security and traditional farming systems; a case study of homegardens in Southwestern Uganda

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A case study of homegardens and food security based on agro-biodiversity, food security, dietary diversity, and anthropometric data.

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Food security and traditional farming systems; a case study of homegardens in Southwestern Uganda

  1. 1. Food security and traditional farming systems A case study of homegardens in Southwestern Uganda Cory W. Whitney1, Jens Gebauer2, Antonia Nyamukuru3, Katja Kehlenbeck4 1Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Kleve, Germany/University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany, 2 Rhine- Waal University of Applied Sciences, Kleve, Germany, 3 Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda/Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway, 4 World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya Norwegian University of Life Science
  2. 2. Concepts / Overview Photo: C. Whitney Niñez, V. Introduction: Household gardens and small-scale food production. Food and nutrition Bulletin 7, 1-5 (1985). “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life” - World Food Summit 1996 Homegarden Food Security Complex, small scale traditional farming systems (Galluzzi et al. 2010), ‘intimate multi-story’ gardens around homesteads (Kumar & Nair 2004)
  3. 3. Intercropped banana plantations Ugandan Homegardens Photos: C. Whitney Multi-layered agroforestry system under continual harvest
  4. 4. Study Aims Agro-biodiversity of Ugandan Homegardens Niñez, V. Introduction: Household gardens and small-scale food production. Food and nutrition Bulletin 7, 1-5 (1985). Food Security, Consumption & Nutritional Status
  5. 5. Materials & Methods Greater Bushenyi Region of Uganda; D-Maps (INPI 09 3 673 169), developed in QGIS 2.0.1-Dufour Rubirizi: forest-edge Ishaka: closer to urban centers 102 households with homegardens (randomly selected) Sheema: swamp-edge Photos: C. Whitney n=34 Study Area - SW Uganda n=34 n=34
  6. 6. Collaborative Investigations Homegarden plant inventories (n=102) Multiple-pass 24-hour recalls (n=588) Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (n=96) Photos: C. Whitney Anthropometric measurements (n=329) Dietary Diversity (n=588) Materials and Methods
  7. 7. Materials and Methods  worry that your household would not have enough food  not eat the kinds of foods you preferred  eat a limited variety of foods  eat some foods that you really did not want to eat  eat a smaller meal than you felt you needed  eat fewer meals in a day  have no food to eat of any kind in your house  go to sleep at night hungry  go a whole day and night without eating anything In the past 4 weeks (30 days) did you or any household member… because of a lack of resources? Hunger Score calculated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (FANTA)
  8. 8. Dietary Diversity counting each of 9 food groups >=6 high, <4.5 poor dietary diversity (IFPRI) Materials and Methods Starchy Staples Dark Leafy Greens Vitamin A Rich Fruits & Vegetables Other fruits & vegetables Organ Meats Meat and Fish Eggs Legumes nuts & seeds Milk and milk products Images: Slow Food USA
  9. 9. Results: Agro-biodiversity 250 plant species mean richness of 24 (range 10-54) Food Plants Non Food Plants Total number of plant species Total number of plants (stems) 97% 50%
  10. 10. Carica papaya Manihot esculenta Psidium guajava Mangifera indica Persea americana Musa spp. Passiflora spp. Ananas comosus Amaranthus spp.Phaseolus spp. Colocasia & Xanthasoma spp. Eleusine coracana
  11. 11. Results: Household Food Insecurity Photos: C. Whitney All Regions: 82% severe hunger 14 13 69 0 20 40 60 80 Little or no Hunger Moderate Hunger Severe Hunger Rubirizi Ishaka Sheema n=96n=34 n=28 n=34 Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (FANTA) : 79% severe hunger : 86% severe hunger : 82% severe hunger
  12. 12. Results: Dietary Diversity 0.3% 0.3% 17% 34% 38% 60% 92% 95% 98% 0 100 200 300 400 500 Organ meats Eggs Meat & fish Milk & products Pro-Vit-A fruit & veg. Dark Leafy Greens Other fruit & veg. Legumes nuts seeds Starchy staples n=588
  13. 13. Results: Individual Dietary Diversity Photos: C. Whitney All Regions: 53% low diversityRubirizi: 70% low diversity Ishaka: 50% low diversity Sheema: 39% low diversity n=588n=208 n=163 n=217 Dietary Diversity Score (IFPRI) 312 184 93 0 100 200 300 <4 critically low diversity 4-6 medium 6+good diversity
  14. 14. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Stunted Underweight Results: Child Stunting <5 years High stunting rates (44%) Photos: C. Whitney n=57 No wasting 25% Severe
  15. 15. Results: Food Sources 24 hour recalls Photos: C. Whitney 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Home Purchased School Neighbors 97% n=588 Count of food items
  16. 16. Conclusions 1. Plant diversity: High 2. Dietary Diversity: Low 3. Room for Improvement
  17. 17. Literature  ALI A.M.S. 2005. I - Homegardens in Smallholder Farming Systems: Examples From Bangladesh. Hum Ecol 33: 245-270.  Coates, J., Swindale, A. & Bilinsky, P. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for measurement of food access: indicator guide (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC, 2007).  GALLUZZI G., EYZAGUIRRE P. & NEGRI V. 2010. Home gardens: neglected hotspots of agro-biodiversity and cultural diversity. Biodiversity Conservation  HUAI H. & HAMILTON A. 2009. Characteristics and functions of traditional homegardens: a review. Front. Biol. China 4: 151-157.  KEHLENBECK K., H. ARIFIN, B. MAASS &. 2007. Plant diversity in homegardens in a socio-economic and agro-ecological context, in T. Tscharntke, Leuschner C., Zeller M., Guhardja E. & Bidin A. (ed.) The Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins, linking ecological. economic and social constraints of land use and conservation: 297-319. Berlin: Springer Verlag.  Kennedy, G. & Nantel, G. Basic Guidelines for Validation of a Simple Dietary Diversity Score as an Indicator of Dietary Nutrient Adequacy for Non-Breastfeeding Children 2-6 Years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2006).  Kennedy, G., Ballard, T. & Dop, M. C. Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2011).  KUMAR B.M. & NAIR P.K.R. 2004. The enigma of tropical homegardens. Agroforestry Systems 61-62: 135- 152.  THOMPSON J.L., GEBAUER J., HAMMER K. & BUERKERT A. 2010. The structure of urban and peri-urban gardens in Khartoum, Sudan. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57: 487-500.

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